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THE 



CRYSTAL PALACE, 



AND ITS CONTENTS 



AN.ILLUSTEATED CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GEEAT EXHIBITION OF THE 

INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS. 



IlBgEc 



EMBELLISHED WITH UPWARDS OF FIVE HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS. 



WITH A COPIOUS ANALYTICAL INDEX. 



PUBLISHED BY W. M. CLARK, 16 & 17, WARWICK LANE. 

1852. 



A(xqo-u7n 



, LONDON : 

BnADBURY A>-D EVANS, PKINTERS, WHITEl'KIAnc. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Account of tho Austrian and Turklsli Territories and 

their Prodnctlnns 3''2 

Acc'uint of tho N.iwah Nizam ^"^ 

Ackcrinan's Contributions to the Great Exhibition .... 395 

Ack<'rman*3 Colour-box, described 40 

Adilrcsa, Introductory • 1 

Adorno's Cipavctte Machine, described '. 175 

Agricidtnral Implements 203, 270 

Agriculture and Labour in the East Indies 100 

Agricidtural Machines and Implements 11 

Agricultural Machinery Department, described 124 

AgricuUnral Medals, by Weiner, described 205 

Albert'3 (TI.R.It. Prince) Ca<;hmere3 7 

AlberfK {H.R.H. Prince) Model Housea for Families, 

described SI 

All>ort. (TI. R. H. Prince), proposed Statue to 113 

Aleni:on Laco 112 

Alhainbra Store— Stuart and Smith, Sheffield B23 

Allan's Hydrostatic Tura^tile 3''4 

Alloys in Wrought Iron, by Mr. Morris Sterling 104 

American Rell Telegraph 205 

American Pepnvtment. Rrussela Carpct3 in 15 

American Plough, described 174 

American Loom for Twilled Goods 178 

American Exhibition of Industry 191 

Analysis of the Awards 62 

Analysis of Railways, Dy Wlshaw 358 

Anatomical Models '17 

Ancient Briton, by Adams, description of 224 

Andromeda, by J. Bell, described 173 

Anecdote of Egyptian Arabs in the Great Exhibition . . 7 

Animals fstuff<^<l) from Wurtemburg, descriution of — 206 

Animal and Vegetable Physiology 106, 126 

Annealing of Ola'^s S2 

Anti-friction Presses, Dick's : 271 

Aplos Tuberosa— Lawson's 127 

Apparatus of the Royal Humane Society '. 2.37 

Apparatus to I llustrate the Tides, by Ryles 00 

Appold's Rotary Pump 130 

Architectur.al and Building contrivances 167 

Architectural and Engineering Department 114 

Ariel's Girdle 320 

Arms and Armour 342, 38i) 

Amott's Stoves. &c 301 

Arnott's (Dr.) Contrivances 383 

Art in France from the 12th to the end of the 18th Con- 

t'lry 122 

Art M.anufactures. Lecture on, by Mr. ^ornum 30 

Art of Staining Glass, Loss of 279 

Article of Food ...'• 106 

Artificial Silver Nose, by Whitehouse 00 

Arlificial Flowers, by Constantin, described 267 

Artificial Leeches 383 

Arti'an Schools i Suburban) 123 

Artists distinguished In Mosaic 207 

Artists" Implements ■ 30 1 

Alts of Design and Decoration, 22, 52,76,106,206.279.305. 

304 

Assam Tea • 12" 

Ateney's Dressing Cases, &e. , described 273 

Athensenm on the Great Exhibition 15!) 

Atherton's (of Devonport) Steam Engines 314 

Atmospheric Rec ^rder, by Dollond 83 

Auberfs Stocking Frame 138 

Australian Gold in the Great Exhibition 15 

Austria, Commercial Policy of 109 

Austrian Department 372 

Austrian Emperor's Pi-esents to the Queen 372 

Austrian Candelabra, described 373 

Austrian Frinpe 270 

Austrian Linens, &c 3^0 

Austrian Flutes 303 

Austrian Typography 318 

Australian Wheat 362 

Automaton Fire Extinguisher 389 

Avisseau's Pottery in the Great Exhibition, described . 229 

A^vard,-*— The Council Medals— The Juries 78 

Awards of Prizes for the Great Exhibition &4 

Awards of the Great Exhibition ITl 



B. 

PA(JR 

Babbage (Charles), Esq., on tho Great Exhibition 26 

Bacchu.^ reclining, by Cherlsc, deacrihiod 227 

Badcock'8 (Dr.) Experiments upon Small-pox 383 

Baddeley'8 Fanner's Fire-tngino 279 

Bailey's Chandelier, described 396 

Bain'3 Electrical Clocli 370 

Baker's Design for a Monument 359 

Bauana. audits Cultivation, description of 327 

Bankers' Paper, improved by Saunders 143 

BanVs's Twin Staircase ■ -■ ■■ 335 

Baptism of Christ, by Carew, described 78 

Barbara Uttman and Laee-knitting Ill 

Barlow'a Bridge-roads 374 

Barrett and Corney's Gold and Silvor Fringe 270 

Barrett, Exball, and Andrews's Steam-engine, described 13 

Barrett. Exhall. and Andrews's Gorse-bruiser . . ; 311 

Bascomb's Indicator Carriage 325 

Bashful Be?gar, by Gandolfi. described 98 

Basil, on the Silkworm • 354 

Baxter's Picture Printing 330 

Beckford's Tomb (the Author of Vathek), described . . 277 

Bedstead, by Wilkinson, described ,- 351 

Bed-room Furniture, by Trollopo and Son, described . . 108 

Bees and Beehives 418 

Beet-root Sugar.— Professor Hancock on the Prospects 

of tho Manufacture in England 130 

Beetroot Sugar ■ 1^3 

Belfast Flax Improvement Sodety and Mr. Olaussen . . -130 

Belgian Department 131 

Belgian Coal Mines 133 

Belgian Sculpture, Messrs. Simoms and Geefs 139 

Belgian Dama As 299 

Bellhouse's Fire-proof Doors for Warehouse Hoists 167 

BcU Rock Lighthouse 115 

Bell's Una and the Lion, described 77 

Bell's Victoria Regia Lotus Work-table. &c., described . 212 
Bennoch and Co.. of Wood-street.— Collection of Fringes 269 

Bentall's Plouih. (Maiden), described 174 

Berlin Iron Casting 384 

Berlin -wool Work 205 

Bernatoff 's Or-molu Chandelier, described 20 j 

Bett's Violin 303 

B ddelTs Self- regulating Gas-burner, described 15 

Biddell's Gas-burners 303 

Bijouterie and Sculpture in the Great Exhibition 110 

Binney's Life-boat 236 

Bituminous Polvtyping 317 

Blanqui's Report on the Great Exhibition 209, 237 

Blaylocks Illuminated Dials 275 

Boehm's Flute 302 

Bookbinding (British) 242 

Bookbinding (Foreign) - 243 

Bookcase, by Rivart and Andrieux. doscribel 250 

Bottcar and Schnorr- Discovery of White Clay 143 

Bottle or Green Glass 92 

Boulton and Watt's Screw-eigine 314 

Boy.I's Double-action Scythe 351 

Bradbury's Silk Tassels, Newgate-street 269 

Brass Mangal (Charcoal-burner), from Turkey 366 

Bridles, various Forms of 398, 394 

British Guiana, Productions of 43 

British Gold 194 

British Porcckiin Manufactxire, History of 214 

Broad Glass 02 

Broadwood's Grand Piano in the Great Exhibition 167 

Brockedon's Improvement in Cumberland Lead 394 

Bron''ki"s Unbleached Silk and Cocoons, in the Great 

Exhibition 354 

Brussels Point 112 

Brussels Wire-ground 112 

Buckinghamshire Lace 112 

Building Court, described 140 

Burke's Embossed Trimminirs. (Newgate-street) 270 

Busby's Plough, (Xewton-le-Willows, Yorkshire), 

described 174 

C. 

Cabinet, by Tahan, described 160 

Cabinetwork 229 



PAGE 

Cadby'3 Pianoforte Zobra-wood Suspended Sounding- 
board 201 

Calamine •' IW 

Caldecotfs Araboyna InLMd Table t33 

Calico Printing by Blocks 278 

Califomian Gold In the Great ExhiblUon 223 

Cambrics of Ireland 298 

Canadian Court, described 20 

Canadian Timber Trophy, described 45 

Cannabic ®8 

Cannabis Indicus (Indian Hemp) 287 

CaunclCoal 1^' 

Cape of Good Hope Feather Tippet ^35 

Cape of Good Hope, produc'Lions of 41 

Cardinal Wiseman at the Great Exhibition 133 

Carlin?ford Lichthou.sc US 

Carli-Ue 1 Earl of) on the Great Exhibition 3 

Carlisle Fishirn: Tackle 33^ 

Carpet Manufacture by Hand labour and by Uachiuery 38 

Carr.ara and P.irian Material 223 

Carriage Department, described 324 

Carthanine— Sa.ss-flower 33S 

Carved Cabinet and Ghss. Hans'^n and Sons, described 295 
Carved Escritoire, and Table, from Switzerland, described 309 

Carved Frame, by Barbetti, described 152 

Carved Font, by Margetts and Ey les 143 

Carved Frame, by Rogers, described 152 

Cassava Bread 43 

Catoptric and Dioptric systems for Lighthouses, compared 115 

Causes of Railway Accidents 359 

Cennino Cennini on the preparation of Colours by 

Artists 394 

Centrifugal Pumps, descriptions of several 134 

Centrifugal Filter 391 

Centrifu^xl Pumps, described 39C 

Ceramic Art. Antiquity of 145 

Ceramic Manufactures, General History of 145 

Ceylon Contributions to the Great Exhibition 164 

Chance's Stained Glass ( nirraingham) 280 

Chandelier, by Perry, desc-ibed 417 

Chaucer and the Great Exhibition 15 

Cheap Tackle 330 

Chicory, from Sarnders and Gatebili 172 

Chocolate 1*7 

Chimney Pie-e and Vase in Terra Cotta. described 143 

Chimney Omimeats in Bronze, by LeroUe. described . . 235 

China Stone 343 

Chromates of Potash 37d 

Cinnamon Plantations H5 

Claussen on the .\ wards HO 

Claussen's Flax Cotton 333 

Claussea's Improved Mode of Treating Plai HO 

Clay Iron-stones 1^ 

Cleveland Agriciltural Society 46 

Clock and Chimney Ornaments, by Leroy and Sons, de- 
scribed 267 

Clock-case, by Bell, described 88 

Closing Scene of the Great Exhibition, described 103 

Closing of the Gi'cat Exhibition, and declaration of the 

Prizes awarded *-^ 

Clothworking. Histoi-y of, &c 379 

OoalPeat.&c 190 

Cobden (Jf r.) on the Great Exhibition 3 

** Cockpit " of Christendom 186 

Codfish OU 107 

Coffee Berry ■ 127 

Coffee-berry Pulping Machiu'? 165 

Coir (cocoa-nut fib-ei, frim Ceylon 165 

Colonel Hawker's Stanchion Gun 386 

Colour-box, by Ackerman, described 40 

Colouring of Glass 9? 

Collapsible Life-boat, by the Rev. E. L. Beethen 237 

Collection of Specimens for Foreign Xations 62 

Colman's Drag HaiTOw and Scarifier, described 126 

Colossal Bavarian Lion, described 113 

Compensation contrivances in Time-pieces 274 

Comet Seeker machine 155 

Concentrated Butter, by Moore 106 

Concentrated Gravy, by Wan-ener and Soycr 107 

Conrad Knoll's Goblet, described 87 



•fc?0,C7 ^85^ -f 8^3. iT^t'.n 



/■9 cc f^ -277 f^- 



IV 



LXDEX. 



PAGE 

Consolidated Milk 107 

Constable's CompensatiTig Fly-wheel 83 

Conrersion of Iron into Steel, with the Diamond 343 

Cook's Panel for Amateur's 395 

Cook's Carding Crom Wanvick) 118 

Cooper's " Pointing" in Wood carving 119 

Copeland'8 (Aid rman) Manufactures 227 

Copper Swords in Ireland 334 

Copperas 323 

oral Ornaments, by Pararagiia and Casella 424 

Cornwall Pobnechnic Society 282 

Cotton Manufacture 70 

Cotton Dyeing and Calico Printing 276 

Cotton Machines 178 

Cotton Manuf icture in Belgium 185 

Cotton Manufacture in France 138 

Coventry Subscription Ribbon 357 

Cow-tree Juice-u^ed as mil*! , and for Indian-rubber . . 43 

Cretonnes (French Manu'acture) 262 

Crouchet's Frontispiece, described 267 

Crown Glass 91 

Crystal Fountain, described 19 

Crystal Palace by Moonlisht 76 

Crystallised Salts 322. 376 

Cu'^itt'a Triangular Railway Sleepers 374 

Cupid Sharpening his ArrowR, described 206 

Curious Facts connected with the Great Exhibition 26 

Curious German Pencil 395 

Cut Glass Claret Jug, by Green, described 397 

Cyanides of Potasli 379 



D. 

Dante's Heroine 353 

Daves" Automatic Invisible Coach Steps 325 

Dary on the encouragement of the Arts in connexion 

with Manufactures 362 

Dawson's Autophon ; 259 

Deane, Dray, and Deane's Domestic Flour Mill, described 13 

Deane. Dray, and Deane's Toels for Gardening 351 

Deciei" (Lord) Culuvator 126 

Decorative Art, present state of 22 

Demi-pique Saddle 398 

Denmark. Department of, In the Great Exhibition 388 

Denfs Electrical Clock 370 

Denfo Turret Clock 275 

Derrick Crane— Henderson's Patent, described 29 

Descent from the Cross, by Carew, described 78 

Description of Crossley's Tapestry Pattern 371 

Description of Pottery Manufacture 146 

Detection of Adulterations of Vermilion (Cinnabar) 311 

Diamonds and Minerals employed for ornamental pur- 
poses 290 

Different forms of Rail for Roads 374 

Discovery of Gunpowder 346 

Disposal of the Great Exhibition Surplus 9^ 

Distillation of Salt-water 155 

Dollond B Atmospheric Recorder 83 

Donkin's D ac Pump, described 391 

Donkin's Paper-making Machinery, described 292 

Dorothea, by Bell, described 128 

Doterlo'b Hotel at Slough, decorations there 268 

Dresden Chi a 147 

Dresden an<i other German Manufacturers in Porcelain 168 

Dried Potatoes 126 

Dnpin on the French Contributions to the Great Exhi- 
bition 261 

Duplex Rudder and Screw Propeller 422 

Durria-i-Noor (Sea of Light), described 66 

Djcing and Calico Printing 338 

Dyne's Life Boat 237 



E. 

Early Use of Steam 130 

Earthenware Fnunta'n. Ridgway and Co., described . . 141 

Bast Indian Department 66,100 

Ebb's Compound Instrument for Lady Gardeners 351 

Edward's Atmopyre 303 

Eddystone Lighthouse 114 

Effect of the Duties on Foreign Silks 355 

Egj'pt, Tunis, and Algiers 43 

Eider Down 235 

Eldon Griup, description of 224 

Ellenborough Plate, described 296 

Emerald Green 378 

Enamelled Slate 300 

Engelhard'^ Nymph of Lurleibcrg, described 87 

English and Fren h Tiles 83 

English Saddles and their peculiarities 398 

England's Small Locomotive 350 

Engraving on Glass, by Kidd 94 

Enharmonic Guitar of Colonel P. Thompson, M.P 90 

Envelope Making Machines 422 

Errors in the First Construction of Railways 374 

EstablUhment of Pottery in Staflfordshire ! 147 

Evans of WatUng-street. Fringes by 2(j9 

Eve, by De Bay, described .!!.'!!.]!.'." 253 

Etc. after her Fall, by Raflfaelle Monti .......'.'.'.'.'.'.'.**. 98 

Exhibition ( Great) as a School of Industry 99 

Exhibition? (Industrial) of England 282 

Exhibition (The Great) and its result* "c3 

Expanding Circular Table "..'.'''.. 424 



PAGE 

F. 

Falrbaim's Riveting Machine 103 

FandeVs State Bedstead, described 364 

Fate of the CrysUl Palace 23 

Faujas dc St. FonJ on British Porcelain %\\ 

Felspar Porphyritic Rocks, or * ' Elvans" 142 

Field's Chromo-Typography. 394 

Figgins" Type 317 

Filtering Paper, Swedish and Norwegian 294 

Filters 391 

Fine Arts Department 52 

Fire-extinguishing Ceiling, by Bergin 250 

First Mail Coaches 324 

Fishing-tackle and Fish-hooks 33 1 

Fitch or Pulccat Fur 197 

Fitz-Cook's Day Dreamer's Chair, Papier Mache 212 

Flatchet on French Cabinet Work 230 

Flax Cultivation and Manufacture in Belgium 186 

Flint Glass, or Crystal 91 

Flutes. Violins. &c 302 

Fly-Sruttle, Inventor of the 143 

Foley's Wanderer, described . .^ 267 

Foot's Fringes, Spital-square £69 

Foreign and Colonial Departments :— 

Aboriginal States 42 

Au tria 372 

Belgium 131 

British Guiana 326 

Canada 20 

Cevlon 164 

Denmark 388 

France 261,347 

East Indies 66,100 

Egypt 182 

Germany 204 

Switzerland 3'.'7 

Turkey 366 

Tuscany 225 

ITnited States 294 

ZuUverein 84,204 

Foregn Bookbinding 243 

Foreign Guns 387 

Foreign Linens 299 

Foreign Pianos 202 

Foster's Violin and Violincello 303 

Fountain, by Jabez James, described 303 

Fowler s Improved Draining Plough 203 

Fox's Magnctical Balance 75 

Frauds upon Artjsts 394 

French, Belgian, and Swiss Carving 119 

French Decorative Art 347 

French Dcpanment 244 

Fren'jh Fringes 270 

FrenchFlutes 302 

French Institutes and the Great Exhibition 237, 269 

French Paper-Making Machine 292 

French Surgical Instruments 382 

Fringe. Gimp, &c 268 

Fuller's Carving, from Famham 118 

Furniture Decoration. &c '. 212,229 

Furniture— General Notice 108 

Fur Trade, Accouut of 157 

Furs, Skins, &c 534 

G. 

Garden Furniture 351 

Garrett's Patent Horse Hoe, described 124 

Gear's Substitute for Ivory for drawing upon 395 

Gener.il Description of the Great Exhibition Building. . 34 

German \ xhibitions 199 

Gibson's Painted Window, from Newcastle 281 

Giles's Railway Sleepers 374 

Girl at the t^tream, by Wldderfield. described 267 

Glass Cutting 92 

Glass coloured to imitate Gems— Bohemian 93 

Glass Embroi'lering. Silvering, &c., by Mr. Kldd 94 

Gla-s for the Great Exhibition, by Messrs. Chance & Co. 93 

Glass Manufacture 92 

Glass Manu'acture, described 49 

Glass Pressing, by Messrs. Powell, Whitefriars 94 

Glaze for Sione-ware 376 

Gordon's Caning, Bristol 118 

Gothic Bookcase, presented to the Queen by the Empcrar 

of Austria, described 133 

Gothic Chair, by Iloffmeister, of Saxe Cobourg, described 365 

Government Purchases in the Crystal Palace 46 

Government School of Mines, &c 224 

Grand Vase, by Odiot, described 250 

Granites of Cornwall and Devon 141 

Gravel Filter '. 390 

Grays (Dr.) Medical Walking Staff 9') 

Gray and Davison's Organs 203 

Great Exhibition Awards 129 

Great Western Railway Engine 350 

Greaves's Plan tif Permanent Railway 374 

Grebe(P..dicep3 Cristata) 235 

Greek Hunter, by J. Gibson, described 18 

Green's Merchantmen 258 

Grciner's Instrument for Tuning the Unison 202 

Grief and Faith, by Gandolfi. described 98 

Group of Glass by Green, described. 12S 

Group of Jeweb, by Bolin and Aln. of St. Pct:r8burRh. 327 

Group of Objects of Vertu, by Werthelmer, de.'*cribed, . 321 

Group of Ru.'-^^ian Plate, described 137 



PAGE 

Grubb and LTfeell's Machines for Grinding and Polish- 
ing Speculums 221 

Grundy's Frames, from Manchester 359 

Guardian Angel, by Odiot, described 250 

Guns and Gunpowder 346 

Gwynne and Bessemer's respective claims as to Centri- 
fugal Pumps 153 



H. 

Hairpowder 

Halbig's Drinking-Cup, described 

Hardware — General Notice 

Hardware— Buttons 

Hardware. Sheffield Manufacture 

Hardware, continued 

Hagar and Ishmael. by Villa, described 

Hagar and Ishmael, by Max. described 

Hamburgh Work-table, described 

Harness, General Description of 

Harris's (Sir W.) Lightning Conductors for Ships 

Harrison's Improved Power-Loom described 

Harvey's (and other) Easels 

Hely's Catamaran Life-boat. 

Hemp, Ropes, and Cordage 

Hetley's Stained Glass (s-oho square), described 

High-pressure Filter 

History of the Great Exhibition 2. 30, 34, 55, 

History of Industrial Exhibitions, 122, 133, 154, 186, 198, 



History of the Bow 

Holbrook's Iron Bottomless Life-boat , 

Honiton Lace. 

Hope's (Mr.) Diamonds In the Great Exhibition. . 
Hornsby's Poriable Steam-engine, &c., described 

Horologlcal Department 

Houldsworth's Machine for Embroidering Silk . . 

Howard's Ploughs, described 

HuUman id's I.ithotint 

Hydraulic Hoisting Machinery — Armstrong 

Hydraxilic Press in the Great E.xbibitlon 



148 

87 

114 

54 

303 
383 
227 

98 
389 
398 
235 
180 
395 
236 
287 
281 
391 
,152 
,220 
282 
343 
236 
112 
290 
279 
274 
356 

14 
331 

27 

29 



I. 

niustrations In Porcelain 149 

Improvements in Railway Carriages 358 

Improved Threshing Machine, by Garrett, described . . 125 

Inauguration of the Crystal Palace, described 22 

Indian Corn in the Exhibition 127 

Indian Presents to her M^esty 66 

India-rubber Air Gun. 386 

India Rubber Threads 154 

Industrial Exhibitions of Ireland 220 

Industry of France 261 

Infant Subjects, by Galll and Cacciatori 97 

Instruction for the Blind,- Works for the purposem the 

Great Exhibition 219 

Ionian Islands Department 166 

Ishmael, by Strazza, of Milan, described 99 

Irish and Scotch Carving 118 

Irish Chemical Produce 160 

Irish Linen Trade 298 

Iron Ores and Manufactures 18, 193 

Ivory Throne in the East Indian Departmeat 66 



J. 

Jacquai^ Loom 138 

James Walt 319 

Jephtha's Daughter, fey Galli 98 

Jewel-case in the Cinque-cento Style, described 357 

Jewels 01 the Queen of Spain 249 

Jewels, by Huntaod Co., described 295 

Jewelled Figure of Britannia, by Gass, described 327 

Jones's Rose Wat«h, described 375 

Joslah Wedgwood 214, 2 tO 

Judkin's Sewing Machine 250 



Kaolin discovered in Cornwall 342 

Kelly's Fishing-tackle, (from Dublin) 330 

Kenilwonh Buffet, by Cook, Warwick, described 109 

Kesterton's Amempton Carriage, described 325 

King's Gas-cooking Range, described 152 

Kirk's Ariadne, described 5 

Kirkroan's Oblique Pianoforte, described 201 

Knighthood offered to Mr. Cubltt 51 

Kobler'B Improvements In Brass Instruments 285 

Koh-1-noor, History of the 6 



Lace Gassing JIachines 47 

Lace— Gene' al Notice Ill 

Last Days of the Great Exhibition 33 

Lead Mines on the San Saba 15 

Lecture, by Professor Whewell, on the Great Exhibition 333 
Lectures on the Great Exhibition, Dr. Playfalr on tho 

Chemistry of Manufactures 362 

Leighton's Picture Printing 331 

Leistler's (of Viennx) Bed, de3crlt>ed 231 

Le Sclgneur'.s Colossal Group of St. Michael and the 

Dragon 267 

Life Boat Models 236 

Life- Preserving Contrivances 237 



INDEX. 



TAdR 

LlfbtliouBca and Optical Instrumonta 114 

Hsmlto 190 

Linen Pama«k 298 

Llnlo Laco : 113 

Litoraturo of tho Groat Hxhibltlon 26 

Literature of ttiu Great Kxliihltlon, continued— Manatio* 

muDt of tho Exhibition 74 

LIUiotratic Instruments 383 

Local ReinlnI''ccnccH of tho Cotton Manufacture 70 

Locomotive Kiiglncs 340 

Lonsmcad's Mineral Products In tho Groat Kxhlhltlon . 

LouRh'H " Mourner," doHcrlhod 207 

Lord Rosio's KxcentrlcH In Orlndlnn, Ac, Spoculums . . 2121 

Lowestoft and Yarmouth LUo Hoats 230 

Lyoncso Workmen and M. Jacquard 164 



M. 

Machinery and Mechanical Contrlvancea 14, 103, 271, 300 

Machinery Court, described 27 

Machine for Teaching tho Blind to Read 309 

Mackenzie's J ncquard Reading Krarao 278 

Mftder'a Paper Hamming 388 

Maddor, Munjeet. &c., yielding Dyes 338 

Madonna, by Jehotto. of Brusaols, described 224 

Magnetic Klcctrlcal Machine worked by Steam, Elking- 

ton's 253 

Maunus's Works In EnaracUed Slato 300 

Making and Barbing of Fish-hooks 330 

Malachite 201 

Maltese Stone 273 

Manchester Industrial Exhibitions 283 

Manton's Fowling Pieces 386 

JIanufactures In Manchester and Rouen 139 

Manufactures in Porcelain, &c 168 

Jlap Cupolas, described 143 

Marble Vase, by Van Llndon. described 396 

M archcsl's Eurydlce, described 98 

Marine Steam Engines 314 

Marine Glue (Jeffrey 'si 61 

Marquis dAvcze and the First National Exhibition 123 

Maudslay and Field's Engines 315 

McClintock"3 Wood Chair 90 

McDouKala Girl Praying, described 353 

Mechlin Lace 112 

Medieval Court, description of 215 

Memoirs of Working Men 111,250, 319 

Metallic Pens 304 

Mexican Figures and Dolls, described 2(j7 

Mexican Figures, by Madame Montaiarl, described 365 

Microscope and Microscopic Preparations 46 

Midd'eton's Centripetal Wheel Plate 103 

Miller's Brushes (Drawing and Painting) 993 

Mineral Blues 310 

Mineral Ores, Extraction, &c. of 162 

Mines and Metallurgj- 18 

Minever (Ermine) B irs in Heraldry 1^6 

Miniature Knives. &c., from Sheffield 91 

Minineand Metallurgy 150,193,222, 290 

Mink and Musquash (Musk Rat) Furs V.9 

Mlntonand Co.'s Statuettes, described 229 

Minton's Group of Ornamental China, described 396 

Miscellaiieous Manufactures 268, 292, 378 

Model of Brian Boroimhe's Harp 313 

Model of Prince Albert's Birthplace 175 

Mosul Diamond, from Golcouda 290 

Momentary Action Life Boat, Skinner, of Aberdeen . . 236 

Money Awards at the Great Exhibition 62 

Monocleid Cabinet, by Sopwith, described 108 

Mont el's Miniature Pianoforte, described 367 

Montgoifiers '* Parchemin Animal" 293 

Morel's Diamond and Ruby Stomacher, described 272 

M osalcs, from Rome, History thereof 206 

Moyen-age Ships 259 

Musical instruments .42, 200,285, 302 

Mutton Fat, Art Manufacture in, by W E. Hall 90 



X. 

Nasmyth's Steam Hammer, described 15 

National Exhibitions of France under Napoleon 138 

, Native Metals and Metalliferous Ores 222 

Nautical Department 257 

Needham's Self-priming Gun, described 3S6 

Needles, Manufacture of, &c 10 

Netherlands Department 389 

New Pattern for Dinner Plate, Fell and Co., described . 296 

New South Wales, its Productions, &c 44 

Newton's Mode of Joining Pieces of Ivory to be Drawn 

upon 395 

Niagara— Model of the Falls 22 

Nicolay's Collection of Furs in the Great Exhibition . . 158 

Nizam Diamond— its History, &c 291 

Northumberland Prize Lifeboat 237 

Nova Scotia, its Productions, &c 43 



Gala 127 

Opal 291 

Operation to Cure Squintinj 382 

Organs 202 

Origin of the Dimple, Group by Kirk, described 128 

Ormolu Clock, Howell and James, described 176 

Ornamental Silver, description of 156 



TALK 

Ornamental Iron^vork Doors, by) tho Coalbrook-dolo 

Cnmi)any, dcHcrllrtd 89 

Ornamental Inmwork, doscrlbod Id4 

Orntthorhvnc\w 235 

Ostrich Milk 360 

Owen JonoH, Kkq. -Printed Klowon* and Fruits 331 

Owen J ones, EHq., on tho Colouring of the Interior of 

the Great Exhibition 270 

Oxide of Zinc (the White) 310 

Oxland'H Mineral Collection In tho Great Exhibition . . 163 

O xychlorldo of Lead 310 

P. 

Paints and PlRnicnta 310 

Paper Staining, Hanging, &c 234 

Papier Macho, History, Slc, of 212 

Parquet for Floors (Russia), described 327 

Parr, Curtis, and Madolcy's Cotton Machines 178 

Parson's Digging Machine, dlsj>0Hal uf 352 

Pttxtun Furniture, description of 206 

Peat, &c ISO 

Pelrce's Pyro- Pneumatic Stove, doacribed 303 

Penn's. (of Greenwich) Engines 314 

Peraian Red 310 

Person's " Impressions dca Tlntes" 338 

Perry's, (of Taunton) Carving 118 

Philischer's Microscope, described 47 

Philosophical Instruments and Preparations 46 

Phonotyj-ics and Phonology 317 

Piano- Violin, by Wood 91 

Pianofortes £00 

Picture printing in Colours 331 

Pins, Manufacture, &c., of 114 

Plain Ir sh Linen 298 

Plaster Group, by Munro, described 353 

Plato and Plated Goods 262 

Plate Glass 91 

Pompeo Savinl of Urbino 206 

Pope tjllvester's Or^an 130 

Port-alts of the Queen and Prince Albert in Porcelain . 170 

Potato ;... 126 

Pottery, Porcelain, TUea, &c 145. 167. 214, 217 

Potters' Clay 342 

Powell's Bisunlque, or Reversable Cloths and Clothings 255 

Presents by Exhibitors to the Commissioners 23 

Presents of the East India Company to the Queen .... 187 

Preservation of the Crystal Palace 51 

Prt served Meats, by Gamble, Leonard, Soyer, &c 106 

Preparations of Sulphate of Copper 378 

Principles of Modern Ship Building 258 

Printed Calicoes in France 154 

Printing Machine of the " Illustrated London News," 

desi ribed 376 

Prize Medals of the Great Exhibition ' ■. . 35 

Productions of Abi^riginal States , 42 

Products of Peat 75 

Professor Owen's Lecture on Raw Materials from the 

Animal Kingdom 354 

Prussian Blue 379 

Pr-jssian Dye 155 

Prussian Manufactures 199 

Prussian Zundadel Gewehr, described 387 

Pru^sic Acid 379 



Q. 

Quarries of Tuscany 226 

Queen's Withdrawins-room in the Crystal Palace, 

described 54 

Queen and Prince of Wales— a Group, described 152 



Ragged School Visit to the Great Exhibition 46 

Railroad Bars in the Great Exhibition, described 103 

Railway Department, described ' 358, 374 

Railway Plant 358, 374 

Ransome and May's Cane top Cutters, described 126 

Reaping Machines of the rival Americans, Jl'Corraac 

and Hussey 46 

Reed's Patent Shuttleless Power-Loom, described 179 

Reed's Substitute for Cumberland Lead 394 

Reflections on the Great Eshibiiion by a German 151 

Regulators of Time Pieces 274 

Relievo Leather, description of 316 

Remontoire of Time Pieces 274 

Report of the Great Exhibition Juries 59 

Revolvers, explained 387 

Rice 127 

Robertson's Furnace Bars, described 221 

Rogers's Mining Tools, described 151 

Roman Alura 322 

Rope-making 287 

Rosewood Cabinet, by Petot, described 335 

Roj-al Dress of State and Jewels, descripUon of 66 

Royal Fan, description of 250 

Ruins of the Great Exhibition 224 

Russell (Lord John) on the Groat Exhibition 3 

Russell's (of Famingham) Plough, described 174 

Russian Department 4 

Russian Furs, &c 196 

Russian School of Mosaic at St. Petersburg 207 

Rustic Furniture, from the Netherlands, described 3f9 



B. 

PA*]dlcry, namexa. and.nuntlnir Oar N8 

Ht. VancrxH S\(,<M Lodicing houiief m 

Salt* In the Great ExhiMtlon - 323 

Salter's Model of the Great Opening Bridge VTer the 

Oum;. at >-"clI.y. iJe*rrlbcd OK 

Hantanlna, aTuncan Vennlfugo '. 2M 

Savage's Alarum Bedstead .- ..,,, 2M 

Savory'H Htcam-cngino ]" 310 

Schcclo'H Green jjo 

ecot^Jh Damaxkg /.../....'......[.... . '. ' 5«» 

Sculpture '.V.V.V.'.V.V.V/.V/i«i," 224', 567, 30fi 

Sculpture— ThcMus and tho Amaxonn, deKrtUd. . ICl, 307 

Sculpture Room In tho Austrian Dci«rtmcnt, doiCTibed 67 

Sculpture In tho Autitrlan Dcirartmcnt G4, 267 

Sculptured Pcden »1, by Drake, described 143 

Self acting Fire Alarum and Ratltray Wbl«tio 100 

Hemlbreve Guitar, by Dobrowskl go 

Serpentine Stone, or Ophite '.....'.'.'.'.'.'. 14S 

Sevres Porcelain ...'..'. 170 

Seward's Tree Remover '.'.'.'.'.'.'.......'.'. 362 

Seymour's Gold Vase, described ] 347 

Sha- p's ** Christ's charge to Peter," dcucrlbcd 78 

Shawls 



Sheffield 

Sheffield Manufacture 

Sheffield Plating ...."./." ^....M 

Shepherd's Electric Clock at the Great Exhibition Biiud- 

ing. described 

Shield of the Anns of all Nations, described 

Sideboard, by Jackson and Graham, described 

Sideboard, by Fourdonols, described 

Sideboard, by the Gutta Percha Company, described . . 

Siknt Alarum Bedstead, by Jones, described 

Silk from the Sussur Moth 

Silk Manufacture 

Silk. Material and History of 

Silver Centre-piece, by Hunt and Roskell, described. !. . 

Silver Centre-piece, by Morel, described 

Sdver Cup. by Fries, of Zurich, descrited 

Silver Dish, by Angel, described 

Silver Inkstand. Lambert and Rawlings, described 

Sinful Man Undeceived, by Guelroo, described 

SioiLx Indians 

Skins, Fu s, and Feathers 157, 

Slave in the Market, by Monti, described 

Slaughter's Steam-engines for Screw Propeller 

Small Notibilia of the Great Exhibition 

Smoke Nuisance 

Snell's Sideboard, described. 

Solitude, exhibited by the Art Union, described 

Somerset Sadd'es 

Spirit of Science unveiliDg Ignorance and Prejudice, by 

Evan Thomas 

Sprcngel and Hartman's Ploughs, described 

Spurgu:*'s (Dr.) Hoes 

Stained Glass in the Great Exhibition, from France. . . . 

Siand and Casket, by Werthemer, described 

Statistics of the Industry of France 

Stationery 

Statuary Porcelain 

Statuettes, by Gropius, Description of 

Stearine 

Steatites 

Stent's Pea Supporters 

Stetheoscope 

Stirling's Wrought Iron Process 

Stores, by Jeakesand Co., dc^rlbed 

Stow, on the First Carriages in England 

Struggles of Genius 

Suburban Artisan Schools . , 

Successien of Styles in Decoration 

Sugar Spoons, by Lias. d-:scribed 

Sulphuret of Antimony in Drawings 

Superiority of English Cabinet Work 

Supply of Coals 

Surgical Instruments 

Susannah, by Galli, described 

Suspension Vase, by Vittoz, described 

Swans Down 

Sweden and Norway, Departments of 

Sweet Potatoes 

Swiss Watches 

Swiss Cotton Manufacture 

Switzerland, Deiiartment of 

Syphon Filter 



T. 

Table and Bookcase, by Morant, described 

Tanner's Cabinet, described 

Tea Plants, Blue and Green, Loddige, Kew 

Tcbray's Water Meter 

Telesraph, Dempster's Sea, described 

Telescope Funnel for Steam Boilers, K. Taplin. de- 
scribed 

Textile Manufactures 70, 177, 254, 298. 

Theinc and Cafeine 

Thomas's Rosamimda, desci'ibed 

Tobacco 

Toby and S n's Greenhouse 

Twledo Blade, by De Ytasi, description of 

Tour de Corduan 

Tourniquet 

Trade Museum 



367 
323 
303 
304 

309 
223 
192 

391 
335 

90 
355 
355 
384 
207 
137 
309 
241 
360 

18 

43 
195 

98 
314 

87 
110 
396 
153 
398 

73 
176 
351 
347 
327 
246 
292 
227 
2)6 
155 
143 
352 
383 
383 
176 
324 
143 
123 
230 
397 
395 
230 
1S6 
382 

9S 
250 
159 
388 
126 
308 
3C9 
307 
391 



leo 

368 
127 
143 
34 

94 
338 
li7 
5 
127 
351 

40 
114 
382 
379 



VI 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

TuDgstein 22 ! 

Tunis Court, description of 183 

Turkey. Department of 366 

Turkish Manufactures, Dresses, Arms, &c 366 

Turner's Cerise 234 

Turn Tables. Railw.iy 374 

Turret and other Large Clocks 274 

Tuscan Department 224 

Tuscan Marhlcs and Slinerals in the Exhibition 226 

Typhi Latifloria (M'Culluni'sl. described 127 

Typc-casting;Machine, by Richards .' . 317 

Typography and Miscellaneous Stationery 317 



U. 

Ulilands " Kaiser und Dichter" 30o 

Ultramtrine | Artificial) by Grimet 154 

Underwoods ncraldio Table Clotli, described 384 

United States Department 204 

Uranium and Chromium 223 



Valuable Heron-bill Spoon ■ 30G 

Van Diemen's Land, its productions, &o 44 

Vanilla, Seed-pod of an Orchid 172 

Various kinds of Olass, described— Glass cutting and 
colouring 91 



PAGE 

Various kinds of Cannon 346 

Vase and two Groups, by Froment-Meuricc, described . 2i37 

Vaucauson's Loom, described 138 

Vegetable Productions of Scotland 73 

Veiled Vestal, by Monti, described 98 

View of the Western Nave, described 183 

View in the French Depa tment, described 391 

Vintage, by Motelli. described 93 

VerkhoTZoff's Exhibition of Plate, described 137 

Voltaic Battery of the Great Exhibition, describcii .... 371 



Wagner's Clocks, from Paris, described 276 

■\Valker, Pishop, Holditch, and others. Organs 203 

Wallis, Fuller, Cook. Gordon, and others, "VVGod-carvlng 117 

Wardian Cases, ft r the Transporting of Plants 363 

"Wardrobe, by Wilkinson, described 332 

Water-colours Prepared with Wax 3l>4 

WaterloWs Autographic Press 243, 399 

Watson'3 Gilding 395 

Watt's Monuments 320 

Weapon!? of Chivalry 342 

Weir's " Old Gentleman's " Saddle 398 

Weiss's Surgical CaVdnct, described 3i^3 

Wellington (His Gra^e the Duke of), incident to, at the 

Gre:it Exhibitiou 34 



PAGS 

Western Africa, its Productions, &c 43 

Westrop'a Conical Flour-mill, described 14 

Whewell's (Prufessor) Lectxu-e on the Great Exhibition. 333 

White Lead Manufacture, its History and Processes, . . , 310 

White's Improvements-in Saddles 399 

Whittingtou, a Plaster Figure, by Carcw, described 78 

AVilson's Double Boiler Tank Engine 350 

Winfield's Stamped Bmss Cornice, described 384 

Wire Ropes, by Newell, described 333 

Woollen Manufactures, British 254 

Woollen Manufactures in France 13S 

Works in Artificial Stone, by Ransom and Parsons, de- 
scribed 143 

Works in Ormolu, by Potts, described 278 

Works in Ornamental Iron, described 199 

Wornum's Piccolo Piano, in Walnut-tree Wood, de- 
scribed £00 

Wyatt's Nymphs, described 300 

Y. 

Voung's Crossing Gates, for Railroads ii7j 



Zollverein Department 



LIST or ENGRAVINGS. 



A. 

PAGK 

Arcs of Life, by F. Dmko (4 KngrariogH) 152 

Agrlculluriil Maubinery Bopartincnt 124 

Allmuibra Stove, by Stewart and Smith, Sheffield 328 

Alpha Clock, by Roberts (2 Engravings) 274 

Amazon, by Kiss 37 

American Starbiick Plough 175 

Ancient Briton lookine out as Scout, by Adams 221 

Andrews' Improved Centrifugal Pump (3 Engravings). . 135 

Andromeda, by J. Boll 173 

Angelin Ccntrc-Picco, by Oropius 204 

Appold's IlotAry Pump (,'i Enpvavings) 135 

Architectural Medal, by Wiener, of IJruges 300 

Archangel Michael after overcoming Satan, by Stephens 305 

Ariadne, by Kirk fl 

Arm Chair, by Jeanselrao 247 

Arms and Shield, in the East Indian Department 344 

Articles in Pai>ier Machc. hy Si)icr-« ani Son, of Oxford 213 

Asminstor Garnet, designed for Windsor Castle 251 



B. 

Bacchus Reclining, by Neurinl, of Florenco 225 

Baddeley's Fanner's Fire-Engino . . .'. 279 

Banks's Twin Staircase 335 

Barrett, Exhall. and Andrews's Gorse Bruiser 311 

Barrett antl Bxhall's Steam-Engine 12 

Ba.s-rolief, in Carton Pierre, by Hardouin 261 

Bay of the French Department 244 

Bedroom Furniture, by TroUope and Son 108 

Bedstead, by Rogers and Dean . . ._ 332 

Bed'tead. by Wilkinson' .' 348 

Bedstead (State!, by Faudel and Phillips, Newgate-st . . 364 

Bee Hives, by Neighbour 419 

Belgian Court 132 

Bellhouse's Fireproof Doors for Warehouse Hoists .... 167 

Besscmers Centrifugal Pump 134 

Biddoll's Self-regulating Gas Burner 15 

Blake's Centrifugal Pump 134 

Boy with Punchinello, by Simonis 133 

Boy with Broken Drum, by Simonis 133 

Bracelet, by Bonillette and Co 365 

Brass Candelabra, by Potts 77 

Brian Boroimhe's Harp 329 

Bronze and Ormolu Candelabra, from Russia 13(5 

Bronze Fountain, by Jabez James 300 

Brussels Lace, by A. Ducpctiiux and Sons 112 

Brussels Lace, by Robyt. Brussels 112 

Brussels Laee. by Duhagon & Sons 112 

Building Court 140 

Busby's Patent Prize Plough 175 



C. 

Cabinet, by Tahan 160 

Cabinet, Rivart and Andrieux 245 

Cabinet, Rosewood, Petot 333 

Cabinet, by Tanner 363 

Cabinet, White and Gold, Mr. Ingram, Birmingham . . 339 

Caine, by Jehotte '- 2T7 

Canadian Timber Trophy ;.. 44 

Canadian Court 20 

Candelabra 209 

t'andelabrum from Austria 373 

Candelabrum, by Webb 322 

Candelabrum. &c., Harvey and Co 397 

Carpet, Axminster, designed for Windsor Castle 251 

Carriage Department 324 

Carved Baptismal Font, by Margetson and Co., Oxford 142 

Carved Cabinet and Glass, Hanson and Sons 293 

Carved Casket in Walnut-wood, by Barrett, of Tuscany 117 

Carved Crozier Head, by Rogers 316 

Carved Escritoire and Table, from Switzerland , . . 308 

< arred Frame, by Barbetti 152 

Carved Frame, by Rogers 153 

Carved Frame in Box- wood, by Rogers 118 

Carved Frame, by Barrett!, of Tuscany 118 

Carved Ivory Throne from India, exhibited by her 

Majesty 65 



Casket, Ivory, from Denmark 388 

Cast-Iron Balusti-ade. by Bailey and Sons 193 

Cast-Iron Fountain, by Andrd*. of Paris 193 

Ccntrc-Piece— Sir Roger de Corerley— by J. Aogeli 21 

Ccntre-Piece. by Morel 129 

Centre Piece (Silver!, by Hunt and Roskell 208 

Centre- piece, by Elkingtons 253 

Centre-piece, by Lambert and Rawlings ^ 352 

Centre-piece, by Froment-Meurice 365 

Centrifugal Pump, by Gwynnc (3 Engravings) 390 

Ceylon Department 164 

Chair, by Jeanselme 230 

Chair (Arm) Jeanselme 247 

Chair, Gothic, from Saxe Coburg 364 

Chandelier, by Bailey and Sons 396 

Chandelier. Cornelius, of Philadelphia 294 

Chiumey-Piece and Vase, In Terra Cotta, from the Lady 

Shore Works 141 

Church Medals, by J. Weiner (4 Engravings) 340 

Cinque-cento Jewel-case, desii^ned by Gruner 359 

Clay Models of Hindoo Cistea and Trades 101 

Clock-case, designed by J. Bell, Manufactured by El- 

kington. 82 

Clock, Leroy and Sons. Paris 268 

Clock, Medifeval 209 

Clock, Jfechanism of the Electric, by Shepherds 370 

Clock, Pendulum of the Electric 370 

Clock-stand (Ormolu) hv Potts 284 

Clocks, by R. and J. Moore 272 

Clocks, by Frodsham 275 

Closing of the Great Exhibtion— Prince Albert receiving 

theReportsof the Juries, Oct. 15th. 1851 104,105 

Collection of Indian JeweU, &c., exhibited by the East 

India Company 68 

Colman's Drag Harrow and Scarifier 126 

Colossal Bavarian Lion, by Halbig ._.. . 113 

Colossal Statue of the Queen, in Zinc 16 

Colom'-box.by Ackerman 41 

Coifs Revolvers 387 

Coral Ring, &c., by Paravagna and Casel'a 424 

Cotton Machinery of Messrs. Hibbett, Piatt and Sons 72, 73 

Coventry, Ribbon Pattern by Berry, from 381 

Coverlet. Worked MusUn, C. Staheli Wild, St, Gall, 

Switzerland 309 

Croskill's Root Washer 335 

Crystal Candelabra, by Osier 83 

Cryst!il Palace as a Winter Garden 263 

Crystal Fountain in the Transept 17 

Cupid Sharpening his Arrow, by Leeb, of Munich 205 

Curtain Cornice of Papier Mach^, by Jackson 240 

Cut-glass Claret Jug, by Green 397 

Cut-glass Chandelier, by PeiTy 417 



D. 

Damask Communion Cloth, by Pegler 297 

Deane. Dray and Deane's Domestic Flour Mill 12 

De la Rue's Envelope Machine 423 

De la Rues Stall and Envelope Machinery 292 

Diamond and Ruby Stomacher, by Morel 272 

Dicks Anti-friction Presses (2 Engravings) 271 

Dolls, bv Madame I\Iontanari 267 

" Dorothea,- by Bell 128 

Dreamer's (The) Chair, in Papier Mach6, by Jennens 

and Bettridge : 213 

Dicssing-casQ, &c., by Asprey 28i 

DrinkiuR Cup, by Johan Heilberg 85 

Ducie's (Lord) Cultivator 126 

Dunin's Expanding Figure of a Man 78 

Duplex Rudder and Screw Propeller 422 

Dun'ia-i-noor, or Sea of Light 68 

Duvelleroy's " Royal Fan" 245 



E. 

Earthenware Fountain, by Ridcway and Co 142 

East Indian Department, Northern Court lOJ 

East Nave, Foreign Department, looking from the 
S.W. of Transept '. 120,121 



Eiiony Table inlaid with Silver, Hancock (2 Engravings) 223 

Egyptian Plouch and Norcz M.achinc to Sow Seed 1B2 

Electric Telegraph, Comic, by G. R. Smith 270 

Electric Telecraph, Face and Hands of 3® 

Elgin Flower Vase 421 

Elizabethan Bracket in Box-wood, by Rogers 118 

Ellenborough Testimonial, Silver Scrncc, by Hunt and 

Roskell 29 

Enamelled Gold Vase, by Seymour and Son 357 

Encampment of Foot Guards at the Eastern End of the 

Exhibition Building 48 

End of Pianoforte, by Broadwood 3D1 

English Pillow Lace, by B. Hill, Olney, Bucks 112 

Engine Pit of Walbottle Colliery (G Engrariugs) .... 1S3, 189 

Erards Pianoforte and Harps 200 

Etru-Hcan Vase, Alabaster, ^- Cherici 226 

Eve, by De Bay 249 

Eve, by Bell, in Elcctro-Bronzo, by Elkingtona 2$3 

Exhibition Voltaic Battery , 371 

Exiianding Circular Table 424 



F. 

Fairbairn's Patent Riveting Machine 103 

Fairy Bell, The 156 

Faithful Messenger, The, by Qeefs, of Antwerp 9t> 

Fine Arts Court 52 

Five-barrelled Pistol, by Lefaucheux 386 

Flour-mill 12 

Fontaine a The, by Durand 341 

Foreign Nave, looking West.— Zollverein and Belgian 

Departments 8 

Fountain, by Thomas 379 

Fowler s Improved Draining Machine Plough 203 

Fox (Mr.), Contractor for the Crjstal Palace, Portraitof 32 

French Department.— Constantine's A rtificial FioTvers . 260 

Frieze of Paper Pattern, by Jeffrey ana Alien 91 

Frontispiece, by Cruchet 263 

Furniture, by Webb 321 



G. 

Garrett's Patent Horse shoe 129 

Girl at a Stream 269 

Giri Pi-aying, by J. A. M'Dowall, R.A 353 

Glass Blowing 49 

Glass Gwblet, by A. Boehm 45 

Goblet, by Conrad Knoll 85 

Godfrey de Bouillon, by M. Simonis 114 

Gothic Bookcase, presented to the Queen by the Empe- 
ror of Austria 177 

Gothic Panel, by Thomas 3ti5 

Gratitude, by Eenzoni 64 

Great Western Railway, looking West 360 

Greek Huntsman, The, by J. Gibson 76 

Greek Slave, by Hiram Power 520 

Group of Bohemian Qkiss 92 

Group of Books, by Hanicq, of Mechlin 243 

Group of Books, by Lcighton 242 

Group of China, from Bavaria 168 

Group of China, by Daniel 149 

Group of Diamonds, Sec, by Hunt and Roskell 289 

Group of Diamonds, (3 Engravings) 290 

Group in Glass 92 

Group of Glass, by Green 128 

Group of Graces 421 

Groupof Jewels, by Bolin. St. Petersburg 336 

Group of Objeets, of Vertu, by Wertheimer 32 

Group of Ornamental China, by Mioton 39*j 

Group of Porcelain, from Missen, in Saxony 169 

Group of Sculptured Vases, from Malta 273 

Group of Se^Tes Porcelain 169 

Groupof Silver Plate, by Reid 421 

Group of Stufted Cats, from Wurtemberg 196 

Group of Stuffed Frogs. „ 197 

Guardian .Vngel, by Vittoz 247 

Gun to be loaded at the Breech on Lefaucheux's Plan. . 387 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



n. 

PAGE 

Hagar and Ishmad, by TUla, Of Florence 225 

Halifax Court ••• J°9 

Hanson and Sens' Carved Cabinet and Glass J93 

Harp 22» 

Harrisons Improved Power-loom J"» 

Heraldic Table cloth— Arms of all Nations 384 

Homsby's Portable Steam-engine and Thrashing Ma- 
chine 278 

Howard's Patent Plough 13 

Hunter and Tigress, by Jerichau, of Denmark 388 



I. 

Indian State Barge carved iu Ivory, at Morshedabad . . 101 

Inlaid Calmet. by Qruner 420 

Inlaid IVood Table, from Ceylon ICS 

nnocence protected by Fidelity, by Benzoni 64 

Ionian Islands Contributions 1C5 

Iron Park-gates, by Cottam and Hallen 195 

Ivory Carving— Procession of a Native Indian Prince, 

from Morshedabad 101 



Jewelled Figure of Britannia 33i> 

Jewelled Hawk, belongine to the Duke of Devonshire. . 45 



K. 

Keith's Silk Trophy 312, ?13 

King's Gas Cooking Range 151 

Knife. Fork, and Spoon, by Lambert and Raw lings — 297 

Koh-i Noor, or Mountain of Light 5, 69 

KShler's Improvements in Bra,ss Instruments (6 Figures) 285 



L. 

« 

Limp, by Supc 420 

Lectern, by Cottinsham 341 

Liberation of Caractacus, by Panomio 173 

Life Boats {6 KagraTings) 23G 



5r. 

Macbinery Court -8 

M'Cormick's American Reaping Macbine 12 

Majolica Vases, Wall-Tiles, &e., by Minton and Co 148 

Malichite Doors and Va-^es in the Russian Department 301 

Marble Chimncv and Mirror Frame, from Milan 345 

Marble Fire-place, by John Thomas ; StOTe, by Feelham 5l9 

Marble Vase, by Van Linden 300 

MargetsoQ and Co.'s Carved Baptismal Font 142 

Marqueterie Tattle, by Bautry and Sons 230 

Mfdiaeval Candles 215 

Mediaeval Court 217 

Mexican Figures, by Montanari 364 

Michael (St ) Overthrowinc; the Dragon 2til 

Middletnn"s Centripetal Wheel Plate 103 

Min ature Grand Pianoforte, by Kirkman 201 

Miniature Pianofor:c. by Montal 363 

Model Houses for the Labouring Classes, exhibited by 

Prince All-K:rt - 81 

Model of the Jlonuinent to ttic Earl oE Durham in 

CannclCoal 190 

Models of Ships and Boats— Ind a 257 

Monocleid Cabioet, by Sepwith 108 

Mosaic Table, by Barberi 207 

Mourners, The, by Gough 268 

Murder of the Innocents, by Geets, of Brussels 307 

Muse Melpomene, by Gropius 204 



N. 

New Pattern for Dinner- Plate, by Fell and Co £97 

Korman Painted Window, by J. Gibson 281 

North Transept— Great Gates of the Ccalbrook-dale 

Company 40 

Nymph of Lurleiberg, by Engelhard ^5 



0. 

PAGE 

Opening of the Great Exhibl'ion, May 1st. 1851 24, 25 

Origin of the Quarrel of the Guelphsand GhibeUine3,by 

F. R. PickersgiU, A.R.A 53 

Ormolu Chandelier, by Bemstorff 204 

Ormolu Clock-stand, by Pott^ 284 

Ormulu Flower-stand, by Potts 284 

Ornamental China, by Mint m 336 

Ornamental Iron-Work Dome, by the Coalbrook-dale 

Company 89 

Ornamental Leather, by Dulud, Paris 316 

Ornamental Slate-Table 300 

P. 

Panel Decorations, by Haselden 283 

Panel of a Stove, by Jeakes 420 

Paolo and Francesca, by A. Munro 353 

Paper Patterns, by Scott, Cuthbertson and Co 231 

Paper Patterns, by Turner and Co 231 

Papier Mache Canterbury, by Jennens and Bettridge . . 212 
Papier Mache Jewel-Case, by Jennens and Bettridge . . 21 

Papier Mache Ventil itor, hy Bielefeld 367 

Patent Ornamental Mirror, by Kidd 329 

Paxton Fumicuro. by Fleischmann 205 

Paul and Virginia, by Cumberworth 421 

Paxton, Portrait of 1 

Pianoforte, by CoUard and CoUard 201 

Pianoforte, by Pape, of Paris 201 

Pillischers Microscope 47 

Pistol, by M. Lepage 345 

Pleiades Adorning Night (in Parian), by Rose and Co.. . 145 

Porcelain Candelabrum - - 424 

Porcelain and Earthenware Flower Stands, by Small 

and Maling 146 

Porcelain Vases, ic, by Mansard, of Paris 1^8 

Pottery, by Aviaseau (2 Engravinss) 228 

Prie Dieu, by Lestler 373 

Printing Macbine, in the Great Exhibition, of the Illus- 
trated London News 376, 377 

Prize Medals— No. 65, by M. Hippolyte Bonnardel ; 
No. 24, by Mr. Leonard Wyon ; No. 103, by Mr, 

G. G. Adams 36 

Proving Pistol, by Devlsme . .'. 38G 

0- 

Queen and Prince of Wales, by Bell 152 

Queen's Withdrawing Reom, Her Majesty's ArriTal at 
the North Entrance 60 

R. 

Railing for a Tomb— Coalbrook-dale Company 277 

Ran^omeand Mays Cane Top Cutter.- 123 

Reed's Patent Shuttleless Loom 179 

Revolving Pistol, by Devisrae 383 

Road to the Exhibition— Hyde Park Comer 33 

Bosamunda, by J. Thomas 5 

Royal Procession at the Opening of the Great Exhi- 
bition 56,67 

Russian Department, Malachite Doors 4 

Russian Parquet ; for Floors 328 

Rustic Furniture, from the Netherlands 389 

S. 

Salt-cellars, by Leas and Sons 341 

Scenes in Interior of the Great Exhibition 41 

Secretaire, by SntU 276 

Shawl, by Webber and Hairs 381 

Shawl Pattern, by Jacieson and Banks 355 

Shield and Arras, by M. Le Page 345 

Shield of the Arms of all Nations in Enamel 211 

Sideboard, by Panting 418 

Sidebo.ird, by Messrs. SncU 385 

Sideboard, by Fourinols 393 

Sideboard, by Jackson and Graham 192 

Sideboard, Gu'.ta Percha Company 326 

Silver Brooch, from the loni m Islands 166 

Silver Claret Jug, by Lias and Sons 156 

Silver Cup, by Fries, Switzerland 308 

Silver Dish, by Angel 241 

Silver Inksttnd, by Lambert and Rawlings 363 



PARE 

Silver Salt-cellars, by MorcU 21 

Silver Soup Ture;n, by Odiot 418 

Silver Va'^e, by Odiot 363 

Silver Vase, by Wagner, Berlin 88 

Silver Wine Flagons, by Lambert and Rawlings (2. En- 
gravings) 156 

Solitude, exhibited by the Art Union 153 

South End of the Building 48 

Specimen of Binding— The Pilgrim's Progress, by Leigh- 
ten and Co 287 

Specimen of Hollow Brick-work 82 

Specimens of Hooks 331 

Stained Windows, by Gibson 340 

Stained Windows, by Martin of Troyes 280 

Stamped Brass Cornice, by Winfield and Co 38 1 

Stamped Leather Ornaments, by Leake 317 

Stand and Casket, by Wertheimer 32S 

Startled Nymph, by Behnes 306 

State Bedsteads, by Lcistler, of Vienna 232 

State Howdab from India, exhibited by Her Majesty . . 6? 

Statuette, by Blenkhom, (2 Engravings) 372 

Steam Engme, by Evans 314 

Stove, Jobsonand Co., Sheffield 80 

Stove, by Messrs. CaiT aad Robertson 320 

Stowell and Eldon Group, by the late Mr. L. Watson . . 22') 

Successive Stages of Glass blowing fin 

Sugar Spoons, by Lias 39^ 

Susannah, by A. Galli 97 

Suspension, by Voiainlieux 24S 

Sword and Handle, by Delacour 31-'' 

Sword and Handle, by M. L« Page 34'j 

T. 

Table and Bookcase, by G. J. Morant 160 

Table in Electro-SUver, (Elkingtons) the property of 

Her Majesty 252 

Tapestry Pattern, by Bright and Co 30 

Tapestry Pattern, by Crossley Halifax 3"1 

Tassels and Fringe, by Burg 269 

Tea and Coflfee Senice, by Smiley 156 

Three Specimens of Wall Decorations, in Cannabic, by 

Albano 288 

Toledo Blade, by M. De Tsasl 4(» 

Transparent Blind, by Bach 373 

V. 

Vase, by Cellini 421 

Vase in Sevres Percelain 214 

Vase, by Elkington 2o2 

Vase, and Two Groups in Silver, by Froment-Meurice .. 263 

Vase, by Odiot 248 

Veiled Slave in the Market, by R. Monti 64 

Victory, by Nelson 173 

View of the Western Nave of the Great Exhibition, 184, 1:::;. 

View in the French Department 3"^- 

Vintage Garden Vase 421 

Vittoz's Guardian Angel 247 



W. 

Wall Decoration, by Morant 172 

Wanderer, The. by Foley 269 

Wardrobe, by Wilkinson 328 

Watch, The Rose, by J. Jones, Strand 375 

Watts First Locomotive Engine 350 

Westrup's Conical Flour-mill 13 

Works in Artificial Stone 141 

White's Patent Tugs 39'.> 

Wood-carving in Walnut- wood, Messrs Cooks, Warwick 116 

AVork-tablp, from Hamburgh 389 

Worked Muslin Curtain, from Switzerland— View of the 

Village of Appenzhall 240 

Writing Bm'cau, by Rnmcndahl 413 

Y. 

Youth at a Stream, by Foley 277 

Z. 

Zollverein Department 84 




AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPAEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 

'I'HK Great InduKtriiil Exliibitiou of 1851, now on tlio ovo of closiug, is an 
acliiovement, tlio beueficial effects of which iiro not for our owu day 
only, but " for all time." That congress of tho liighest practical and 
speculative intelligouccs of the vai"ious nations of tho world, that vast 
assembling of natural products, of mechanical appliances, and of manu- 
factured goods from all quarters of tho globe, must have led to a 
reciprocation of individual experiences, au interchange of thought, which 
must add largely to the general store of knowledge, and au acltnow- 
ledgment of relative commercial interests which cannot but promote 
tlie common weal of the whole human community. 

In this great mart of intelligence and wealth, the poorest of om- fellows 
share equally, perhaps more largely, in proportion, than the richest in the 
land ; for it is by tlio stimulus thus given to the energy and enterprise of 
the world that they must hope to improve theu* condition, and rise in the 
scale of societ}'. And have not the millions who have flocked from the 
extrcmest end of the land to this great industrial gathering shown that they 
rightly appreciated its general importance ; and have not their scrutinising 
inquiries in various departments, each according to his calling or views, 
proved that they wore determined to make the most of the valuable 
opportunities it afforded them. 



Yet, the advantages intended to society, through this great undertaking, 
will mainly depend upon tho Record which is kept of important faobi 
eliminated, and the valuable examples presented to obsei-vation. This 
record does not exist at present ; and it is with a Tiew to supply a desi- 
deratum which so obviously presents itself, and to perpetuate to the use 
of tho intelligent and industrious millions all tho more impoi'tant facts and 
features of tho world's industrial fair, of scientific, as well as social bearing, 
that the present work is projected. "The Crystal Palace" will contain 
well-digested accoimts of all m.atters of enduring interest comprised in that 
gi-eat display, copiously illustrated with engravings, and published at a 
price which will place it within the reach of all readers. 

In order to render the work a complete record of this important, ailiBtic, 
and scientific gathering, a Historical Sketch will be given, taking a complete 
review of all the events connected with the progi-ess and accomplishment of 
this great National imdertaking; from the firat inchoate suggestion in 
1845, to Prince Albert's definite proposition in 1849, down to the final 
closing of the doors, and the adjudication of prizes in October, 1851. 

The subjects wUl be classified in gi'oups as far as practicable, which will bo 
continued imder their several distinct heads from time to time, cai-e being 
taken, however, to provide suSicient variety in each number. On the com- 
pletion of the work an index will be given, which will render it available as 
a Cyclopsedia of Science, Arts, and Productions in 1851. 




JOStrU TAXTOK, ESQ., r.S.A. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 

I. Pkelimisart Movement. — Appointment op the RoiAL Commission. 
" THE Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Xatious, 1851," -nill 
stand recorded in the annals of future ages as the first event of the kind 
which has occurred in the history of man. We say the first event " of the 
kind," for, although many expositions of industrial productions have been 
held from tune to time in various other coimtries, and also recently in some 
of our own cities, they have always been restricted to tlie works of the pai> 
ticular nations, or localities, to the exclusion of the rest of the world. Fur- 
thermore, it may be added, that expositions, regulated by these principles, 
were m reality little else than Large fau-s, where the immediate extension of 
individual commercial dealings was the main object held in view. 

England, then, has been the first not only to tln-ow open her own shop 
for the inspection of all the world, but to invite all the world to compete 
with her in it, and that in every walk and department of business. It 
■was a bold, a courageous, a generous step ; and although in the working out 
of tho details, aud in some of the accidental incidents inseparable from all 
great imdertakinga, she may not fancy herself adequately requited, upon 
the whole, we do not think she will have reason to repent wliat she has 
done. 

We will now briefly trace tho history of the events which led to this 
undertaking; an undertaking, tho honour of which, we must state at the 
outset, is mainly attributable to the Society of Arts of London. As early 
as the years 1756 — 7, the Society of Arts of London offered prizes for 
specimens of manufactures, tapestry, carpets, porcelain, &c., and exhibited 
the works which were offered in competition ; and about the same period, 
the Royal Academy had organised its exhibitions of paintings, sculptures, 
and engi'avings. 

The first exhibition of industrial productions in France, occurred in 1789, 
being confined to Gobelins tapestry and Sevres china, exposed for sale for 
the benefit of the workmen who were in a distressed condition ; the next 
in 1708, which included sumptuous fm-niture and other articles of luxe; 
the next in 1801, a foiu-th in 1802, and a fifth in 180(3. But it was not tiU 
the restoration in 1819, that the expositions of French industry began to 
take place systematically, and to include that larger and more varied class of 
objects adapted to the requii'emeuts and means of the masses. The eleventh 
and last great exposition took place in tlie Champs Elysees in 1849, (the 
previous one having taken place in 1844.) in a building erected for the pur- 
pose, which covered more tlian fi.ve acres of ground, aud in which the pro- 
ductions of 4494 exhibitors were displayed. The Bavarians and the Belgians 
have of late years imitated the example set by France, and with good suc- 
ces-«. Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, Dublin, and other towns have also 
held similar exhibition.^, being more properly styled bazaars; aud in 1845, 
the great Free Trade Bazaar was held at Covent Garden theatre, which was 
open twelve days. 

We now come to trace what led to the infusion of a more cosmopolitan 
principle in these exhibitions, so signally exemplified in the Great Exhi- 
bition which has just closed. As early as 1845, in consequence of the 
good success which had attended the Paris Exhibition of the preceding 
year, the Society of Arts made some efforts to move our Government to 
promote or favour a somewhat similar exposition in this country, but 
mthout success. . Governments are always slow to " move on ; " aud there 
being no precedent for such a proceeding in the books of the Treasury, 
how could they be supposed capable of doing anything in t)ie matter ? 
Even BO late as tlic year 1848, a proposal to establish a self-supporting 
Exhibition of Britisli Industry, to bo controlled by a lioyal Commission, 
was submitted to Prince Albert (then President of tho Society of Arts), 
and by him laid before tho Court; but again without leading to any result. 
Meantime, however, the Society of Arts had begun to Bubetitute action 
for theory, example for persuasion : — 

"In 1847 (we quote from the introduction to the OfiScial Catalogue) the 
Council of the Society substituted action for tlieory, and, in the midst of 
discouragement, established a limited exhibition of manufactures, pro- 
fessedly as the beginning of a scrie.?. Tlie success of this exhibition 
deteiTnined the Council to persevere, and to hold similar exhibitions 
annually. Accordingly in tho next year the experiment was repeated 
with such greatly increased success, that the Covuicil felt warranted in 
announcing their intention of holding annual exhibitions, as a means of 
establishing a quinquennial Exliibitim of British Industry, to be held in 
1851. Having proceeded thus far, tlie Council sought to connect the 
Schools of Design, located in the centres of manufacturing industry, witli 
the pi'oposed exhibition, and obtained tlie promised co-operation of the 
Boai-d of Trade, tlirough the President. Mr. Labouchere : moreover, with a 
view to prepare a suitable builtling, they secured the promise of a site from 
the Earl of Carlisle, then Cljief Commissioner of Woods and Forests, who 
offered either the central area of .Somerset House, or some other Govern- 
ment ground. In the year 1849, the exhibition, still more successful than 



any preceding, consisted chiefly of works in the precious metals, some of 
which were graciously contributed by her Mnje^ty. To aid in carrying out 
their intention of holding a National Exhibition hi the year 1851, the 
Council of tho Society caused a report on the French Exposition, held in 
1849, to bo made for them and printed. A petition was also presented by 
the Council to the House of Commons, prayiug that they might have the 
use of some public building for the exhibition of 1851, wliich was referred 
to the Select Committee on the School of Design." 

It should be stated that, m Febniary, 1849, M. Buffet, the French 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, addi'ossed a circular to the 
Chambers of Commerce of France, proposing that specimens of skill in 
agi'iculture and manufactures from neighbouring nations should be 
admitted to this approaching exposition, and asking the opinion of the 
manufacturers upon tlie subject. The answer he received, however, v.-as 
not favourable, aud he abandoned the idea ; aud it was this very circum- 
stance, probably, which forced upon the Society of Arts, with Prince Albert 
at their head, the conviction that this wider and more generous field was 
the one they must adopt, if they would enlist the sympathies of the world 
in their project, and render it commercially self-supporting and independent. 

His Royal Highness the Prince Albert, as President of the Society, had 
of course been fully informed, from time to time, of all these proceedings, 
which had received his Royal Highness's sanction and approval ; but 
immediately after the termination of the session of 1849, the Prince took 
the subject under his own personal superintendence. He proceeded to 
settle the general principles on which tho proposed exhibition for 1851 
should be conducted, and to consider the mode in which it should be 
carried out. 

On the 29th June, 1849, the general outUnes of the Exhibition were dis- 
cussed by his Royal Highness ; and from that day to the present time, 
accurate accounts of all proceedings have been kept, and the greater part of 
them printed and published. The minutes of a meeting of several inembei-s 
of the Society of Arts, held at Buckingham Palace on the 30th June, set 
forth as follows : — 

His Royal Highness communicated his views regarding the formation of 
a Great Collection of Works of Industry and Art in Loudon in 1861, for the 
purposes of exhibition, and of competition and encouragement. 

His Royal Highness considered that such Collection and Exhibition 
should consist of the following divisions :^ 

Raw Materials. 

Machinery aud Mechanical Inventions. 

Manufactures. 

Sculpture and Plastic Art generally. 

It was a matter of consideration whether such divisions should be made 
subjects of simultaneous exhibition, or be taken separately. It was ulti- 
mately settled that, on the first occasion at least, they should be simultaneous. 

Various sites were suggested as most suitable for the building ; which it 
was settled must be, on the first occasion at least, a temporary one. The 
Government had offered the area of Somerset House ; or if that were unfit, 
a more suitable site on the property of the Crown. His Royal Highness 
pointed out the vacant ground in Hyde Pai'k on the south side, parallel 
with, and between, the Kensington drive and tho ride commonly called 
Rotten Row, as affording advantages which few other places might be found 
to possess. Application for this site could be made to the Crown. • 

It was a question whether this Exhibition should be exclusively limited 
to British industry. It was considered that, whilst it appears an error to fix 
any limitation to the productions of machinery, science, .and taste, which 
are of no country, but belong, as a whole, to the civilised world, particular 
advantage to British industry might be derived from placing it in fair 
competition with th.at of other nations. 

It was further settled that, by offering very large premiums in money, 
sufficient inducement woulil be held out to the various mauufacturers to pro- 
duce works which, although they might not form a manufacture profitable 
in tho general market, would, by the effort necessary for their accomplish- 
ment, permanently raise the powers of production, and improve the chai-acter 
of the manufacture itself 

Tlic rest of the minute relates to the proposal for forming a Royal Com- 
mission to carry the project into effect ; aud the organisation of a sub- 
scription list in aid. 

After another meeting at Osborne House, on the 14th July, same year, 
his Royal Highness, in order to bring the subject officially to the notice of 
the Government, addressed a letter to the Home Secretary, which opened 
a correspondence that eventuated in tho appointment of a Royal Com- 
mission, dated Svd January, 1850; — 

" In this stage of the proceeding," (we quote again Mr. Cole's Introduc- 
tion.) " it became necessary to place the accomplishment of the undei- 
taking, as far a-s possible, beyond a doubt. Having acquired experience, in 
1845, of the difficulties to be encountered, the Council of the Society of 
Arts felt that the proposal must not be brought a second time before the 
public as an lij-pothesis, but that the only means of succeeding was to prove 
tliat they had l>oth the will aud the power to carry out the E.xhibition. 
The Society had no funds of its own available for the advances necessary 
to be made. The outlay for a building upon* the scale tlien thought of, 
aud for prelimiunry expenses, was estimated at the least at 711,000/. 

"After much fruitless negotiation with several builders aud contractors, 
an agi-ceraent was made between the Society of Arts and the Messrs. 



AN TLLUSTllATKl) CYCL0P7EUIA OF THE GREAT EXIfllUTIOX OF 1851. 



Miiiiclii,y, by wliicli tlio liiUof uiulortook to dppoait 20,000i. na ii prize fund, 
til ui-nct a suitiililo buiMiiig, to find olTiooH, to mlvanco tlio money i-c(|ui»ito 
for nil pnilliniimi'y cxpi^iiscs. mul to tiikc llio wliolo rink of Icirs on coi-taiu 
conditionn. It wlis imiposiMl that tlio rocnipts nri«inK IVoni tlio Kxliibition 
slinnld lio ddidt with (ih follows :— Tlio on.OOO/. prizo fund, tho cost of tlio 
Imildiii)-', and fivo por oont. on all mlvniU'Cfl, wore to bo r(|iaid ill tlio fll'nt 
iiiHtancc : tho rcHidno wuH then to bo divided into throo oiimil pai-t« ; one 
part was to be paid at onco to tho Society of Arts as a fiiml for fiittiro 
exhibitions; out of the other two parts all other incidental ookIk, hucIi as 
those of (,'eneral nianiigeniout, proliininary expenses, &c., wore to bo paid; 
and tho residue, if any, was to bo the roniuncration of the contractors, for 
tlioir outlay, trouble, and risk. Subscipicntly, tho contractors agreed, that 
instead of this division they would bo content to receive sncli part of tho 
surplus, if any, as after payment of all expenses, might be awarded by 
arbitration. This contract was ' made on U3rd Aiigust, ISli), but the 
deeds were not signed imtil tho 7th Novcnilior following. 

" For tho purpose of carrying tho contract into execution on bohalf of the 
Bociety, tho Coiuicil nominated an Hxecutivo Committee of four mcniberH, 
who were afterwards appointed tho H.xccutivo in tlio lloyal ConiiiiiMsion, 
and the contractors their own nominee, lii thus making tlie contr.ict with 
ju'ivate parties for tho execution of wdint, in fact, would liccomo ii national 
object, if tho proposal shoulil bo entertained by tho public, every euro was 
taken to anticipate tho public wishes, and to provide for tho jiublio 
interests. It was foreseen that if tho public identified itsolf with tho 
ICxhibition, they would certainly prefer not to bo indebtcd_to ])rivate enter- 
priso and capital for carrying it out. A provision was made with tho 
contractors to meet this probability, by which it was agreed, that if tho 
'I'reasury were willing to take the place of the coutr.aetors, ami pay tho 
liabilities incurred, the Society of Arts should h.avo the power of deter- 
mining tho contract before tho 1st Febniary, 18-50. In the event of an 
exercise of this power, tho compen.^atiou to be paid to tho Messrs. Munday 
for their outlay and the risk was to bo settled by arbitration. 

" Tho Society of Arts having thus secured the performance of tho 
pecuniary part of the undertaking, the next step taken was to ascertain tho 
readiness of the public to promote the K.xhibition. U has been shown 
that tho proof of this readiness would materially inlbicneo Her Majesty's 
Oovernmcut in consenting to the proposal to issue a lioyal CommisHion to 
superintend tho Kxhibitlon. The Prince Albert, as President of tho 
Society of Arts, therefore commissioned several membei-s of tho Society, in 
the autumn of 1S49, to proceed to the 'manufacturing district* of tho 
country, in order to collect the opinions of tho leading manufaetiirors, and 
further evidence with reference to a Great Exhibition of tho Industry of all 
Nations to bo held in London in the year 1851, in onlor that His Itoyal 
Highness might bring the results before Her Majesty's Oovernmcut.' 
Commissioners were appointed, visits made, and reports of tho results 
submitted to the Prince, from which it appeared that C5 places, com- 
prehending tho most important cities and towns of tho United Kingdom, 
liad been visited. Public meetings had been held, and local committees of 
assistance formed in them. 

It further appeared that nearly 5000 influential poi-sons had registered 
themselves as promoters of the proposed Exhibition." 

This arrangement, wdiich was gladly availed of by the original projocturs 
of the Great Exhibition, was soon found to bo incompatible with tho free 
action of the Commission, the due scope and importance of what was uow 
become a national work. Accordingly, at the first meeting of the Com- 
missioners, held on the 11th January, 1850, the propriety of confirming the 
contract w.as discussed, and negatived, with a handsome and well merited 
acknowledgment, however, "that in agi-eeiug to it at a time when the 
success of the scliemo was necessarily still doubtful, the Messrs. Munday 
evinced a most liberal spirit, that it has hitherto afforded the means of 
defraying all tlio preliminary expenses, and that its conditions ai'B striotly 
reasonable and even favourable to the public." 

The minute adds : — 

"The Commissioners feel that in thus abandoning a contract, which, 
regarded in a pecuniary point of view alone, is luidoubtodly advantageous 
to the public, and resting the success of tho proposed experiment upon 
public sympathy, they have adopted a course in harmony with the general 
feoUngs of the community. It now rests with tho public to determine, by 
tho .amount of their contributions, the character of the proposed Exhibition, 
and the extent of benefit to industry in all its branches, which will result 
from it," &.C. 

The Executive Committee, however, do not appear to have coincided in 
their views, perhaps with a feeling of doubt, not inexcusable uuderthe circum- 
Btimccs, as to how far public sympiathy and the casual contributions result- 
ing from it, would supply the necessary means for so gigantic a project ; 
accordingly they tendered their resignations in the following terms: 

" ' The members of the Executive Committee submit that the dissolution 
by the Royal Comnii.ssion of the contract, which they had been appointed 
fur the pui-poso of carrying out, has changed the nature of their functions, 
and even superseded miiuy of them. They are of o]>iuion, therefore, that 
it is desirable that the Royal Commission should bo left .is free to select 
the beit organisation for carrying their intentions into effect, as if the 
Executive Committee h.id uovor been appointed. They feel that they 
should not be acting in accordance with their sincere wishes of witnessing 
the perfect success of the Exhibition, if they did not come forward to 



express their entiro readiness at onco to [iluco their position in tho handil 
of his Itoyal iJighiicHs tho Princ'.' Albert, and tho Itoyal Coiiiniiiyiioncrii.' 

'• Those resignations were not accepted, and «jmo time clapkcd Ix-foro 
till! executive arrnngoments were concluHivoly mo'lifitd to meet th(i altered 
circuin.itnneei of tlio ciuie." 

Mcaiitiino Princo Albert, and the other promotcrfl of tho great work wcra 
luiceiising ill their oxortions, not only iu wbut related to tho ncctsFary 
arriuigcnionts for tho Exhibition itself, but In awaking the public mind to 
tho UMcful and iiiteresting results which might bo expected to flow from it : — 

"Ills Royal IlighnusK, in his speech at tlie York iMuiquct, Haid, in tho 
name of tho Hoyal Coinniiiisiou ; — 'Although wo perceive in tome countries 
nn appreliension that the uUvantugeu to bo derived from tlie Exhibition 
will bo mainly reapeil by England, and a coiiHCcpieiit diutrust in the cfl'cctH 
of our scheme ujion their own interests, wc must, at the same time freely 
niid gratefully ueknowledge, that our invitation has been received by all 
nutions with whom conmiuniciitiou wmji poisiblo, in that Hpirit of liberality 
and friendship in which it w.is tendered, and that they are making great 
exertions, and incurring great expenses, in order to meet our plans.' Upon 
tho same occasion, Lord Carlisle, one of tho most enlightened men of the 
ago, thought that 'tho promoters of this exhibition were giving a new 
impulse to civilisation, and bestowing an additional reward upon in- 
dustry, and supplying a fresh guarantee to tho nniity of iiationn. Yci, the 
nations were stirring at their call — but not as tho trumpet somidsto battle; 
they wore summoningjthem to tho iieaceful held of a nobler competition ; 
not to build the superiority or iircdominaneo of one country on tho 
doprohsion and iini.stration of another — but where all might strive who 
could do most to embellish, improve, and elevate their common humanity." 

"And I,ord John Russell said, ' I participate with my noble friends who 
liavo spoken, in entertaining lio)>es of tho brightest kind from the Exhi- 
bition of next year. I do so, because I think, as I have said elsewhere, 
that there are not only direct, but many collateral benefits likely to accrue 
from this jirojoot ; and now, let it bo remembered, wo are about to try 
what can bo ell'ected by tho arts of peace. Thirty-five ycai-s J,ago, the 
nations of Europe were emerging from a dreadful, costly, and sanguinary 
war ; in the course of this war, tho various nations of Eurojje cxliibited, 
let it be confessed, all tho virtues of wiu' — hardihood, enterprise, ond 
fortitude, enduring, for the sake of national independence, the greatest and 
most painful sacrifices ; they suffered all this because, whether war was 
wisely or luiwisoly entered into, national iudopendonco was felt to be tho 
prize, for tho preservation of which evci^y effort should be mado. But if 
the nations of Europe then exhibited, with scarcely an exception, those 
virtues which belonged to war, I think, after so many years of peace, it is 
now for us to show that there arc atlvantagos which can be gained from 
peace — that there aro virtues which belong to peace ; and, I tinist, in tho 
Exhibition of next year, we shall show that we can jiromote the comforts 
— that we can enlarge the knowlodgo — that wo can strengthen the kindly 
affections of mankind towards each other, and prodiice effects which, great 
as were the virtues in war, will bo far more profitable to the world gene- 
rally, and more conson.ant with tho lessons which we learn from religion 
and morals, I trust, therefore, wo shall show, not only that peace has 
been victorious as well as war, but that those victories have a far clearer, 
purer glory than any that can be.obtained by combat and the destruction of 
men by each other ; and if wc can accomplish this, not only this country, 
but the nations of tho world, will have reason to be gi-ateful to that Prince 
who has'framed this project, who has persevered in it against all opposition, 
and who is about to reap the reward of exertions attended witli no indi- 
vidual benefit, but with much labour to himself, but which have been 
dictated by a lively concern for the interest and earnest aspiration for the 
true welfare of mankind at large." 

"At a meeting in Eirmiugham, Mr. Cobden. in speaking of the advanbiges 
that might bo expected to flow from this exhibition, said, ' We shall by that 
moans break down the barriers that have separated the people of different 
nntions, and witness one universal republic ; tho year 1851 will bo a memo- 
rable one, indeed : it will witness a triumph of industiy, instead of a 
triumph of .arms. We shall not witness the reception of the allied 
sovereigns after some fearful conflict, men bowing their heads in sub- 
mission ; but, instead, thousands and tens of thousands will cross tho 
Channel, to whom we will give the right hand of fellowship, with the 
fullest conviction that war, rather than a national aggr.audisement, lias 
been the curse and the evil which has retarded tho progress of liberty 
and of virtue ; and we shall show to them that tho people of England — nOt 
a section of them, but hundreds of thousands —ore ready to sign a treaty of 
amity with all tho nations on the face of tho earth.' " 

AVe pass over the intervening struggles, — tho discouraging effects of the 
apathy, not disguised aud_ not to be doubted, on the part of a large 
portion of the industrial' dhs's, — not only agricultural but manufacturing; 
the tardy and nigg.ai-dly tilling up of the 8ubscri]ition list, which amounted 
in April" 1851, to only 75,000/., of which, about UJ.Oi'O/. had been paid in ; 
the doubt as to the necessary funds being procured to pay for the pur- 
chase or hire of a suitable buikUng for an entertainment to which the 
whole would have been invited. Siiffice it to say, th.at on the 15th July, 
1850, a charter of incorporation was granted to the Commissioners (which 
relieved the individual membei-s of it from tho responsibilities under which 
they had previously lain) ; and in August, a guarantee fund of 230,000^. was 
subscribed by a limited number of individuals, some of whom were com- 
missioners, upon security of which, the Bank of Englaud consented to 
make such advances as might be reqiured from time to time. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




THE RUSSIAN DEPARTMENT. 

"THAT portion of the Russian exhibition shown 
in onr Eiigi-aving comprises several articles of 
great value, from their rarity and workmanship, 
and of real beauty of material and design. It 
is a department, however, made up entirely of 
articles for those whose wealth enables them to 
set no limit to the indulgence of their taste?. 
By the pillars stand two gi'eat candelabra, of 
richly-gilt bronze, each ten feet in height, and 
made for fifteen lights. They arc from the manu- 
factory of Krumbigcl, of ]\Ioscow, and were entered 
for duty at the value of 500'. a piece. Looking 
from the centre aisle into the compartment, the 
most striking object is the folding doors of mala- 
chite, thu'teen feet high, panelled and ornamented 
in gilt bronze. Our rcadei-s have probably made 
acquaintance with malachite as a precious stone, 
in brooches, jewel-boxes, and other small articles 
of ornament, but never di-eamt of seeing it 
worked up into a pah' of drawhig-room doors. 
The effect is exceedingly beautiful ; the brilliant 
gi-een of the malachite, with its curled waviness 
like the pattern of watered silk, and its perfectly 
polished siu'face, is heightened by the dead and 
burnished gold of the panellings and ornaments, 
and sets one imagining in what sort of faii-y palace 
and with what other furnishing and decoration 
the room must be fitted to satisfy those who had 
made then* entrance by such precious dooi's. 
They are valued at 6000?. The large vases on 
either side of the compartment are also, pedestals 
and all, in malachite like the dooi-s, ornamented 
in gilt bronze, and are valued at fi-om 1500?. to 
3000?. a piece ; and to show that a whole suite of 
apai'tments might bo decked out in the same 
bright precious stone, there stands to the left 
and not fai' fronn the doors, a mantelpiece, in 
Louis Quatorze style before it ran quite wild in 
confusion of ornamental form ; the fender, hearth, 
fii-e-back, and grate are in bronze gilt and bur- 
nished gold : the mantelpiece in beautifully 
shaded malachite, with just enough of ornament 
for contrast ; and on either side of this splendid 
fire-place are a table and chair of the same material. 
The chairs are valued at 120?. each, the tables at 
400?. In the next compai'tment the malachite 
(carbonate of copper), is exhibited in the strange- 
shaped rough lumps in which it comes from the 
mine, and in every stage of preparation. It is 
found in the copper-mines of Siberia and the 
Ural Mountains, and has lately been met with in 
equally large pieces, and of not less beauty, in the 
Burra Bm'ra mines, in Australi;v. That in the 
Exhibition is from the mines of Prince Demidoff. 
The manufacture of articles of malachite is in 
itself a work of ai*t ; and, smooth as the surface 
seems, it is made up of a multitude' of variously- 
shaped little pieces carefully selected to produce 
particular patterns, and which in their fitting 
require the gi'eatest exactitude. In the doora 
there may be some 20,000 or 30,000 pieces im- 
bedded in cement, made of the malachite itself. 
The doors are of wood covered with copper, the 
malachite being about a quarter of an inch thick. 
The vases are of three-quarter inch cast u-on, and 
the malachite in the same way inlaid. Nor is 
this the only precious stone made to serve such 
large uses in this Russian compai-tment ; there 
are also upon the left-hand side, near the great 
candelabrum, three real jasper vases, one of them 
three feet six inches in height, which has excited 
the admiration of those most skilled in such 
matters by the exquisite cutting of its border of 
leaves, which, as the process is not explained, 
they have come to the conclusion must have been 
done by mounting the diamond, the only minei-al 
of sufficient hardness to cut agate, in some speci- 
ally contrived machine : the value of this vase is 
not stated, but tlie cost of the workmanship alone 
exceeded TOO?., and the vase can certainly not be 
under 2000?. These vases are the property of the 
Emperor, and were made at his own mauufactoiy 
at Katrinburg. The great vase in the centre front 
is in porcelain, from the imperial manufactory at 
St. Petersburg, and is valued at 2500?. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDIA OF THK CHEAT EXIIIBITIOX OF 1851. 



6 



To llio Icfl unci riglit in front aro jewels valued at 40,000/., ami which 
are exhibited by M. liuliu and M. Kammcrci', both crown jewellers at 
St. I'etersliurgh. Nothing cau o.xcood their richnes:) and Rplondour. 

'J'lie jilatc which is on another 
table at the right, and comprises 
a great variety of articles, is en- 
tirely from the workshop of M. 
.Sizikoii'. of Mo.<cow, one caudola- 
bruni shown by wlioin contains 
•J cwt. of silver, and sots forth nn 
incident nieniorablo in Kus.sian 
history. The Didio dc Morti, 
(irand Dnko of Wuseovy, in a 
ilcrco battle with the Tartars, in 
l;iSO, fell severely wounded by a 
blow on the head with a hammer, 
a main weapon of warfare with tho 
Tartars then : the Duke, surround- 
e>l by his staff of knights in nr- 
monr, lay \inder a lir tree, faint 
and, to all appearance, dying, when 
a soldier of hi.i army galloped up 
and announced the battle won — 
the Duke revived and recovered. 
The candelabrum represents the 
lir tree and the above incident. 

(In the same side of the compart- 
ment is an ebony cabinet, designed 
by liarou Clott. one of the first 
artists in the Russian empire. On 
the top i.s a bunch of grapes, in 
amethyst, so modelled, that as tlie 
light falls upon them, they seem 
to show the very juice of the real finiit, and which are sot off by a sprig of 
mountain ash in coral. 

In the background are seen specimeus of inlaying in wood for floore ; 
a Warwick Vase, in hammered iron, from Warsaw ; a cui-ious carpet, very 



bright in its colouin and cnect, made in KiuarcK of Hquirrel likin, KuiToundcd 
each by a border of needlework ; and near thiH otandii a cabinet, ma'lc by 
M. Yancbs, of St. Petcrnburgli, in light wood, with porcelain mcdallioDD 
from tho Imperial manufactory. 



THE KOH-l-NOOR. 



valued at 500/., and a second por- 
celain voHC of azure and gold, from 
Uio Kiunc works. 

Almoxt all the articles cxbibitc'l 
in this Northern Bay aro the pro- 
duce of a system, almont univcmal 
among tho monarcliies of Europe, 
of carrying on Itoyal or National 
manufactories, as a matter of lux- 
ury and OH an exaui]>le of taste. 
.Such in Franco are tho national 
manufactories of Gobelins tapestrj-, 
of Beauvais carpets, and Sdvre.i 
cliina ; in Prussia, of iron casting 
and porcelain ; in Saxony, of por- 
celain ; and in Tuscany, of mosaic 
iu pictra dura. To several of these 
establishments, particularly in 
Russia, and in the Gobelins esta- 
blishment in France, schools 
for instniction in drawing and 
painting as applied to manufac- 
tures are attached for the benefit 
and the due training of workmen. 
In England, it is with difficulty 
that money is obtained for 
schools of design; but although 
we wisely rely on private enter- 
prise for manufacturing excel- 
lence, it would pay us to devote more money to cultivate taste. 

On leaving the splendid department dedicated to luxury and fine arts, 
we find iu the small avenue to the north some more real and utilitarian 
specimens of Russian industry, in a set of very handsome carriages, of a 




-(iKE NIXT PAGE.) 




SCULPTURE, 

The works of Sculp- 
ture, both British and 
foreign, which con- 
duced so highly to 
the docoi-ative cha- 
racter of the Great 
Exhibition, will come 
iu for a full share of 
om" notice. They aro 
important, not only 
for their individual 
merits, but for their 
influence in the cul- 
ture of a pure taste 
for the beautiful and 
truthful in Art ; and 
it cannot be too 
strongly urged, that, 
the same principles 
which regulate in- 
vention and taste iu 
111 at which is called 
! ligh Art, apply in 
degree to every 
1 'I'anch of ornamental 
manufacture. This is 
a point, however, 
upon w-hich we shall 
enter at more length 
on a future occasion. 
The subjects chosen 
for our present page 
are Kirk's "Ariadne," 
a very pleasing speci- 
nien of the romantic 
style, and the " Bosa- 
uuiuda ' of John Tho- 
mas, without doubt 
I aie of his best works, 
the attitude being 
dignified and grace- 
fid ; the costume is 
somewhat medieval 
in character, the same 
feeling pervading the 
monumental details. 




ARIADNF, BY KIEK. 



ROSAMTXSA BT J. THOMAS. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



peculiar national form. These are the Russian drosky, equally available 
on wheels, or in the wintcv on runners, and the favourite cai'riage of RusKinu 
gentlemen. They are on four ivheels, very low, with a strong iron forked 
perch, and a double body, the first of wliich either holds one or two persons 
abrCTSt. There aro speeimens of both kinds : the other merely hokls a seat 
for the driver, who sits close upon his horse or horses ; when a pair are 
used, the correct thing is for a shaft-horse to trot, while the second, har- 
nessed to an outrigger, gambols at a canter beside him. They are voiy 
stylish, and the workmanship deserves unqualified praise, except tho shaftn, 
which are heavy and clumsy. The leather splash-boai-ds round tlio wheels 
are particularly well arranged — no stitching .appears, and they look like 
pieces of soli<l japan ; tho lining and the varnishing arc equally well 
finished. If tho wood is sound and well seasoned, tlicy arc not dear at the 
price set upon them — 47/. A set of harness in the large room is also of a 
fashion peculiar to Russia. It is difficult to explain, to those who Imvo 
never seen them in use, the arrangement of a great birchwood bow, which 
is .an indispensable oraament of Russhau harness, and from which bells nro 
suspended over the hoi-se's neck. 

The staples which constitute the export trade of Russia, are exhibited in 
gre.at v,-u-iety ; one part of the walls is hung with leather, iuoluding choice 
specimens of the " Russia " de.ar to book collectors. Amongst the boots 
and shoes are a pair of dress-boots, made of the tliinncst and licst calf leather 
we ever remember to have seen. It is as soft and flexible as kid, but 
stronger. Wc are informed that the material is much u.wod in Russia for 
full dress boots. If it can bo delivered Ijcro at a reasonable price, a large 
demand is certain. 

On the s.ame counter as the leather are a number of gtockingR, bIiocs, 
and other articles made of felt by the Russian pea.santry. A vci'y curious 
manufacture indeed, well worth the ex.amination of tho tr.idc. Each 
•article seems felted separately, and made solid yet soft. On the opposite 
table are basins, jugs, cups, helmets of the same material japanned inside 
.-md out. They .are light, tough, and not to bo broken. A washhand juo- 
and basm are rather dear- (17s.), but they would be famous articles for sea 
voyages. Gutta porcha has been tried for that purpose, but it melts in 
tropical climates. 

A trophy of sheafs of seed-be.aring agricultur.al produce, very elegantly 
arranged, containing every kind of wheat, barley, o.its, rve, buckwheal, fl.ax, 
hemp, pea.s, and beans, gi-own in tho Russian dominions, occupy tho 
centre of a counter, round which are arr.auged in bowls the seed .and flour 
of these articles.^ Among them our cooks may find it worth while to try a 
small kind of dried pea for winter use, in soups, of a very sweet taste. On 
the walls around are specimens of the famous Russi.an liemps, r.aw and manu- 
factured, with canvas and ropes and twine, which, with gi-ain and tallow 
are too well known to our morch.auts for this last hundi-ed years to need 
further notice. 

The dried provisions include caviare, dried sturgeon, isiurdasg a sub- 
stance resembling isiugl.ass made up In the shape of a nide whip which is 
olitained from a fish called the rnlffa, and used in Russia to make pies ; 
but, perhaps, the article most likely to become a new staple of commerce 
IS the fflazc, now imported, as wo are Informed, for the first time. This 
article, so much used in this country for making sauces and soups in clubs 
hotels, and great houses, is obtained in Russia by boiling down tho fle.sh of 
liori.cd cattle, which, on the plains of the interior, ore only valuable for 
tlieir liulcs and tallow. Anything that can be made out of concentrated 
meat or glaze is so much additional profit. But it is an operation which 
requires care— a littlo burning will spoil tho whole boilin"-. Lieb 
directions for tlic operation iu his last work 
product affords very littlo nourishment. 

The speciincn.9 of iron and copper, in ore and In a manufactured siate, 
are numerous. Tlie iron, some of which is of a verj- fine quality, , is a 
matter of mterciit to us ; because Rus-ia, in conjunction with Spain and 
Sweden, supplied most of the iron consumed in this country for more than 
1 00 years, between the tune that tho timber for charcoal in" Surrey, Sussex 
Kent, Stafrordshirc, and Wnreest.rsliire, w.os exhausted, and the suceessfiil 
application of coal to smelting iron, by Abraham Darby, at the Colebrok 
Da e works, m 1 ,1.3, and the ai plication of the use of blowing cylindci-s, 
instead of bellows, at tho Carroii Works, set up by Smraton in 1760. 

Our connexion with the Russian iron is of very ancient date. In 1B69 
tiie hngheh obtained by treaty tho riglit of seeking for and smelting iron 
ore, on condition that they should toaeli tho Russians tho art of smelting 
this metal and pay on the cxi)ortation of every ,iound, one halfpenny. 

i,very branch of iiuning rfcoivod great dcveloptncnt un.ler I'eter the 
Oreat, who seems to have ncgloctod no branch of jnaterial pro.sperity. It 

ose to 



big gives 
as commonly conducted, the 



was under his reign and direct patronage that the Demidoff family rose t 
importance as miners, and obtained the property which has Tendered them 
ever since one of the wealthiest families in Kurnpe. Up to 1784. Great 
J.ritam importc.l a continually increasing quantity of iron from Russia, 
winch in that yep amounted to forty thousand tons: after th.at period, in 
consequence ot improvements iu machinery for smelting by co.al, tho im- 
fin^^l °f^, rJ^ ''"'■'""'* '" "''""' "^ t''0"™»'l tons In 1805, .^nd con- 
CZo^^ I =""■'•■,•!'' '.° '*^^' """'' P>-o>«Wy, is about the same now. 

hW. ?i „ ,°r .T" "'' '", "'" "■"^'''' '^=^'«"1 ^- C. N. D. old sable iron, 
w hich is used for tlio manufacture of stoci 

r,J!7'rlT"''"'' ""/ "■''i'*-"™' exhibited have all been made at one of tho 
,.fr I? >"™ufoetones, where the work is done, under the inspection 

at Tula, ^^here, besides muskets and (ide-arms. tho iron-work of horse 



hai-ness, iron bedstead.s, files, chains, &c., are made. This est.abUshment 
Was burnt in 1834, according to the rumour of the day, by the workmen, 
who hoiked to get rid of the forced labour imposed on them by the cease- 
less wars of the Emperor iu Turkey, Persia, .and the Caucasus. Under the 
Russian Royal Factory System, increased work does not give increased 
wages. But the Tula establishment was rebuilt. 

In the Nortli C4-.ilIery, the Emperor exhibits, with other fur.s, a black 
cloak made from the neck of the silver fox, which he has valued at 3500^. ; 
this valuation brought out a letter from l\Ir. Nicholay, the well-known 
furrier, who offers to make a finer cloak for 1000^., and explains that black 
and silver fox skins, so much valued in Russia, and so little used here, are 
chiefly imported into London from the territories of the Hudson's B.ay 
Company, and then purchased up for the express purpose of " being 
fniugi.'lcd into Russia as occasion m.ay offer.'' Whtit a commentary on the 
Russian protective system ! 

In the back of the same ease as the furs, are two splendid specimens of 
twilled shawls, by a Cossack woman, from white goats' hair, of wonderful 
flnouess. One of these shawls is the propci-ty of the Empress, and justly 
valued at the price of Brussels lace. 

Russi.an manufactures are for the most part inferior and dear, while 
mineral, and vegetable, and animal ]iroduce could be supplied in unlimited 
quantities, at a profit, if roads were m.adc and facilities given to trade. But 
Russia is essentially a military country, prepared to take advantage of 
events, and probably the Emperor considers that a large trade might 
produce inconveniently pacific tendencies in his land-owning nobles. 



THE KOH-I-NOOR— ANCIEKT A'ND MODERN HISTORY. 

The following interesting particulars relative to the great diamond of tlie 
Exhibition will probably be not unacceptable to our readers. The Ki>li-i-noor 
is one of the most valuable di.amouds known, there being only two others 
estimated at a higher price. One of these is the great Russian sceptre 
diamond, a perfectly round and beautifully cut brilliant, the finest diamond 
in the world, and valued .at 4,800,000?. ; the other belongs to the little 
kingdom of Portugal, but is uncut ; it is the size of a turkey's egg. and is 
supposed to be still more valuable, but it has never yet been entrusted to a 
lapidary. The Koh-i-noor has long enjoyed both Indiau .and European 
celebrity, and ha.s accordingly been the subject of much tr.aditionary fable 
as well as historic record. Hindoo legends trace its existence back some 
four or five thousand years, and it is mentioned in a heroic poem of great 
antiquity, still preserved, called Mahaharata, which would imply that it is 
one of the most ancient of all the valuable precious stones that have come 
down to our times. The poem in question details its discovery in the 
mines of the South of India, and states that it was worn I'y Kama, King of 
Auga,, one of the warriors slain during wliat is called the Great Indian War. 
The date of this war is fixed by other and trustworthy testimony in the 
yetu' 3001 before Christ, or nearly 6,000 years ago. No mention is made of 
the diamond iu Indian record or fable from this period up to the year 56 
before Christ, when it is referred to as being the property of Vikram.aditya, 
the Rajah of Nijayin, from whom it descended to his successors, the Rajahs of 
Malwa, until tlie principality was subverted by the Mohammedan conquerors, 
into whose hands it fell, with other spoils, said to be of greater value than were 
ever before or since amassed in India. Whatever may be thought of the 
legend th.at gives so high an antiquity to the Koh-i-noor, it might be expected 
that sonic more tnistworthy information would be av.ailabie when we come 
down so low as tiie beginning of the fourteenth centuiy. The Mohamme- 
dans, iu their turn, became, about this period, subjugated ; the principality 
of Malwa was invaded and overrun by tlie armies of Ala-adin, the Sultan of 
Delhi, in 130G ; and, according to tlic autobiography of Sult.an Baber, whose 
book is of undoubted authenticity, it became the property, with other 
trea.surc.s, of the Sultan Ala-adiu. That it did become the property of the 
sultans of Deli, and remained for a long period in the possession of that 
dynasty, there can be no doubt, although some ancient Indian historians 
ascribe its possession to fraud or treacliery, and otliers to still less worthy 
motives. "VVhcu we reach a period of about 200 years back we get upon 
satisfactory ground, and here m,ay be said really to commence the modern 
histoiy of this singular diamond, .loan B.aptiste T.avernier, an entei^prising 
and intelligent French traveller, and ,aii eminent jeweller, although dignified 
by the French monarch with the title of Paron I'Aubonne, visited India about 
the year 1G60, for the purpose of luirchasing diamonds .and other jewels. 
His profession and his personal cliaracter would appear to have recom- 
mended him to the favourable attention of the nobles of the Court ot 
Delhi, .and even of Auruugzcbe himself, by whose command Tavernier 
was permitted to inspect, and handle, and weigh the jewels in the imperial 
cabinet. Among them was one which far surpassed all the rest in size and 
value. Tavernier describes it as rose cut, the shape of an egg cut in two 
lengthwise, of good water and gi'cat transparency, and weighing 319 ratis, 
which ho says is equal to 280 of our carats. There is but little doubt 
th.at the di.amond thus examined and described by T.aycrnier, as forming 
one of tho collection in the Delhi cabinet 200 ycare ago, wa.? the Koh-i-noor. 
Baber, the Jfogul I'^inperor, to whose autobiogi'aphy wo have already 
referred, obtained a diamond corresponding exactly witli this in the course 
of his conquchts, and it passed eventually into the possession of the ruling 
family of Kabul. Niidu' Shah, on his occupation of Delhi in 1739, 
compelled Mohammed .Shah, the great-grandson of Aurungzebe. to give up 
to him everything of value that the imperial treasury possessed; and his 




FUKEIGN KAVE, LOUKIXG WEST.— ZOLLVEUEIN Ais'D liELGIA>i UEl'AKTMENT.S, 



10 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDLV OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



THE MANUFACTURE OP NEEDLES. 

The art of needle-making, in many of its departmentfl. presents much that 
is gouemlly, or, to use a teim commoii-placo enough, j>opularIy interesting 
to a larpe class of re-idors ; yet, rcmoJ'kably little ia kuown as to the man- 
ner in wliich the tiny article in question is jiroduoed ; and of tho immense 
number of the " needleuaing population." but a small ]n"oportion have a 
due conception of the operations and processes through which a needle 
goes, from its rough form to the beautifuily poIiBhed insCmment used oft 
" by ladyc fair, and maido of low degree." 

Needles, as all our readers are aware, are made of steel, tho steel being 
made into thin wire, of a diameter proportionate to tho fineness of the 
needles to be made. As the wire 18 bruviylit to tho factory in circular bun- 
dles, the fii-st operation is untying them and cutting the wire into certain 
determiuate lengths. A pair of shears, of large dimensions, arc fixed to the 
wall of tlie cutting shop, having tho blades uppermost ; one limb is fastened, 
the other is loose. The workman is pro\nded with a gauge liy which the 
length of the wire to bo cut off iit determined. Uncoiling the bundle of 
wire, he puts the end into the gauge, and placing the serios of wires forming 
the thicknc.'tB of the coil between the blades of the shears, ho presses against 
the loose limb with his thigh, aud, by moving tlie coil up and down to 
assist the cutting action, he speedily sevem the lengths from the coil. Pro- 
ceeding thus, he cuts off a aeries of length;? till the coil ia exhausted : out 
of one coil he may tlms obtain as many as 40,000 distinct wirci. Tiio coil 
being circular, it is evident that oacli individual wire must partako somewhat 
of its curvilinear shape ; in fact, each is fur from being straight. Aaonoofthe 
requisitesof a needle is that it shall be straight, tho next process is to straighten 
all the'wires. Supposing two of tho curved wires to be placed in the palm of 
one hand, and rubbed quickly, backwoi'ds and forwards, by the fingers of tho 
other, a slight straightening would ensue ; but, if tho needles were removed 
to a hard, fiat surface, as a table, the operation would be much faeditated. 
If, however, a dozen or two of wires were to be placed on the table, and so 
kept as to lie close to one another, and then rubbed, the piccea, rolling one 
upon another, would soon b« straightened, as the round part of one w.tuld 
roll upon the flat part of another, and thus, by the continuance of tho pro- 
cess, the whole wire^ would be straightened. 'Vh'm is, in fact, tho rationale 
of the process carried on at this stage of the m.-innfacturo. Two rings of 
iron are provided, some 3 inches in diameter, j inch broad, and the »amo 
thick; these are placed a distance apart on a flat stone slab some 18 or 
20 inches from the ground. Tho distance between tho rings is such, that, 
when the wires are placed within them, tho ends ai-o flu!<h or even with the 
outer surfaces. Supposing a number of wires arc placed tlius, uufficient to 
lill tho interior of the rings one-half of their diameter or so ; tho wholo ai-e 
fiistened tightly in, and placed in a furnace and heate^l to a rod heat. 
They are then taken nut, placed on the slab, and tho fastening removed, so 
that all the wires are free to move one upon auother. Tho workman then 
takes a piece of cui-ved iron, some inch-and-adialf broad and half-inch thick ; 
he places the curved or convex side of this on tho top row of wires between 
the rings, and pressing forcibly by means of his hands at cither end of tho 
iron, works tho rings briskly backwards and forwards on tho slab, By this 
means the wires aro kept rolling upon each other, and continually shifting 
their places, thus presenting a new portion of their surfaces to tho action 
of their neighbours. The shifting of tho wires may oaaily be ascertained 
by inserting a piece of cold wire, which, being black, is easily observable 
among its red ueighbourB, near the bottom of the ring. In a few seconds it 
will be Been at the top, its course being distinctly traced, winding its eccen- 
tric way amongst the others. When cold, the wires aro all straight. 
The next operation i% the pointing. In order to save time, each wire 
is long enough to form two needles; each is therefore pointed at both 
ends. The grind-Honcs by which the wires are pointed arc of small 
diameter, not more than 10 or 12 inches, but they revolve at nn immonBC 
velocity, the moving power being generally water-wheels. Each gi-inder 
sits on a low stool, in front of the grindstone, a Gmall trough of wator being 
placed before him. Takuig up GO or 100 needles, according tu tiioli- quality 
he places them on the palm of the right lnud, so that tho ends project 
over the length of tho forefingor. Next placing tli<- left-hand fingew on 
those, the tliumb grasping tho back of tho right, ho is enalih'd m to move 
the whole range of wires that they may rotate vf\i\\ ease on their axis, and 
yet without rolling over one another. He then applies tho points of tho 
wn-es to the rapj.% revolving grindstone : if he hold thorn always in one 
direction, the action of the stone would be fiueh, that tho points would bo 
bevilled off like chisels ; but by the fingers ho makes them nil to wvolve 
thus giving to each a gently tapering and perfectly round point. As tho 
wu-es arc apt to project unequally over tho finger, thus presenting one wire 
longer than another to the grindstone, the workman every now and then 
Btrikes the pomts gently against an upright Hat faced piece of timber, Bomc- 
what in the s.ime mann-r as o pORoii slmffling a pack of cards makes them 
aU even by knocking their ends upon the table. On tho wires becoming 
rod-hot. the workman dips them into tho trough of water plocpd before 
him. A brilliant stream of fiery sparks is oontinvially iiasfling from the 
pomts. The matter thus evolved being inhaled into tlie lungs of the 
workmen, formeriy rendered them a peculiariy short-lived race The 
deletenous products are now. however, by the tise of a powerful fan. drawn 
away from the zone of respiration as soou as they are pro.luced. The trade 
IS now as healthy as any other. The operation of grinding is exceedmgW 
mterestmg, and presents an exemplification of the dexterity attainable by 



long practice in any one broooh; but this remark is equally applicable to 
many other departments in the manufacture of needles. A good workman 
can point upwnrrls of 10,000 la an hmu-. It is amusing to see the rapidity 
with which uo will take up a hondful of wii-os, point an end of them all, 
and turning them bo as to present tho other ends to tho stone, lay them 
aside perfectly pointed at both ends. 

The wires thus pointed 01*0 next token to tho •' stftmping shop," and hero 
the wire first gains its approach to a needle. Such needle is to be rounded 
at the head, and have a hole made there, called the eye, aa also an indented 
channel on each side, called tho "gutter" of the head : tho stamping makes 
the round form, and marks the place of the eye-hole. A wooden-framod 
stand, or table, is provided with a masoivc anvil, on the upper sui-face of 
which is placed u die or design intaglio ; a weight is suspended by a 
rope over a pulley placed obove tho table, and plays between two 
vortical guides; tho same design as in the dio is made on tho lower 
Ruifaco of the weight, but in relief, or jirotruding from the surface. 
The lower end of tho rope sustaining tliis weight is provided with 
a fltinup, in which the workraou can place his foot. Standing before the 
table, hu tAkes n number of needles in his left hand, and with Iuh right, 
places each wire exactly in itti centre on tho lower anvil or die, and 
letting tho weight drop suddenly, by raising his foot, the design is impressed 
on the centre of tho wire, on both sides. The round oircles aro the 
place.'! through which the eye-holes are to be punched; they are very 
slightly indented at this stogo, merely enough to denote their situation, 
By depi-esfling his foot, tho workman lifts the weiglit, and places another 
wire on the die, allowing tho weight to drop suddenly, as before : tho 
imprcision is mode, and the wire oast aside, to bo replaced by another, and 
so on. So rapidly is tho process gone through, that it is actually induoivc of 
an optical deception. The workman takes cacli wire from bis left hand, 
places it upon the die, withdraws it, and throws it aside to take up another 
BO very quickly, that a quick-cyod witness of tho operation actually believes 
that it is but one and the same neodlo that tho operator ia moving out and 
in. Considerable nicety is required in the stamping, as each wire is to ho 
pl.icod RO that it will be stnick exactly on the centre ; the chief guide to 
aid liim is tho eye ; and so rapidly does he become aware of its being 
wrong placed, that he arrests the fall of tho weight at any jiarticular point 
of its descent; indeed, the facility with which he can do this by the im- 
mediate action of the foot is not the least remai'kable matter obsei'vablo in 
this department. 

Tho oyc-holos are next to be punched. Tliis operation is generally per- 
formed by little hoys. A small scrow-puuch is used for this purpose. Tho 
lower end of the punch in provided with two projecting poiuts placed at a 
distance from each other, exactly equal to that between the indentation 
formed in tho wire, through which tho eyeholes are to bo made. The 
littlo operator, taking a number of the stamped wires, spreads them out like 
a fan, and placing each one on the centre of a small slab, brings down tho 
upper slab, which makes tho hulea in tho wire forming tho oyes. Tliis is 
a very nice operation, as the slightest misplacement of tho wires, so that 
the centres were not in the right places, would involve tho spoiling of 
each, from tho punches passing through wrong places. To guide tho 
operative, a small indentation is placed in the lower slab, or bed ; into this 
the wire ia placed : by means of this, a delicacy of touch, and a quickness 
of the eyesight, almost every wiro ia placed on the slab, and properly 
punched in the exact places. 

Each of tho wires bos two moulded partfl, gutters, and eye-holes in tho 
centre ; the next operation is tho dividing of these so as to form two 
needles. The first step in dividing the wires ia what is termed "spit- 
ting," that is, passing n fine steol wire through the eyes of perhaps a 
hundred mres, as there are two eyes there are also two wires j when they 
are all thus spitted, by bending them backwards and forwards betweon 
the handw, they are broken in tlio ceutro. one half remaining on each wiro. 
Before dividing tlicm, howovor, the protubemnces on cither side, are filed 
off, by placing tho wires (spitted) on a convex block, keeping them tight 
thereon by means of a leather band, while the workman uses a amooth file. 
When broken, each needle lias a tquare head. It is nicely moulded by 
means of a veiy small grind.stono. 

We have thus far tiacod our piece of wiro to a very rospectablo-looking 
nccdlo ; but it is by no moans fit for use : to make it so, it has to undergo 
many other procoBsos. Tho needle, at tho stago wo have an-ivcd at, is m 
soft that it cooi bo bent between tho fingcra as easily as a piece of lead of 
the fame diameter. They thoivforo require to be hardonod. Provious to 
the hardening, tho "Roft-straightcning" is to bo gone through. This 
operation is meant to restore tho Rti-aightue8.s of each needle, lost by the 
repeated processes which it has gone through, as "pointing," "etamping," 
kQ. Tho "Eoft-Btraightoning" is simple. The opemtive Bits at a bench 
having a flat surface. Placing tho needles panillol to one another on thii, 
he jirosaeB a convex piece of iron on each of the needles, rolling it over and 
over, until it is straightened. So quickly ia the operation ctfected, that 
a good workman may Btrnightcn upwards of 3,000 needles in an 
hoiir. The stmightcned needles are then hardened by being heated to 
redne«8 in an ovou or furnace, and suddenly plunged into cold water or oil. 
This makes them bo brittle that they can bo broken ojt easily as glass. 
They require, therefore, to bo " tempered." This is effected by placing 
them on a hot plate, and moving them about bo as to present each needle 
111 succession to the action of the plate. As soon as they have all acquired 
a particular colour, they are removed. Wicn cold, they are then beauti- 
fully elastic. As they are, however, slightly distorted by the action of the 



biographer, a secretary, specifies a pcshlccuh or present by Mohammed Shah 
to his conqueror of several magnificent diamonds. According to the 
family and popular tradition, Mohammed Shah was in tho habit of wearing 
the great diamond in the front of his turban, and en the first interview 
between himself and his wily conqueror, the latter iusistcil upon exchanging 
turbans as a proof of his regard and frieiuUhip. In whatever way ho 
obtained it there is little doubt that the great diamond of Aumngzebe. 
which WAS then famous all over the ea'5t, was in tho possession of 
Mohammed Shah at the time of the Persian inva.sion, and that it then 
changed masters and became, according to the concurrent testimony of 
all the Indian writei-s and bistoriana, the property of Nadir Shah, and it 
was when it came into hia hands that it first obtained the name of tiie 
Koh-i-noor. Upon the death of Nadir tho diamond, which he had wrested 
from the unfortunate representative of the house of Timur, became tho 
property of Ahmed Shah, the founder of the Abdali dynasty in the 
kingdom of Kabul. It is gcnorally believed that Ahmed Shah prevailed 
upon tho young sou of Nadir Shah to show him the diiunond. and then 
retained possession of it, Shahrick, the young man. not having the means 
of enforcing its recovery We have thus traced the Koh-i-noor to Kabul, 
aiid its Bubacqucnt fortunes are no longer matter of doubt or question. 
The jewel descended to the successors of Ahmed Shah, and when Mr. 
Elphinstone was at Peshawur he saw it worn by Shah Shooja as an armlet, 
surrounded with emeralds. When Shah Sliooja was driven from Kabul, 
be became the nominal guest and actual prisoner of linnjcot Sing, who 
spared neither importunity nor menace to get poRsession of it, and 
ultimately in 1813 lie induced or compelled tho fugitive monarch to 
resign the precious gem, presenting him on the occasion with a lac and 
25,000 rupees, or about twelve thoufiand pounds sterling. Shah Shooja's 
own account, however, differs materially from this. Ho states that 
Ruiycet Sing assigned to him In exchange for it the revenues of three 
large villages, not one rupee of which he ever realised. Runjeot was 
highly elated by tho acquisition of this valuable gem, and wore it as au 
nrmlet on all state occoBions. When ho waa dying an attempt was mado 
by the persons about hira to porauado him to make tho diamond a pre- 
sent to the great Indian idol, Juggernanth, and, according to the stat^j- 
meut of tho parties iutorostod, tho priests, he intiinatcd his assent by an 
inclination of his hoatl. The treasurer, however, in whose charge it wils, 
refused to deliver it up without some bettor wan-ant, and Runjeot, dying 
before a written order could bo mado out and signed by hun, tho 
Koh-i-noor was preserved for a while to his successors. It is frequently 
mentioned in the nan-ativo of stato coremonials and public festivals after 
this period, and appoam to havo boon oooasionaliy worn by Rhurreuk 
Slug and Shu Sing. After the murder of tho latter monarch, it remained 
in tho Lahore treasury until the supersession of Dhulcep Sing and the 
annexation of tho Punjab by tho British Qovcrnment, when the civil 
aulboritiofl took poesossion of the Lahore treasury, under the stipulations 
previously mado, that all the property of the state should bo confiscated 
to tho East India Compauy, m part payment of the debt due by the 
Lahore Qovornmont and of tho expenfies of the war. It was at tho same 
time stipulated that the Koh-i-noor, as being a state jewel, and not i-eadily 
convertiblo into rupees, should bo prosentod to tho Queen of England. 
Such is tho strange history of certainly one of tho most extraordinary 
diamonds in tho world. After the Company became possessed of the gem, 
it was taken possession of by Lord Ualhousio, aud sent by him to Eogland 
in charge of two officora. We have no record of tho precise time when 
the jowol was cut and polished. One account states that tho Italian 
lapidaiy by whom it was cut, having performed his ta.sk in nn unwork* 
manlike manner, was immediately executed. A close examination of the 
facetB shows that thpyaro vciy inartistically formed and boar by no means 
the high polish which a diamond of its gi'cat purity ought to exhibit 
This, with its peculiar shape will account for the small amount of refraoti- 
bility it displays, and is evidence of its having boon out and polished 
before the laplclary's art had arrived at its present degree of perfection. 
Its weight has been eonsiderably reduced by the cutting, and tiic opinion 
of the mo.st eminent jewellers and lapidaries in this country is, that it will 
require some further reduction before it can bo considered a peifect gem. 
Tho flood of rod light which tho sun now pours in upon it through tho 
orimBou cloth covering and the rich colour of which is reflected by tho 
numerous jets of ga'?, is evidently a most injudioious arrangement, and ill 
calculated to display the brilliancy of tho diamond, which will require to 
undergo another cliango of acouory and decorations before it rovoala its 
full splendour and beauty. 



The old phrase of "spoiling tho Egyptians " was amusingly reversed on 
Thursday-week, in the case of a family of Egyptian Arabs, consisting of a 
tall old Sheik, in oriental tatters; two or three women, jealously concealed 
in voluminous linon, by no means of tho whitest, and four little boya, who 
might havo boosted that their faces had never been washed since their birth. 
On arriving at the barriers, all tho iutorpretors in tho establishment were 

fiut into requiaition to explain to tho Sheik the incvitubleness of the pre- 
iminary shilling, but .ill in vaiu, He had neither money nor compre- 
heiiHion, aud the gordian knot was at length out by permitting him and hia 
distinguished family to go in on credit. Thus, instead of a Jew or Gentile 
"spoiling the Egyptians," the Egyptian succeeded in spoiling the roj-al 
commissioners ; and tho case deserves to be recorded as the first successful 
attempt at tho Crystal Palace. 



PRINCE ALBERT'S CACHMERES. 

Tub contribution of his Royal Highnsas Prince Albert has been an obj.:ct 
of great interest to all interested in the woollen and wor.''ted manufacturea 
of this country, and not the leas so bscauao it indicates the ommently 
practical turn of the mind of tho Royal contributor whose interest in tlie 
progress of industry never flag^. The specimens ft manufacture are 
arranged in a tasteful gloss case, appropriately placed in the Central Avenue, 
in front of the department to wliich they belong, as a trophy of that chws 
of articles. They consist of two shawla, two dross piccea, and a specimen 
of coarse woollen cloth manufactured from the wool of the Cochmere goats 
kept by hia Royal Highness Prmee Albert in Windsor Park; aud the 
experiment has been made at hii suggestion, and for him, by Messrs. T. 
Gregory Brothere, of Shelf, near Halifa,x, and Messrs. John Hidey and Soni 
of Bromley near Leeds, 

In the raw state, the Cachmeit goat's wool Is very pcculior in its charac- 
ter, consisting, as it does, of two distinct materials. Those ore known as 
wool aud kemp. The wool is soft, beautifully rich, superior even to the 
finest Continental lamb's wool, and is divisible into distinct qualities. The 
kemp is a coarse, rough-looking hau-, and is consUntly avoided by the 
manufacturer, as tho smallest admixture of it with the wool gives the fabric 
an oppearaucc of coarseness, thi-ough its harahuosa. Interiuinglcd as these 
two wools are with each other when shorn from the goat, it becomes a 
matter of great dilfloulty to separate the one from the other, and, as there 
is no meclumical invention for doing this, it has to be effected by hand, 
and this ia done fibro by fibre, a difficult and tedious process. To have 
done this in tho ordinary course of trade would havo entailed an expense 
of no ordinary chracter ; but it was no sooner known in the woollen districts 
of Yorkshire, that the Prince desired that an experiment in the manufac- 
ture of the wool from his goats should he made, than there were hundreds 
of volunteers to do the preliminary work of aepamting the fine from the 
coarse haira ; aud from the highest to the loweat in station, all set about 
their work earnestly, under the direction of Messrs. Haley and Messrs. 
Gregory; aud the ouly remuneration given, or required, was an elegantly 
engraved certificate, with a view of tho Crystal Palace as an ornament, 
stating that the holder had been employed in forwarding the experiment 
of the Prince in the maoufaoturo of Cochmere wool ; and it is a singular 
fact, that for some months upwards of 1000 persons of all grades were so 
employed, according o-s their leiauro enabled them to devote attention to 
this " labour of love." 

In the manufacture of th« shawls considerable diflHeulty arose, from the 
impossibiUty of again divldhig the small quantity of wool produced in 
order to mako warp aud weft yai-ns, bo that the fabric is not so fine as 
might be expected, or indeed as appeara in tho dress goods where the warp 
is composed of silk. The white shawl, however, has a very delicate appear- 
ance in colour, aud the extreme fineness of material is easily seen on 
examination. The dreaa goods will attract mc^t attention from the lady 
visitors; but then it must bo rcmombered that they ore ouly pai'tly com- 
posed of the Caohmero wool, the warp being of silk. The white dress is 
very elegant in its appearance, the pattern being of the \vild strawberry, 
prettily put together to form a "trail." The larger pattern of the coloured 
dress is not so good, tJiough the effect la broad, for it appeal's to have been 
elongated in the weaving. The dresses are the production of Messrs. 
Gregory, and the shawls are manufactured by Messrs. Haley, who have also 
wrovight up the " kemp " into the specimen of coarse wOoHen cloth placed 
in tlie centre of the display ; and oa this hitter is produced from a material 
hitherto considered worthless, and by that means mokhig use of tiie wliole 
produce of the goat, these gentlemen ore dtsc-i ving of all praise fnr the 
manner in which they havo seconded the efforts of the Prince in thw 
matter, through tlio medium of Mr. Pollock, of Leeds, who interested 
himself largely in tho experiment. 

How far tho manufacture of Cachmere wool may prove of ralue in au 
oeonomic point of view, remains to be seen ; but the present experiment 
is not the less interesting because tiie ultra-utilitarian may consider it will 
not " pay." Under any circumstauces, tlio greatest credit is due to the 
I'rince for promoting the present attempt ; and liad it doue nothing more 
than prove the tarnost feelings entertained towards him by those engaged 
ill the preliminary labour of assorting tho wool, it would have baen a 
source of gi'atiflcation to every loyal subject. 



THE ZGLLVERKIN DEPARTMENT. 

Thk Engi-aving standing across the eighth and ninth pages gives a com- 
prehensive view of thot portion of the Eoat Nave (looking west) apprn- 
priated to tho Zollvorein Department, tho courts of which branch off nght 
and left The largo tent-like object bounding the foreground is the tent 
containing the fumouB Dante window from Milan; tho equestrian statue to 
the rear is the colossal Godfrey de Bouillon ; and in tho foreground are the 
Ama7on. by Kiss, of Berlin, ond the Bavaiiau Lion, which we shall take 
occasion to speak more fully ab'^ut in a future number. Around arc 
various objects of Sculpture, which have been very libei-ally contributed by 
the States belonging to the Zollvcreiu. 



AN ILI;UST11ATED CYCLOl'yKDIA OF THE GIUIAT J'lXillHITION OF 1H31. 



11 



lu-at, curli iiro.llo U Klnil^;liteiiO(l hy Riving it ii tiny Mdw witli a tiny 
immmer on ii Rniall Ktcol luivil. Tliis process ia noceusarily todioufi. It is 
called the " Imnl-straiKlitening." 

Tlio noodles. tlninglniow properly tompci-cd.iiroBtill ronKli luid un|'nlislie.l 
on their .siirfaeo : to oljviato tliis, an<l make IIi.mm liriRlit, is the next of tho 
series nf operations. Tho process is termed the " soonrinj;." A Btriii of 
eanvais is laid on the table, .and an immense number of ncedh-B are placed 
on tliia, all Jiarallel to one .inother ; a jiretty larfce alhnvaneo of Koft soap, 
Kwoet oil, and powdered .stono found in tho noigldjourhood of Hcdilitelli 
ia then pluoed over them, and the whole tigiitly wrappeil and curdou 
up into shapo. A considcral'le number of these bundles being pre- 
pared, they are placed boneatli a moving table of wood, working to and 
fro in a wooden bed. The needles by this means are rubl)ed one agniiist 
another, until, in process of time, they are smootlud and partly polislicd 
on tlieir surface. After being subjerted to the ai:liou of this maeliine, the 
rolls arc untied, and tho needles washed : they aro then replaced in tlio 
canvass, and tied up with a fresh supply of soft soapj oil, and emery, and 
subjected to tho action of tho scouring maehine. This is repeated ROVeral 
times, till thoy nl'o pei'fectly smooth. After being wasliod for tho last 
time, the needles aro jilacod among some dry «aw-(hist, and worked to and 
fro in a peculiarly-shaped eoppin' tray till they are all perfectl.y dry. At this 
stage a very curious operation is observable : tho needles being mixed up 
■with tho saw-dust, it becomes a matter of importance to separate tlieni with 
rapidity ; this is effected in a manner as simple as it is effectual. Tlie tray 
in which the needles and saw-dust are placed tapers up to an edge, which 
li.as no margin, thus affording a place over which matters can pass without 
obstruction! The workm.an moving the tray i-ather rapidly up and down, 
causes the needles and saw-dust to approach the edge : the saw-dust lieing 
lightest, flies off, tho needles remain ; but suck is the dexterity of tho 
■workman, that, although the needles are seen glancing half over the edge, 
still it is an exceedingly rare occurrence for one to pass completely over : 
thus in less time than we have taken to writ(; the above half-dozen lines, 
the workman can separate thousands of needles from their attendant saw- 
dust. As may be supposed, the needles from this rough proceeding are 
lying in .all imaginable positions. To make them parallel to one anotlier is 
the next oper.ation. This is easily effected by placing them in an oldong 
tin tray, and givmg it a peculiar shake, in a remarkably short sp.ace of time 
some thousands are parallelis-sd. But, although they aro parallel to one 
another, still they arc wrongly situated for subsequent operations — the 
head of one may be next to the point of another ; it is necessary that 
1 he heads of all .sliould lie one way. tho points another. To attempt to do 
this by singling out each individual needle, would be a hopeless ta,sk where 
nullions have to be operated upon. By a very simple contrivance — we 
may say maehiue. for it saves Labour — the operation is effected most rapidly. 
A small piece of linen rag is wi"ap]ied round the forefinger of the operative, 
and. placing a few thousands of the parallelised needles before her on tho 
table, she piusscs the covered finger along one side of the heap, the finger of 
tho other hand on the other side; the needles having tlieir points at one 
side stick into the linen rag : these are placed by themselves. In 
this way all the needles with their heads lying one -way are left by 
themselves. 

The next operation is "drilling" the eyes. Prom the nature of the 
operation of " punching," the holes aro rather rough and uneven : it is 
to remove this, and to countersink the holes, so that the sharp edges may 
be taken off. that the operation of drilling is gone through. As the needles 
l-iy this time are hard, they have to be softened by the application of heat, 
so that the drill may not be spoiled by the hard met.al. For this purpose 
a number of needles are placed upon a bar of iron, with their heads 
projecting over the edge a short distance : these are then applied to a red- 
hot bar. -^vhich reduces tho temper of the needles, causing the head to 
assume a beautifully bluo colour : this process is called the " blueing." 
A number of tho blued needles ai'e next taken by the driller — generally a 
little gii'l — and placed beh.ind a flat steel bar, with their heads projecting 
slightly above its upper edge. The operative sits exactly in front of a 
little drilling-lathe. 171 which a small drill is placed, and made to revolve 
rapidly. The needles aro brought one by one before the point of the 
drill ; the dnll not only cleans out the eye, making it internally smooth, 
but it also countersinks the outer edge of each. Some idea of the extreme 
nicety of the oper.ation may be obtained, when it is remembered that the 
variation of a hair's breadth in the presenting the eye of the needle to the 
point of the drill would result in the complete spoiling of the article; yet 
such is the amazing rapidity with which the drilling proceeds, that a dozen 
■will be drilled in as many seconds ; in fixct, it is difficult to believe on first 
witnessmg the operation, that the needles are really drilled. 

The needles are then taken to the polishing-room, ■n-here they are beauti- 
fidly polished by being held to the periphery of revolving wheels, covered 
with buff leather. The needles are taken up in a dozen or so at a time, 
and first held by the points and the upper ends, then by the heads and 
the pointed ends : the whole surface of each needle is thus rapidly 
polished. They are next counted and put up in little blue )iaperp. twenty- 
five in each, labelled, and tied up in bundles for sale. We have thus 
briefly traced the manufacture of a needle from its rough state to its final 
condition, which includes no less than seventy cUstinct processes. 

There are fourteen cxhibitoi'S of needles in the Crystal Palace, ten of 
whom are British manufacturers, one from France, one from Austria, two 
from Aix-la-Chapello, in the last case tho raw material is stated to be of 
English origin. 



AGRICULTURAL MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS. 

'I'lIM collection of agricultural muchlnea and implements in tho Great 

lOxhibitioii are daily examined with ititercat, not only by tenant-farmers 
and tho proprietors of the Boil, but by tlio community at large. 

'J'lio space dcvot«d to this department on tho Bouth-'vcst Bide of tho 
Buihling is about 660 feet In length and nearly 50 feet in width. Tho 
whole of this extensive araft i* overed with ingenious niecbanical con- 
trivances for facilitating tlis various operations of agriculture, such a^ 
nclaiming swamps and bogs, and converting them into salubriou.^ and 
fruitful I'clds ; for digging, pulverising, and di.-dutegratlng the soil, so as to 
prodiicc tho finest tilth ; for depositing manure and scad with tbo exactciess 
and certainty of the human hand ; for eradicating and destroying weeds; 
for tho housing the crops with safety and dispatch ; for the preparation of 
tho [iroiluco for market, and the converting that pro'luce into proper food 
for man and animals. In every department of those, tho various operations 
of the farmer, will bo found an infinite variety of machinos, calculated to 
atsist him in Ihoir better, quicker, or more economical perfonnance, for 
every description of land, whether wet or dry, light or heavy, on the level 
or hill-side — evei-y circumstance has been provided for, exhibiting an amount 
of ingenuity, theoretical and practical study, not exceeded in any other 
department in the Building. 

The design and construction of agricultural implements has in the last 
few ycai's made the nio;t rapid advances, creditable alike to the farmers 
who have patronised and constioictod, and to the manufacturers who have 
invented them. 

To the house of Ran.some and May, of Ipswich, agriculturists are mucb 
indebted, for they were among the first who made the great move in the 
better consti-uction of the implements of husbandry, by the judicious 
substitutiion of iron for wood in the frames of field implements, and in 
tho better construction and fitting up of the working parts. A few years 
ago. the ordinary implements of tho farm consisted only of some wooden- 
framed, unwieldy ploughs and harrows, and an equally clumsy wooden 
roller ; and, in many old leases and agreements, will be found a covenant 
that the landlord is to supply plough timber, by which was understood 
wood for the construotiou and repair of tho teu.aut's stock of agricultural 
implements. A farmer now, glancing at tho long array of beautiful 
machinery exhibited in Class 0, ■n-ould not be slow at discovering that an 
unlimited quantity of plough-wood would do but little towards supplying 
him with a stock of such elaborately-wrought machines as those before 
him. A person unacquainted ■n'ith the merits of the various implements 
here exhibited, ■vvould be sure to imagine that too great a sacrifice had 
been made to show, and that the machinery exhibited could never bear 
the rude shocks and violent strains to which this description of machinery 
is subjected. To foreigners this eSect must be pai-ticularly striking ; for. 
as compai-ed with similar implements exhibited by them in their several 
departments, our own must appear so light as to be almost useless. The 
reverse of this, however, is really the case ; for nearly all these implements 
have been subjected to the severe tests of the Royal Agricultural Society's 
appointed judges; and, although some will be found better than others, 
there ■will be but few that do not possess some good ciualities, and scai-cely 
any that can be considered as actual failures. 

The agricultural machines and implements exhibited in the foreign 
departments also come in for a considerable share of attention, ■which is 
w-oll deserved. The largest number of contributions of this kind are m 
the department allotted to the United States of America. They consist 
of a largo number of ploughs, of various kinds, but all having one strong 
family likeness, being remarkably heavy in appearance, full breasted, high 
framed, and having the stilts unusually short and elevated, with the 
holding part mclined at a flatter angle. In addition to ploughs, there ai-e 
horse-hoes, grubbers, cultivators, and drills, and two specimens of remark- 
able-looking machines for reaping corn. 

In the Belgian department are a number of implements, some posses.;- 
ing considerable merit. They consist of the usual kinds of gi-ubbers, land- 
pressers, horse-hoes, drills, and some ploughs. In the department of 
France we observe a wool-cleaning machine, and some specimens of 
corn-mill. Denmai-k exhibits a largo well-made chaft'-cuttmg engine. 
Switzerland sends a double plough, and some good specimens of daiiy 
utensils. Austria sends scythes, reaping-hooks, Sec. In the department 
allotted to British possessions abroad; are some wooden framed ploughs, 
very similar, as may be expected, to those exhibited by the United States. 
In the same department are specimens of hay and manure forks, scythes, 
and malt shovels. 



12 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




m'cobmkk's AMF.r.:cAN r.EAPis'o jiACHi.vr: 



We now proceed to notice iu detail some of the most striking objects 
exhibited, commencing with 

M'CORMICK'S (AMERICAN) REAPING MACHINE. 

Rude attempts at reaping machines were made by the Romans, and 
numerous ingenious contrivances have been introduced at various times 
Kince, both in Great BriUiin and on the Continent : but at the present time 
tliere is not one in ordinary use in England. Tlic general fault of the 
machines hitherto coustnicted is that they will only cut the coru when it 
is in first-rate condition, the straw being erect, and the ground exceedingly 
even. 

Two methods have been adopted in the vai-ious attempts at reaping 
machines — the one to cut by a series of clippers or shears, and the other 
bv a rsvolving plate. The'latter plau was adopted by the late Mr. Smith, of 
lieanston, in 1811, and was improved and used until about as late as 1837, 
but has now entirely disappeared. The macliine that has been the 
most successful was the invention of the Rev. Patrick Bell, of Forfar- 
shire, and a premium was awarded him by tlie AgrieiUtural Society of 
Scotland in 1827. It cut a breadth tf five feet, and did its work exceed- 
ingly well ; but, from the defects before alluded to, it has not come into 
general use. 

The .-.ubject of the present Engraving is the invention of C. H.M'Cormiek, 
ICsq., of Chicago, who has already received the gold medal of the American 
Institute for it. The jjrinciple of the cutting action is shown in the 
iliagram, and consists of a cutting blade about on inch in breadtli, sliglitly 
toothed on the front edge, and extending the whole lengtli of the breast of 




Cl'lTINO KNIFE OF M'CORMICK's RF.APING MACHINE, 

the machine, a quick reciprocating motion being given to this by a crank 
The straw, as the machine moves round, passes into tlie space between the 
projecting fingers, and is sawn off by the action of the cutter. Directly 
over the cutting-blade is a light reel, with flat transverse blades of deal, set at a 
slight angle with the front of the machine, revolving as it moves round, and 
holcUng the straw firmly between the fingers and against the blade while 
being cut. When tlie com is cut, it falls upon the floor of the machine, and 
is removed to the land again by a man who sits on a saddle-shapsd piece 
of the machine and is carried forward with it. 

We copy the following description of its extraordinary cutting powers 
from an American paper devoted to agricultural subjects, called the 





BAREKTr A^•D EXAT.L'S 8TEAS1 EXOIXF. 



DEASE, DHAV, AND UF.U<e's UOMESIIC FLOVK Vll.I, 



AN ILLUSTI5ATKI) CVCLOl'.KDIA OF TIIK GRKAT KXIIIIHTFOX OF 1851. 



^r, 




lUtWMlU a r.VTKNT PLOUGH, 



Cultivator, — "The macliiiio cuts all tlio grain ; iiud if tlio rakci' is cai'of\il, 
none is scattered ; and if tlio binders carry a rake and use it, none need 
bo lost. Fields harvested by these machines have a beautiful appearance. 
The stubble is uniform in height, while no prostrate, scattering straws 
speak of waste. If the binders have felt at all interested in doing their 
work well, there is nothing t<j glean with the sickle, bagging-hook, or rake. 
Weeds, brush, pitchforks, rakes, if standing in the way, or even horses' legs, 
are all cut smooth alike." 

To this valuable niachiue the gold medal has been awarded. 

BARRETT AND EXALL'S STEAM-ENGINE. 

Baurett, Exall, and Co., of Reading, exhibit a portable steam-engine, 
a striking peculiarity of which consists in placing the cylinder and the 
whole of the engine part upon a metal frame, which is complete in itself, 
independent of its attachment to the boiler, and renders its removal easy 
at any time it may be neccssai'y, without aflectiug the other pari;, and a 



much steadier action is also produced while working. This engine m well 
adapted for all purposes connected with agriculture, as well as sawing, 
pumping, &c. ; and, as its consumption of coal is not more than 7 lb. per 
horse-power per hour, and any smart man on the fann may, with a 
month's practice, bo safely entrusted to work it, there can bo no question 
about the economy of using it. This production has liad a prize medal 
awarded to it. 



DEANE, DRAY, AND DEANE'S DOMESTIC FLOUR MILL. 

This is an excellent little machme and does its work in a very superior 
manner, the flour being perfectly soft and fine as from a large mill. It also 
dresses and separates the flour, seconds, ami bran, at the same time, and in 
such a manner as we should not have expected in so small a maehijie. 

Messrs. Deane, Dray, and Deane seem to have succeeded in producing 
that which has long been a desideratum, namely, a good and effective hand 
coni-radl, for occupiers of small holdings and emigrants. 




W> STRIPS C M U. ILOI-R MILL 



StCTIOX.U. VIEW. 



14 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



MESSRS. HOWARD'S PATENT PLOUGHS. 

Messrs. Howard's new patent ploughs are made principally of i^TOUgUt 
iron, and ai-e an improved form of their prize ploughs, which are known 
throughout the kingdom ; the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
having, since 1811, awarded to Messrs. Howard uiue first prizes for ex- 
hibitmg the best plough at their annual meeting. The exhibitors show a 
set of ploughs of three sizes, marked for distinction X — XX, and XXX, 
suitable for ordinary, deep, and extra deep ploughing. Tho improvements 
consist in a greater clegiince of design, more equal proportions, and the 
cuttin gand moving parts known as the share and furrow-turner being 
formed upon exact geometrical principles. The curve being regular and 
taper, the power required to work tho implement is cousidei-ably lessened ; 
and the furrow slice travelling at an uniform rate from its being tii'st cut 
until left in its final position, tlie ftirrows are laid more even, and in the 
best form for the reception of the seed. A novel method is introduced 
of fixing the shares to lever necks of wnmght iron, the raising or lowering 
of which gives the point greater or less inclination as the state of the land 
may require. The action and fixing df tliis lever neck is most simple, 
and altogether new. The centre pin, upon wliich the lever works, is of 
steel, and fixed to the neck; the lever wlien raised or lowered (which can 
be done instantly) is secured in a series of grooves by a screw-nut at tho 
end of it : the iron being thus brought into a state of tension, ensures 
firmness, as well as increases the strength. Another feature in tlieso 
ploughs is a new mode of fixing tlic wheels and making the axles. The 
holdfasts', or clamps, securing the wheels, are made to slide through a 
mortise formed in the beam, by which the width may be altered with 
greater facility, as well as dispensing with the old sliding axle, which was 
an obstacle in deep ploughing, and objectionable upon dirty land on account 
of the soil accumulating round it ; the wheels, by tlie method now adojited, 
are brought opposite to each other, and the land-wheel may be ex- 
panded as well as the furrow-wheel. The axles are similar to a patent 
axle — an essential improvement, as no grit can get in nor any grease escape ; 
the wheels, therefore, must wear much longer, aud the friction is consider- 
ably reduced. A most simple method of adjusting the co\ilter is adopted, 
by which any required position is instantly obtained, thus preventing much 
loss of time, which was the case upon tho old plan of fastening by wedges. 
The draught, as will be seen from the illustration, is from the ueaiest point 
to the centre of resistance, thereby removing o great portion of strain on 
the beam. 

Every part is so arranged, that a ploughman can remove or replace the 
irons, subject to wear or breaking in the field, without the assistance of a 
mechanic ; and they can be worked either with or without wheels, or with 
one, as required, and each plough is furnished with a set of furrow-turners 
of various sizes, more or less curved. 



WESTRUFS PATENT CONICAL FLOUR MILL. 

In presenting our readers with the subjoined plan of We?trup's Patent 
Conical Flour Mill, we think it necessary to remark, that for the last three 
centuries our best mechanical millwrights aud engineers have been seeking 
some better method of gi-inding wheat than by tho use of the antiquated 
horizontal mill-stones. These stones are most of them from four to five 
feet in diameter ; and wheat jiassing between them, in the operation of 
being ground into meal, is subject to such an amount of heat by pressure 
and friction, as to extract from it by evaporation a very consider.able 
portion of its nutritious qualities: the stones being horizontal, the delivery 
of tlie meal from them after grinding can only be effected by the extreme 
velocity with which tlie upper stone revolves. Under the disadvantageous 
circumstances in which ovu- older millers have woi'ked for so many yeara, 
we cannot but hail an invention, as effective as it is simple, w'hich com- 
pletely provides against tho evils which the old system is subject to. The 
improvement we refer to is tho adoption of conical stones in lieu of 
horizontal ones, with a working surface of only eight inches instead of two 
feet. By the first pair of stones tlie wlioat is broken and delivered in a 
state of half-ground meal, unheated ; aud, by the natural laws of gravit3^, 
the flour is instantly passed through a wire cylinder, fixed beneatli, by tho 
aid of brushes fixed upon tho same shaft at the stones. Tho flour being 
thus instantly separated from the unground meal, the latter passes down 
to the second pair of stones, also fixed upon the same shaft, and the 
grinding is then completed. Moreover, we cannot refrain from expressing 
our admiration of the concise and beautiful adjustment of the stones, as 
being on a good sound principle. The lower, or itinning stones, are keyed 
upon the shaft, whilst the upp-r or stationary stones drop into a turned 
rmg, and necessarily rise and fall upon four inclined planes, and are capable 
of regulation to the utmost nicety, thorel)y wholly lelieving the wheat 
from any weight or undue pressure during tlce operation of grinding, 
whilst the weight upon the old system is equal to three-quarters of a ton. 
Another feature of paramount importance is. that tlie conical mill can be 
driven by less power than is required to drive the horizontal ones, the 
former producing double the quantity of work in the same period of time. 
We have perused certificates from several respectable baiters who have 
used tho flower produced by this method, whicli state that a sack of flower 
manufactured by the conical mill will produce from two to three 4-lb. 
loaves more than that wliicU is made by any other mode of manufacture 
yet introduced, and they attribute this increase to the greater quantity of 
gluten and nutritious qualities retamed in the flour from its being so much 



less heated, the wheat passing over such a small surface of stone. These 
data, which have been most satisfactorily established, induced us to calculate 
the advantages that might be derived were this improved method of manu- 
facture to be generally adopted. Taking the population of London to be 
2.500,000, aud inferring that each person consumes annuall}', according to 
the last statistics, the produce of a quarter of wheat, which is about 382 lb. 
of flour, and tliat this mode of grinding will produce three 4-lb. loaves 
more to the sack than the old method, there will be for London alone a 
gain of 10,232,142 4-lb. loaves from tlie same cpiantity of wheat. Again, 
takmg the population of England at 20,000,000, and valuing the 4-lb. loaf 
at sixpence, and calculating upon the increase of tliree loaves to the sack, 
there will be a gain to the countiy at large of the enormous amount of 
2,046,428t per annum — a sum about equal to half the Income-tax as at 
present levied. 

Tliis mill has been exhibited before her Majesty and his Royal Highness 
Prince Alliert, in a private apartment in the Exhibition. The side cuts 
represent the safety lever, seen from above and at the side ; d is the lever, 
actmg through the pieces a and/ on the roller c e; e is a tightening screw. 



MACHINES AND MECHANICAL CONTRIVANCES. 

TTNDER tliis head wc shall notice from time to time, citlier in groups, or 
individual instances, the principal mechanical appliances exhibited in the 
Crystal Palace. In pursuing our labours, we shall not attempt to follow the 
Official Catalogue, in the classification of machinery into half a dozen sub- 
divisions, beginning with "machinery for direct use ;" considering that so 
doing would only tend to confusion and mystification, rather than any 
practical good result as regards that most important point, facility of 
reference. We consider the terms " machines" aud " machinei'y" to be well 
understood, aud so comprehensive as to include every engine or implement, 
which convey.s, in a modified form, power, whether animal, or ai'tificially 
produced, applied to it. 




NARMVTirS STTIAM HAMMER. 



AN ILLUSTriATKl) CYCLOP^IDIA OF THE GRKAT KXHIBITIOX OF IBni. 



Il n;ii.V 1)0 |ii'iipur U> inM, in om' l.ruutiii»nt of hi-khu'o rii'I tlii; UHcfiil nrts, 
tliutlpuiiiliiiK.il"'' oiiK'murriut,'. iiU'l pliiliw"|'lii<'nl iuftti'iimnnti will form eli«- 
tiiK't liuiiiU. Ah'i'ioHltiu'ul iMipliimiitH 1111(1 coiiti'ivmiciK will ttUo be troatocl 
in a chuju liy tliclii»i,-lvoa. 



NASMYTH'S STEAM HAMMER. 



Pkuiui'.s llioic is not on reconl .in inTcntion wliioh haa Introdnceil it.^clf 
into Kucli cxton.ilvo uso in eo short .a tiuio as NiiKniyth's cxtraordiimi-y [ 
Btoam liammer. One of those powerful engines, of the size most in use, in i 
exhibited in the fiouthcni division of the Maehinei'y department of the 
Great Exhibition, not liir from the Britannia liydruulie pivss; but it is 
nmeh to be i'ej;ivtted that thi.s most useful engine is not shown at work, 
neither is there any aeeount of it in the ofiicial and illustnitcd Catalogue. 
Hineo IX-I'i, ill whieli year Mr. James Nnsmytli took out his patent, not 
fewer than 380 of these powerful and manageable machines have been 
eonsti'uotcd and distributed in all quarters of the globe. In many of the 
large engineering eatablishnicnts around Lomloii, wo find even three and four 
called into requisition; and wo iidvisc those of our Jjondon re.aders who 
have an opportunity of visiting any of the respective establishments of 
Messrs. MiuidKlay and Kield, Lambeth (who have three liammers of the 
ivspcetive weights of 30, 15, and 5 ewt., for ditlerent kinds of work) ; Penii 
and Son, llreeiiwieh; Blyth and Co., ami Seaward and Co., Limehouse; 
Miller and llavenhill, Blackwall ; and last, though most important of all, 
the highly interesting and extensive iron ship-building establishment of 
Messrs. J. C. Mare and Co., at the Orchard House, Blackwall. to lose no 
time in seeing tbo extraordinary operations performed through the instru- 
mentality of the steam hammer, requiring for itself the attendaneo of quo 
person only. The accompanying Engiviving rei)rescnts an elevation of the 
hammer, wliicli for this, tlie most useful size, weighs only 30 cwt. ; but the 
most gigantic maeliine of the kind which has yet been turaed out is that 
at Messrs. Mare's large works, having a hammer of tj tons weight, with a 
stroke of li feet. On a recent visit to this establishment, we found cue of 
those ]ionderous and apparently luiwieldy paddle-wheel shafts for a pair of 
marine engines, building by the celebrated firm of Maudslay and Field ; 
this shaft, whicli had been entirely formed by the giant hammer "Thor," 
occupied upwards of three weeks from its commencement to its completion : 
it is of the extraordinary weight of 10 J tons, and 27 feet 9 inches in 
length ; yet, by aid of a powerful crane, the operation of welding and 
forging this largo mass is rendered as simple and easy as that of a horse- 
shoe in the hands of a country smith. Messrs. Mare and Co. have also three 
other Nasmyth hammers, each decreasing in power to suit various kinds 
of work. Referring to the hammer contributed to the World's Fair, wo 
find the anvil, which is chiefly buried below the floor, weighs eight tons ; 
the hammer itself, already meutioi^ed, and which is suspended from the 
piston rod, I3 ton : the piston wdiich works in the cylinder, placed at top of the 
machine, is of 16 inches diameter; and the extreme fall of the hammer, or 
what in steam-engines is usually called the stroke, is equal to ii inches. 
The ingress steam pipe i.s of two inches diameter, the jiressuro of steam 
usuallv employed beuig equal to 40 lb. on the square inch. Tlio hammer 
being on the self-acting principle, every degree of blow, from that of merely 
cracking an egg-shell to that of a dead pressure of 500 tous, is attainable. 
The whole width of the frame at the level of the floor is 11 foot; and the 
space between the legs iu which the top of the anvil is placed is 7 feet ; 
the height of the machine being about 15 feet. The frame is bolted down 
to large iron plates let in flush with the floor ; but if the hammer at the 
Exhibition had been intended to have been shown in operation, a much 
stronger foundation would have beeu required. By admitting the steam 
under the piston, the hammer is elevated to the desired height ; and by 
its own gravity the hammer falls : but the fall may be instantly eased, if 
desirable, by the admission of steam, aeoordiiig to the particular kind of 
blow required. In ordinary work, as many as seventy _blows are given ill 
a minute. 

In the former part of this notice we meutioned the large engineering 
establishments iu and around the metropolis, at wdiicli the stenm hammer 
may daily be seen fulfilling its appointed duties'; but at all the principal 
anchor-makers, at all the large engine builders, and at the principal 
railway manufacturing establi-shments in the kingdom, the making up of 
iron, either from scraps, old rails, hoops, or from the pile, is also eS'ected 
by means of the Nasmyth hammer. 

From a statement of iron made by the use of this machine at the North- 
Western Company's manufacturing establishment at Crewe, in six months 
ending June, 1851, we find that upwards of 17'i tons of iron, in the shape 
of tires, axles, &c., including a shaft for a stationary engine, was made ; and 
that, after deducting the cost of wages, scrap iron, and coals, there is a clear 
profit of upwards of 2300?. Nothing can be mora convincing of the utility 
of this engine than the above fact. Before the introduction of this adjunct 
to the smithy, the forging of the large marine engine shafts was not only a 
tedious but an uncertain process ; and many an accident wdiich has occurred 
to the ocean steamers might have been tr.aced to the imperfect forging of 
the iron ; for, without blows of sufficient energy, it is impossible to expel 
the scoriic from between the bundles of iron rods, which, as in the United 
States, they attempted to weld together to form their main shafts. 

It is quite impossible to say to what uses Nasmyth's last invention will 
hereafter lie applied. At the present time, however, in addition to the 
formidable kind of work for which it has hitherto chiefly beeu employed. 



its .iiiplication to the Ktuinping out of dinh-covcri), and the inoul.img and 
fi.irming of Bilver jilate, is now in [irogreHH. 

It is curioiiH enongh, in looking over the specificntion of Jamcx Watt, to 
discover that lie had thou(;lit of nning n hammer In connexion with the 
power of ntcnui, but had never worke<l (mt the really uBcful mode of 
a|iplying the liammer, viz. that of attaching it to the pieton-rwl lt«clf. 
This iinportimt Htei> wiu left for the gtniu.i of one of our own timcn prac- 
tically to carry it out. It Is in Wati'.i patent of April 28, 17S4, that we 
find the following; — 

" .My fifth new improvement eonsints in applying the power of steam or 
fire engines to the moving of heavy IiainmerB, or htampcrs, for forging or 
stamping iron, coiqier, and other metals or uiatteiii, without the interven- 
tion of rotative motions or wheels, by fixing the hammer or stamper to be 
so worked either directly to the piston or piston rod of the engine, or upon 
or to the working beam of the engine, or by fixing the hammer or stamper 
ujion a secondary lever or helve, and connecting the said lever or helva, 
by means of a strap or of a strong rod, to or with the working beam of the 
engine, or to or with its piston or piston-rod. 



BIDDKLL'S PATENT SELF-REGULATINQ GAS-BURNEU. 

The difficulty of maintaining a uniform flame in tho ordinary gas-burner 
is well known, not only to tlie manufacturer of burners, but also to the 
consumer of gas. To remedy so glaring a defect in artificial 
lighting, has long been a desideratum ; and it wa^ left for 
Mr.,BiddelI, of Ipswich, to accomplish so great and valuable 
an improvement ; and the mode in which he has accom- 
plished this is by the most philosophical means. 

The inventor had in view, when he first proposed to 
remedy tho defect already alluded to, the compensation 
pendulum of a clock, whose true length is preserved, 
notwithstanding the alternation of heat and cold to wdiich 
it is continually subjected. 

Thus Mr. Biddell introduces into the centre of the 
burner a vertical compound rod of about ^ inch diameter, 
consisting of brass and steel, the cylindrical ca.se being of 
brass, and the core within of steel. By the expansion 
and contraction of thi.s rod which is surrounded by the 
flame, a small lever and simple valve, in connexion with 
the bottom of the rod, is acted upon so delicately that the exact amount 
of gaa requh'ed to preserve uniformity of flame is regidarly preserved. 



'V 



l-'i 



CHAUCER AND THE EXHIBITION. 

CHAUCEn. it would seem, possessed a prophetic faculty in his prefij^uration 
of this Palace of Glass. The passages we quote occur in the *• House of 
Fame," iu the iutroductiou to which tho poet describes it as a vision and 
speculates upon the causes of dreams, affirming his inability to decide 
whether — 



" BiJii'its have the nii;jrht 
To make folks dreron o'night; 
(Ir if the soul of propex" kind 
lie so perfect as men find 
That it wotc what is to ccnnc." 

"As I Blept/' he goes on to say — 

"I dreamt I waa 
"Within a temple made of fflass, 
In which there were more images 
Oi f/old standing in sundry stages, 
In more rich tahernaclea 
And with ^ewti^s more plnnacloK, 
And more curious porti-ailu res, 
And quaint manner of figures 
Of gold work than I saw ever. 



Then saw I stand on either side, 
Straight down to the doors wide 
From the dais many a pillar 
0/vittal that shone out full clcAr. 

• • » • 
Then gan I look about and see 
Tliat there came ent'ring in the hall 
A right great company withal, 
And thot of sundry regiotis 

Of all kinds of conditions 

That divell in earth beneath the moon, 

Poor and rich. 

• • • » 
Such a great amgregation 

0/ folks as I saw roam ahoxit. 
Some within and some without, 

Was never seen nor shall he no more /" 



So palpable a coincidence ia, to say the least of it, verj' curious. 



Lead Mines oh the San Saba. — The JLni.'iton (Texas) Teleffrapkvaeutions 
haviuji seen some very valuable specimens of lead ore, which were brought 
from San Saba. There are immense quantities of it. and himdreds of tons 
may be obtained witli little labour. This ore eoutains a large portion of 
silver, and it is quite probable that the old Spanish miues which were 
worked for silver near the old fort on the San Saba resemble this. Tho 
settlements ai'e rapidly extending towards the region where this ore is 
found. 

The American department has received an important accession of 
strength in tho shape of some specimens of Brussels cai-pet, woven upon 
power looms. Although various attempts have been made to adapt the 
power loom to cai'pet weaving in this country, there is not, we believe, any 
machinery perfected for that object. Our American brethren have, there- 
fore, gained another .<itep ahead of us. and liave won another laurel on this 
well-contested field of the industrial arts. 

AusTHALiAK Gold. — The lirr^t specimen of Australian gold arrived on 
Thursday, vid Singapore, and was exhibited in the Jerusalem Coffee-house. 
It seems of good quality. The gold ore in the Exhibition is from South 
Australia. 



16 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 



COLOSSAL STATUE OF THE QUEEN, IN ZINC. 
This statue, which represents our gi-acious Sovereign seated upon the 
throne, arrayed in all the attributes of royalty, is an appropriate coi. nent 
from the Vieille Montague Zinc Company, of France and Belgiur.,, lo this 
country, in commemoration of the Great Exhibition of all Nations. Its 
production also affords an instance of extraordinary energy, having; been, 
we are informed, " commenced and brought to its present state within the 
short space of three mouths." The statue stands, mth the pedestal, 21 feet 
hi^h. The design and modelling are from the hands of M. Dantan, aine, 
of Paris ; the etchings of the pedestal by M. Lenormand, architect, and 
produced by M. Hardouiu. The statue was cast under the immediate 
inspection of M. Victor Paillai'd. Independently of all consideration as 
a work of portraiture, this is a remarkable production, and deserves 
attention. 

Trial of Bazlet, 'White, & Sons' Cement.-- During 'Saturday, and 
again on Monday afternoon, the beam of 
hollow bricks and Portland cement, con- 
structed by Messi*3. Bazley, ^Miite, & Sons, 
at the western extremity of the building, 
underwent a trial of strength, which 
attracted a good deal of attention. Tlus 
brick beam was identical in size with that 
of common bricks and Roman cement 
constructed at Nine Elms in 1836, and 
which, after standing eighteen months, was 
broken down by a weight of 50,652 lbs. 
Its dimensions were 21 feet i inches 
bearing between the piers, 2 feet 3 inches 
in thickness at the bottom of the beam, 
and 1 foot 6 inches, at the top, the height 
being i feet 2 inches. The layers of 
hollow bricks, besides being joined with 
Portland cement, were held together by 
thin bands of iron passing through them, 
and the whole has remained standing 
since the opening of the Exhibition, with 
an announcement attached that it would 
be weighted and broken before the close. 
On Saturday the supply of pig ii-on pro- 
vided for this purpose failed, and the 
experiment was renewed, on Monday, iu 

the presence of Dr. 

Ansted, Mr. Godwin, 
General Pasley, and 
others interested. 
When the load placed 
on the beam had been 
increased to 62,800 lbs., 
a crack was observed 
running right up the 
centre, and two others 
at equal distances on 
either side converging 
towards the centre as 
they extended upwards. 
Then the abutments 
were thrown out of the 
perpendicular, one to 
the extent of a foot, the 
other an inch and a 
half. Finally the beam 
broke right in half, the 
experiment terminated 
in the most satisfactoiy 
manner for the reputa- 
tion of hollow brick 
consti-uctions and Poi-t- 
land cement. It may be 
stated as a cmious fact 
in connection with this 
supposed new species 
of building material, 
that the use of hollow 
bricks was well known 
to the Romans, and that 
in Tunis, at the present 
time, they are in con- 
etant requisition. It 
was originally intended 
by the Bey to send over 
gpeeimens, but the inte- 
rest of such a contri- 
bution was at the last 
moment accidentally 
overlooked. 



?r;/;if«:g^l^ssssaeBBei^!^T®*>5&g»5yS5S!s ' h 




COL055,\L BT.iTUE OF THE OUEEN, IN ZINC. 



Visitors to the Great Exhibition. — The shortening days abridge 
gradually the time during which the building remains open, and now, 
instead of closing at six o'clock, spectators are rung out ten minutes before 
sunset. Yet the interest continues unabated, and the desire of the public 
to visit this storehouse of the world's productions is no longer a movement 
of curiosity, but an impxdse spreading through the length and breadth 
of the land, and dramng people together from the remotest portions of the 
kingdom. It may be mentioned, as a curious illustration of the desire 
felt amon,' the humbler classes'in the provinces to see the Exhibition, that 
a poor liliwoman, from the parish of Paul, in Cornwall, named Maiy 
Caliuack, aged 84, walked to Loudon, a distance of 350 miles, for the 
purpose, occupying in the performance of this pedestrian feat no less than 
five weeks. 

Preservation op the Bcilding. — A'scheme for presei-ving the Building 
is said to be .about to be propounded, in which its mainten.ance, indepen- 
dently of either Royal Commission or Government, is to be shown to be 
feasible. This, supposing the Woods and Forests are willing, will be a gi'cat 

point 'gained, since no public grant seems 
at all likely to be obtainable, and as to the 
surplus, that is a se.iled source so far as 
the general question is concerned. As 
regards the appropriation of this surplus, 
the Mayor of Birmingham (Mr. Lucy), 
whose activity on behalf of the Exhibition 
is so well known and so highly appreciated, 
has brought before his fellow-townsmen 
a proposition in the form of a memorial 
to the Prmce and the Royal Commission, 
aud calls attention to the Conserviitory of 
Arts and Manufactures aud the Central 
School of Arts and Ma'.iufactures of Paris, 
as offering examples for similar institu- 
tions in this country ; .lud proposing that 
there should be founded with the surplus 
proceeds of the Exhibition, as being 
stnctly within the terms of the pledge 
gi%eu a Great Central College of Arts 
iiid Manufactures in London," as also "a 
Mu c m of Arts aud Manufactures;" and 
th t pio\incial schools having the same 
object m view (such as Schools of Design) 
should have connection with the Central 
College, and be carried on under the 
same system ; and, in 
order that the public 
may be satisfied >\'ith 
the administration of 
these provincial esta- 
blishments, and have a 
voice in the general 
system of education, 
which is of such im- 
portance to our com- 
mercial prosperity, it is 
suggested, "that when 
such provincial schools 
may be founded in 
boroughs, the Mayors 
should be ex officio 
members of the Gene- 
ral Board of Metropo- 
litan Dii-ectiou." This 
memorial has been re- 
ceived in Birmingham 
with great unanimity, 
and a hearty approval 
given to its suggestions, 
aud it is now in the 
course of signature. 
Here, then, we have a 
definite proposition at 
last, whereon to open 
the question, " What is 
to be done with the 
surplus proceeds of the 
Great Exhibition V 

The question as to 
the removal of the mass 
of goods ■ now in the 
building is beginning to 
.attract attention. The 
pacldng ' up of great 
numbers of the articles 
will be found to be a 
delicate task, and one 
which will not be easily 
got through. 




'^^^^ 



>^^\^ 



.^s^> 



G 



^MMiIiMco^iMSj- 



m 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPyEDIA' OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 




,/ I 



No. 2, October 11, 1851. 



THB TRTSTAT, FOUXTAIN IH TTIT. TBANSEPT LOOCTXCI KORTR. 



18 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS j 



MINES AND METALLURGY, 



IRON ORES AND MANUFACTOEE. 

JROy, its vscs and properties. — Of all substances in nature that are 
available for the purposes of man, and have assisted in advancing liim to 
that high position in which he is enabled to command and guide mechanical 
force to an extent almost unlimited, there is not one that can be regarded 
as more impoi-tant than iron. 'Without tliis metal the stores of mineral 
fuel must have remained unemployed, or at least must have been of com- 
paratively little value : without it, the other metals, however valuable and 
useful, could hardly have been obtained for use ; without it. the earth 
itself could hardly be made to yield, at least in cold aud temperate climates, 
those abundant returns of food which support millions of human beiugs 
in health and comfort ; and without it there could have been no such 
systems of communication between distant lands connected only by the 
ocean, as are now found to be true sources of commercial wealth, and of 
the advantages of which we Englishmen have the best knowledge of any 
people in tlie world. Gold and sOver without iron are mere toys for 
children aud savages; precious stoneis without iron remain encrusted 
with the matrix, which prevents their beauty from being seen ; various 
earths and metals now of enormous value would be unknown and un- 
attainable without the iron implements by wliieh they are produced ; and 
steam, that source of all power, that giant by whose services the most 
impossible things are eflected, would sleep at rest, or, if employed, would 
be occupied in the merest trifles, if it were not that its forces are con- 
centrated, and its powers directed by the iron prison by which it is confiued, 
and the arms by which it works. Look where we will, in the vast forest 
of human constructions, exposed witliin the walls of the C'ry.stal Palace, 
we .shall every where see contrivances in which iron holds a prominent 
pai-t, from the pillars and girders that support the Building itself, to the 
nail and the pin that connect the different parts of tlie smallest object 
exhibited within it. AVe propose, therefore, to consider the various sources 
from whicli iron is obtained, the mode of obtaining the metal, the method.'j 
adopted for preparing it for use.i of various kinds, and the applicatioiis 
commonly made. 

Perhaps it may be well, however, first of all to mention the chief pro- 
perties that give a value to this metal. The first of these Is its hardue-ss, 
which is always considerable, but may be varied by different modas of 
treatment, and in one state (that of steel> may become so great as to cut 
all but the very hardest substances in nature. Owing to its hardnes.s, 
iron is w-ell adapted for making all kinds of tools and implements, and 
the u.se of it is now so extensive in this respect that hardly any limit can 
be put to its employment. Next to hardues,s, iron is remarkable for its 
tenacity, in which, when pure, no metal surpasses it. A wire, l-12th of 
an inih in diameter, will support a weight of a quarter of a ton w^ithout 
breaking. It is neeille.?s to enlarge on the advantages of such a pro- 
perty, and tlie ap))lication of iron wire in the manufacture of ropes and 
chains are examples of this power of tenacity, which will occur to 
every one. 

The next rem,-u-kable property of iron is its malleability, which is 
gi-eatest at a high tomjierature, and in consequence of wliich it may be 
hammered into almost any shape, and rendered available for innumerable 
im[ioi-tant >ises. Every one is aware of the facility with which the l>lack- 
Rinith at his forgo v.ill mould a piece of red-hot iron into the required 
form ; nd those who have visited any large manufactory in which iron 
is worked will know of yet fui-ther operations of a far more astoni.shing 
kind. 

On the further application of heat, iron exhibits other properties equally 
remarkable and useful. It can be fu.sed when nearly pure, but requires for 
that purpose the very highest degree of heat producible by a strong blast. 
Athough thus difficult of fusion, however, there is no difficulty in uniting 
two piece.5 at a far lower temperature, for this metal is capable of " wokl- 
iug," a term giveu to the processes of unitmg two surfaces by a kind of 
cement;ttioi», obtained when both surfaces are at a liigh heat and very 
clean, and are theu hanuuered together. Few metals, and no other .sub- 
stances kuowii, exhibit thi« jiroperty, but its vijue is too manifest to need 
further remark. 

lu MaMifaclwre. — Although iron in its pure state is tough, almost infu- 
BLble, m.alh-nble, and admirably adaptcil for various pur^ioscs iu which 
great strength aud ten.acity are needcil, there are yet other uses in which a 
more fluid condition is desirable, and others ag.oin where a far greater 
degree of hardncfis is wanted. Both these are obtaiuable, however, by a 
very slight admixture of a substance so common as charcoal (carbon), 
wliich ui different proportions render.9 the iron either so easdy fused as to 
bo readily cast into moulds, or so intensely hard as to form steel. In 
tlie ordiuarj- method of reducing the metal from tlie ore, a number of 
impurities remain, the proportion of iron not exceeding from 91 to 95 per 
cent., although of the remainder not more th.an fi'om three to four per cent 



are carbon, except in very unusmxl cases. Tliis small percentage suffices, 
however, to alter the chai'acter of the product so far as to give a peculiar 
granular texture, sometimes aimo.st crystalline. The metal is also then 
more brittle, lighter, aud more fu.sible than malleable iron. At a red heat, 
when the iron is made with charcoal, cast iron is so soft that it may be cut 
with a saw, aud iu tliis state by admixture with a small ciuautity of other 
substances, it may be reudered far more fu.?ible. 

When iron, cast into pigs with tlie impurities already alluded to, is subse- 
quently melted and exposed for some time, m a fluid state, to the air, it 
parts with the gi-eatcr portion of such foreign substances, becoming at length 
less fluid and much more pure. When in this state, if it is removed from the 
furnace, exposed first to the violent blows of a heav^- hammer, and after- 
wards passed through heavy rollers, it is brought into the state of ^^TOught 
or bar u-on. The purest kinds of WTought irou still contain a certain por- 
tion of carbon (not exceedmg five pai-ts in a thousand, and often not exceed- 
ing two.) but in this .state the metal is tough, solid, better adapted than cast 
iron where durability and strength are needed, aud havmg a very distinct 
texture. Soft bar iron is more free from carbon than hard, but no addi- 
tional hardness is produced by rapid cooling after exposure to a high heat, 
as is the case both with cast iron and steel. 

AVlien pig iron, containing little besides cai-bon, and, perhaps, manganese, 
is first refined by exposure to the blast under charcoal, and then made into 
flat bars, and these Ijars cut into lengths and welded together into bimdles, 
they become what is called shear steel. This, again, when exposed for a 
period of from five to eight days, at a red heat, iu pots filled with charcoal 
powder, becomes altered by the absorption of carbon, which penetrates the 
iron, aud when it meets with any oxidised portions produces blisters form- 
ing thus blistered steel. This fused under pounded glass, with or without 
carbon, and then cast mto ingots, becomes cast steel. In this last state, it is 
fit for use in the arts, and is somewhat whiter than iron, and has a distinct 
fracture ; when made red hot and slowly cooled, it becomes soft, but when 
i*e-heated and suddenly cooled, it may be brouglit to almost any degree of 
hardness, being then also very elastic, more or less brittle according to cir- 
cumstances, and capable of use for a variety of important purposes. The 
nature of the resulting steel is almost entirely aflected by the temperature 
to which it is raised before cooling, and by the mode of cooling ; and as the 
temperature is marked by the colour which the metal assumes while re- 
heating, this is commonly referred to as an indication of the temper. The 
order of colours is, straw yellow, deep yellow, purple, violet, dark blue, and 
light blue. 

Irun Ores — Sources of. — The sources from which iron is obtained 
vary much iu different countries ; but the common ores are oxides and 
carbonates, of wliich there are several varieties. The richest is the magnetic 
iron oi'e, containing upwards of 71 j per cent, iron, and either itself magnetio 
or readily attracted by the magnet. It is of iron-black colour, brittle, aud 
often crystalline. Little of this ore is found iu England, but large quan- 
tities occur iu Scanduiavia, Russia, and India, which are all celebrated for 
the quality of the steel luauufacted from their iron ; and it is abundant, 
also, in North America. Mexico), aud Brazil. The ores of this kind are 
reduced generally with charcoal, and on rather a small scale, and are easily 
brought into the state of pig, having few earthy impurities mixed with 
them. All the finest steel is made from magnetic ores ; aud fine samples 
of the ores themselves, aud the pig and bar iron manufactured from theui, 
are exhibited in the Ru.s.siau and Scandinavian divisions. From India, 
also, besides a large series of ores, there is exhibited a case containing the 
various conditions of the ii'on, including the steel in various states known 
as v;ool3 steel, and exhibited by the Indian Ir<:tn and Steel Comjiany. The 
large and highly-important series of Sheffield goods on the British si'le 
must also be mcutioned here as presenting the bewt aud most valuable 
ilhtstration of the products obtaiiied from the magnetic ores. Amongst 
the Shelfield goods are also one or two model.s — one m particular, of large 
size aud iu great detail, illustrating the whole of the processes adopted in 
converting irou into steel, and bring this very remarkable compound of 
iron and carbon into a state available for the mauufacturei'. We refer to 
the model of the Cyclops Works iu Class 22, No. 109 A, which is accom- 
}tanied by a series of articles in .steel of great interest. No one can have 
examined the articles exhibited in tlie Shetficld court without being per- 
fectly satisfied of the high state of perfection which the manufacture of 
steel has attained in this country, and the importance of having the best 
material foi' such admu'able workmanship. There is generally understood 
to be a gi'eater amount of elasticity, aud a susceptibility of finer temper iu 
the steel made from Imlian iron than that from Sweden; and it has been 
supposed by very eminent chemists that this owing to the presence of a 
small quantity of aluminum ; but it must as yet be con.sidered doubtful 
whether this is es.sential or accidental. 

Before concludmg the notice of the magnetic ores, we should direct 
attention to those obtained in British North America, among.st which are 
some fine specUueus indicating a source of wealth which will not, we are 
sure, be neglected. 

Next to the magnetic ores, the richest material from which iron can be 
obtained consists of the peroxide kuowu to mineralogists as the specular 
iron ore, micaceous iron ore, red htcmatite, and oligist respectively. This 
ore is also sometimes called iron-glance. It exists in two forms — the one 
earthy, and the other cry.stalline aud metalliferous ; but both ai'c equally 
rich, and yield, when pure, about 69^ per cent, of metallic iron. These ii 
ore.s, like the former, are not those generally found and used in our own 
country, although they exist there in considerable abvmdance, and are 



AN ILLTISTHATED rYf'LOP.EDTA OF THE fJREAT TIXIIIBITION OF 1851. 



19 



even used extcnuivuly to uiix with and hrinK to a ounvunicnt average <iomo 
of the poorer oroa. The uioro lirilliaiit and iiictal-liko Hpeciiiiens chiefly 
aboitnii in ICllia, and are oftc-n called Kllia ores ; but these and otlier less 
glittering' fornw also occur in almost every district where iron is found in 
loiueral veins. They are worked in small f'liniaces almost as easily as the 
magnetii: kinds, luit are nowhere so valtiahlu lor the manufacturi! of steel, 
althnu>;li, like the former, they are smelted with charcoal only. The 
lieltjian ores, and those from Spain, may he (inuted as examples of these, 
and the admirabli^ ipi.iJity of tlie iron exliibite<l, and of the >;oods nianu- 
lactured of such iron, shows cleai'ly that if it cannot vie with that made 
iu Kngliuiil in the matter of cost, it may yet take a very high place fir 
toughness and durability. It is cliiedy the earthy varieties ^llfumatites) 
that are useii in England, and of tliese many specimens, very remarkable 
for size and beauty, both from Cornwall ami Lam^asliirc, have been exhibited 
l)y various jiersons, ami .amongst the rest by IMr. Thomas Ainsworth, of 
Cleator near Whitehaven, and Jlessrs. Harrison, Ainslie. and Co. of New- 
hvud Furnace, Ulvcrstou. In both these cases the ores contain from 60 t<j 
05 per cent, of iron, ami are fonnd immeiliately adjacent to the poorer 
ores common iu lOngland, and also to the coal, so that tliey arc brouglit 
into immediate use. The cuiantlty that caTi bo supplied is very Large; but 
there are at jirBsent, we believe, only three furnaces iu bla.st. The iron is 
considered to be of very good quality. 

In some parts of the world largo quantities of hydrous oxide of iron 
arc obtained in a state very well adapted for the manufacture of iron. 
iSucli, for example, M the liog iron in'cs, of which there are magni- 
ficent specimens from Canada, said to produce excellent metal. In its 
pure state, this hydrous oxide woidd not yield more than riS per cent, of 
iron, and from 12 to 18 per cent, w.iter; b>it it is rarely found in large 
quantities having ;uiytliiug like tliis value. The technical name for the ore 
iu question, ;is a group, is hi'uwn hivmatiU', aud they uiay be regarded as 
averaging 20 to 40 per cent, of iron. Large qiuantities occur in the 
northernmost, counties of England, in distinct and regular- bed.s, associated 
with the lead veins of that district. 

Clmj/ron Slonc'i. — But the ores of chief importance to Engl.and, and 
tho>e supplying Vjy far the largest proiwrtion of all tlie iron manufactured 
in the world, are neither the richest in quality, nor tho=e deposited iu the 
thickest m.xsses, but anotlier series, far less likely, .at the fir.st glance, to 
attract attention, .and requiring methods to reduce them of a more com- 
plicated kind than the simple forges hitherto needed. M'e allude to the 
claij iron-stones, as they .are called, which are widely distributed with the 
coal, and near the limestone, in South Wales, North Wales, Shropshire, 
Staffordsliire, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Northumberliind, and the valley 
of the Clyde. Those arc the true materials of England's greatness, and 
these, accordingly, hiive long been anxiously sought after, and most care- 
fully worked. From these sources upwards of twti millions and a quartet 
of tons of iron are .annually produced ; of which South Wales fumi-she.? 
700,000 tons, South Staffordsliire (including part of Worcestershire) 600.000, 
and Scotland 600,000 tons. Of the ores from these severiil di.stricts, there 
is one large and most valuable series of about 500 specimens, very carefully 
selected .and exhibited by Jlr. S. Blackwell, of Dudley — a gentleman who 
deserves the utmost credit for having, at gi'eat expense of time aud labotir, 
brought together these materials, and arranged them as a noble illu,stratiou 
of what nature ha.s done for the British Islands iu reference to iron. 

All the clay iron-stones par-t.ake of a general character, although they 
differ a little iu appearance, and much in relative value. They are nodules, 
consisting of an impure carbonate and oxide of iron, mixed with clay, aud 
apparently separated from a more genenally diifused ferruginous condition, 
in a large series of deposited rocks, including much clay and much vege- 
t.ible matter. They occur in bands generally of no grciit thickness (often 
only a few inches), and not far from thicker bauds of coal, with which they 
are worked. The quality of the iron made from them varies a good deal — 
jiartly, it may be, from the condition of the ores, but chiefly from the fuel 
with which the ores .are smelted and refined. 

The manufacture of iron fi'om these poor ores is conducted on a very 
large scale, in furnaces constructed <at great cost, aud kept constantly at 
work for a long time. Described in their simplest form, these furnaces 
consist of a receptacle at the bottom for the fused iron to collect in, and 
fi'om "which it can be drawn off from time to time ; a chamber to receive 
and fuse the mixture of ore-flux and fuel j.iut in from the top, aud a blast 
to produce intense heat. The chamber is generally liigh, and partly chimney- 
shaped ; the blast is conducted by pipes from a machine where it is produced, 
and there are means of dramng off not only the metal, but the slag or 
scum that forms on the top of the fusing ma-ss. The furnace being already 
heated, a due mixture of material, consisting of the ore (consisting of car- 
bonate and oxide of iron, with alumina and silica^ limestone, and coal or 
coke, are thrown iu from the top; the alumina .and silica of the ore then 
combine with the lime, forming a kind of glass under the influence of the 
burning fuel, acted on by a powerful blast, sometimes of hot air, and the 
iron is set free, .and sinks in a fluid state to the bottom. . The flo.ating .slag 
m.ay be drawn oft" from time to time, aud the charge of ore fiux and fuel 
repeated till a suflFicient quantity of metal is collected. The charge is 
added, and the metal dr.awn off generally at regular intervals, and the 
re.sult is the production of pig iron. The further processe.s have been 
already alluded to. 

Very fine specimens of pig iron and b.ar iron are exhibited both in Cla-ss 
land Clxss 22. Among the latter, the Low-moor Works, near Bradford, 
'V ovkshiro (Messrs. Hinrf, Dawson, and Hardy), present a sei-ies extremoly 



remarkable (or tlioir variety and ifrcnl oiccllcncc, some «pccimon» of rivet 
iron, knotted colil with two or three knolH, mid bcut at one end. nhowini; 
very Htrikingly the tenacity of iron in a wrouglit Htato. This is Hhown still 
further by n piece of chain iron, originally •! foot 5 inchon long and It incU 
(liarttotcr, Btniincd and broken by a weight of 34 tons, but which, beforo 
being broken, wim dr.iwn out an much an loj inches, and wa« rc<luct'd t'j a 
diameter of jj inch. Other fine examples of good bar iron, whiijled to 
various |iiirpoKes, are exhibited by the Kbbw Vale Company, .South Waloii 
(Cliiw) 1, No. 412), and by Messrn. Bird and Co. (No. 41 li. who nhow 
adniirublo upociinens of Staffordshire iron. The ]iroduet8 of tli* .Scotch 
iron and coal fields arc presented by the Monklaiid Iron and Steel CoKqisny 
(42fti ; and, before leaving this part of the subject, wo must luentioxi 
Mr. .Stirling's patcntol method of mixing together malleable and ciuit iron, 
and also of mixing other metals (cliiefly zinc) with iron to produce greater 
strength in the comjiound. Ireland, also, ha-s not been uiircpreBcnto<J. 
Tlic Biiccimens exhibitxid from Arigna by Dr. Mooro (No. 408), are interest- 
iiig, a.s rnado from charred peat. The quality appears good, but the cconomj 
of the optT.ition is still doubtful. The ores are rich, yielding as much a« 
10 per cent, of iron. Coal exists in the neighbourhood, but it is not of 
excellent kind, iind the cost of the ton of iron manufactured in this locality 
must bo reckoned as Jiot much ondur it,, a prico far too high to iiromuie 
much success af present. 

The manufacture fif iron on a largo scale has been already deicribed in 
speaking of the management of the abundant British ores. 

There arc many differences of detail in the methods employwl on tlio 
Continent, and even in jiarticular di.stricts in our own country, but tiio 
above genenJ account will cnalde the reader to understand something of 
the labour and dilficulty. as well as cost, required to produce a nLiterial 
which is, however, as we all know, supplied at a jirico which brings it 
within the daily use of every person for the very c<'nmioncst purjios^s. 

It may give an iilea of the magnitude of the work to mention that there 
arc now 185 blast furnaces for the m.anufacture of iron in iiouth Wales, 143 
of them licing actually at work, and producing, on an average, lOO tons of 
iron per week ; that in .Shropshire, and ifs neighbourhood, there .are 28 ; in 
.Staffordshire, 108; and iu tho more nortliern counties, 4(5 — such furnaces 
making in all 10;! iu bliv^t, in addition to the 143 in Wales. Scotland adds 
its sh.are to the list, aud the gener.al result is, that the enormous quantity 
of 2.250.000 tons of iron are now annu.'vlly manufactured in the British 
ishuid.?. being .at the r.atc of two cwt. a-year for every man, .toman, and 
child of the whole population. As no le.53 than three tons of coal are 
required to produce each ton of iron, this manufacture also requires a. con- 
sumption of 7.500,000 tons of fuel, without including that employed m tlic 
further operations of iron-makuig, and the incidontal uses of coal in various 
w.ays. 



THE CRYSTAL FOUNTAIN. (See most Paob.) 

H.iD this Exhibition {.ikon place seven yta-s ago, the examples of glass 
manufacture on the Briti-di side would have been so ridiculous a.s to have 
provoked contempt. Happily, the removal of that fiscal restriction which 
paralysed our ghiss trade for so many genei'atious, preventing, as it did, all 
improvement, and creating a monopoly where freedom alone could be 
expected to be successful, has enabled us to make such strides in this im- 
portant manufacture as to place us in a position to become, at least, equal 
to our continental neighbours in the production of ornamental glass, whilst 
it i.s confessed that we arc .alre.ady superior to them in the manufacture of 
the more useful kinds. The Crj'stal Pal.ace itself is .an example of this; 
aad Csler's Glass Fountain is fitly placed iu the centre at the intersection 
of the nave with the transept. Tho ba-sin of concrete in whic'i the fountain 
itself is placed is some 24 feet in diameter, and affords a goodly surface for 
the falling spray. The structure of ghiss stands 27 feet high, and is formed 
of columns of glass raised in tier.s, the main tier supporting a b.asin from 
which jets of water can bo made to project, in addition to the main jet at 
tho top. As the .stnicture rises it tapers upwiU'd in good proportion, the 
whole being fii-m and compact in apiiearauee, and presenting almost a 
solidity of aspect unusual with glass structures. A central shaft with a 
slightly "lipped" orifice finishes the whole, aud from this the water issues 
in a broad well-spread jet, forming iu its descent a lUydike flower before 
separating into a spr,ay, which in the sun-light glittei-s and sparkles in 
harmony with the fountain itself. Altogether this is an uuique aud magni- 
ficent work, and many difSculties of construction have been overcome 
before the structure presented itself in its present form. Tho principal 
shaft is strengthened by means of a rod of iron passing through it, but 
concealed from observation by the refr.actiug properties of the fans. Up- 
wards of four tons of cry.stal glass was used in the construction of this 
fountain. The principal dish Is upwards of S feet m diameter, and weighed 
previous to cutting ueai-ly a ton. The shafts round the bai-e weighed nearly 
50 lbs. each previous to cutting. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




FOREIGN AND COLONIAL 
DEPARTMENTS. No. 2. 



THE CANADIAN COURT. 
A HUNDRED years ago, supposing a great 

international and industrial exhibition 
to have been possible at that time, Canada 
would have furnished a very different as- 
sortment from that with which she has pre- 
sented us. Then we should have had a 
rude and miscellaneous lot of native manu- 
factures and native finery, something after 
the fashion of that actually collected in the 
Tunis bay (which we shall describe here- 
after) — a wigwam, some wooden or horn 
spoons, rough earthen pots, a few em- 
bi'oidered mocassins, a few tomahawks, and 
a dozen or so of scalps and other military 
trophies ; but nothing indicative of the 
natural resources of this vast and almost 
virgin tract of territory, nothing that spoke 
of the honest industi'y or intelligent enter- 
pi-ise of its inhabitants. Very different 
from this, however, is now the case. Civi- 
lisation has begun its useful work in the 
far west ; European industry has planted 
the spade there, and some of the fruits 
are now before us — speakmg much and 
creditably for the past, but speaking still 
more cliceringly of what is yet to come. 

We have not yet had possession of 
Canada for a hundred years. It is set 
down amongst the discoveries of Sebastian 
Cabot in 1497. The French, it is asserted, 
made a map of a portion of the coast in 
1508; in 1525, the country was formally 
taken possession of in the name of the King 
of France; in 1635, Carlier explored its 
great river, and named it the St. Lawrence, 
from having on that saint's day first sailed 
upon its waters. The first settlement was 
at Quebec in 1608, and the country re- 
mained in possession of the French until 
the capture of that city by General Wolf, 
in 1759 ; and by the treaty of Paris, in 
1763, the whole ten-itory, comprising an 
area of about three times as large as Great 
Britain and Ireland, was ceded to England. 

In Canada emigration has been going on 
thither ever since, but still there are vast 
regions of the best land still uncultivated 
and covered with forests. In ISli the occu- 
pied land in the East or Lower Canada 
amounted to 7.540,450 acres, of which 
3,083,950 are cultivated, and 4,456,400 still 
unreclaimed. The gi-eat plain between 
Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario, comprising 
about 20,000 square miles, and the best 
grain counti-y of any in the northern parts 
of America, is still for the most part covered 
with lofty forests. 

The Canadian contributions at the Great 
Exhibition are not so showy certainly as 
those from tlic Ea?^ Indies, sent in by the 
East India Company, and which happen to 
be located in the adjoining and opposite 
compartments, but they arc more valuable 
as evidences of social wealth and social 
advancement. They are the spoils of peace, 
not of war, the industrial begiunings of a 
junior branch of the great civilising family 
of the universe, not the gaudy remains of 
an effete barbarism, which lias been de- 
molished, but not yet replaced by anything 
better. The Canadians send us abundant 
samples of natural wealth drawn from the 
bowels of the earth — specimens of u-on, 
copper, and silver ore, besides a case of 
native gold obtained from the gravel on the 
south-east side of the prolongation of the 
( Continued on patje 22.) 



AN ll;Li;STnATEl) CVCLOIMIDIA OF TIIK GKEAT EXMIJUTION OF IHJl. 



SI 



I'AIMEK MACHJi 
JKWEL CASE. 

BY JENNINOS AND CO* 

The nianufacturo ot 
I'npior Maciic Iiiw been 
brouglit to tt liigli state of 
perfection by Messrs. 
Joiiningu and Bettridga, 
of Binuingbam, wlio ex- 
hibit ita n]i]>licatiou to a 
great variety of artiolos 
of use and luxury. The 
jewel casket before us, 
wbicli is from tbo design 
of Mr. VV. U. Fitzcooke, 
is a favourable specimen ; 
elegant in shape, and the 
ornaments gi-aceful in 
choi'acter, and suitable to 
tlio occasion. 




PAPIRR MACIIE JEWEL-CASK. JEKNINi.'^ AM; v.iri 



There are two tortu of 
Papier Mfttlif — one in 
which the paper in beat 
up into a pulp, and then 
moulded to the form 
required ; tbo other in 
which Bucccssivo layers 
of paper, wetted, are 
placed under a strong 
]>rc»8ure, which elightly 
alters the form. Tho 
latter is the method 
adopted in the caao of 
tea-trays and other worlci 
of flat sui-facesaud him pie 
Btructure ; tho former is 
used in the case of more 
intricate objects, an arti- 
cles of furniture, ic. 




PlLVEIt SAr.T-CKLLAnS 

sents Sir Roger de Coverley having his fortune told by gipsies, 
Addison standing behind, reclining against a tree. The group is 
vei-y satisfactorily composed, and the workmanship is of an 
excellent order; 'but we object, as a rule, to all story-subjects 
in ornamental plate, 
and particularly to 
story-subjects which 
are purely inven- 
tional ; aud, to say 
the truth, neither 
very stiikiug in their 
incidents, nor ot 
very great notoriety. 
Allegorical and con- 
ventional subjects 
ai'C all very well, if in- 
cluding appropriate 
objects of decora- 
tion ; but an old 
gentleman having 
his fortune told, and 
another looking on, 
is but a dull episode 
for the dessert table. 
The Silver Sail- 
Cellars, by Morel, 
are very beautiful 
little affaii-s, in the 
Louis Quatorze style. 
They represent i-us- 
tic childi-en, quite of 
the Watteau order, 



ORNAMENTAL SILVER. 

The articles in decorative plate, both of British and 
Foreign manufacture, displayed in the Great Exhibition, 
will come in for a large share of our attention. There 
are many principles involved in their production, both as 
regards taste of design and the skill and finish of its 
working out, which are highly interesting in connection 
with tho history and prospects of Art. These are points 
which we shall enter more fully upon in the course of 
our observations on " the Arts of Design and Decoration." 
In our occasional notices of particular objects, we shall 
only incidentally refer to such points of criticism as 
appear to be illustrated in a striking manner by 
them. Tho Silver Centre Piece, by J. Angell, repre- 





BV MOr.EL. 

bearing baskets, and dancing lightly under 
their burthens. Each of these figures have 
been individually modelled, and finished ivitli 
repowjse method, a style 
which has been 
aliandonedeversince 
the sixteenth cen- 
tury, until its recent 
revival by enter- 
prising artista of our 
own day. 

■In tho repousse 
method every fea- 
ture and lineament 
is tlie result of the 
inspii-ation and ac^cu- 
rate handling of tho 
artist at the moment 
of execution ; and 
exact repetitions are 
impossible. This is 
conducive to the cul- 
ture of art ," though 
of course contrary 
to the economic 
pirinciples of mere 
manufacture. In ar- 
ticles of viriii, how- 
ever, ai-t should be 
considered as su- 
preme, just as in 
manufactures econo- 
my ia evei-ything. 



CEirtRE flECE, SIIS EOCEr, Dfi COVtIILEV, 1;V J. i^\LLL 



22 



THE CPxYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



Green Mountains; specimens of niagnesitorock,of stones of fine qualityfor the 
purpose of litliography, of agates, soap-stones, gypsum, sl.ates, and serpentines. 
Of timber there is a large assortment, the major part forming a large pile or 
trophy in the midst of the main avenue, and which we shall speak of in 
detail presently. Of agricultural products we have numerous samples, the 
Canadian exhibitors evidently attaching a duo importance to this branch of 
their nadonal wealth : barrels filled with corn, Indian meal, barley, oats, 
peas, beans, flax, potatoes preserved for sea voyage ; with Siberian oil-seed, 
hemp, hops, and sugar from the maple tree, all show the varied richness of 
a tmd which, put to good account, might effectually relieve the distress of 
ihe older communities of the world. 

Lastly, in unmanufactured, or but partially manufactured, products, 
there are specimens of moose liide and leather, moose-deer's head and 
horns, cilf-skin, porpoise-skin, &c. 

In addition to these resources of natural wealth, the Canadian colonists 
are farourably represented as regards their skill of handicraft — particularly 
as relates to furniture and articles of domestic and general use. Of furni- 
ture there are several most creditable specimens — substantial in make, 
whilst aiming at some trick of style in decoration, which, although of course 
not claiming to compete with the more finished and artistic articles of 
liixe produced in Lonvlon, Vienna, and Paris, show an aptness of handling, 
which a little study of improved models, abundant opportunities for which 
the present Exhibition affords, will doubtless, in future, direct more happily. 
Amongst the articles of furniture desei-ring of especial mention, from the 
loyal associations connected with them, ai'e half-a-dozen chaii-s, the scats 
and back worked in worsted and silk by the ladies of Jlontreal, " for 
England's Queen." There are also a handsome pianoforte and some other 
musical instruments, showing that Saxon industry in Canada does not 
intend to restrict itself for the future to mere articles of utiUty. 

In the midst of the room arc some very stylish sleighs, with harness and 
sleigh-robes complete ; and a fire-engine of unusually large proportions, 
and remarkably elegant design and workmanship, capable of tlirowing two 
streams of water ]5(i feet high, or a single stream 210 feet high. There is 
attached to it a box containing neces.sary tools, and with a seat for the 
nccommodatiou of the firemen, but this adds greatly to tije length, and 
although a useful contrivance for the comparatively open thoroughfares of 
Montreal, would hardly do for the crowded London streets. 

Amongst other matters which the visitor will remark in this collection, 
are some interesting models, including one of a wonden bridge, having an 
arch of 250 feet span ; a Canadian trading c;uioe, made of course of bark — 
a remarkably fine specimen of this class of boat ; ship-buildiug crooks and 
futtocks ; siiecimeus of cordage ; various tools and articles of cutlery ; 
samples of carjietiug, blankets, and grey cloth ; fine cloths and satinettes ; 
patent leather ti-uuks, bound with brass ribs, and remarkably substantial ; 
cooking and p^udour stoves ; a church bell, made from the copper of Lake 
Huron ; some excellent printing types ; a new description of copying-press ; 
snow-shoes and mocassins ; and even some articles of jewellery and Some 
specmieus of artificial teeth. 

We shall give a. view of the Canadian '■ Trophy of Timber," with some 
observations on the Timber trade, in our next 



INAUGUKATION OF THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 

The large illustration across pages 2i and 25 represents the entrance of 
her Majesty oud-the Prince Consort, accompanied by the Prince of Wales 
and the Princess Roy.al, and their attendants, for the Inauguration of the 
Great Exhibition on the 1st of May. Few who were present can forget 
that scene. After her Majesty had left the robiug-room a flourish of 
trumpets announced her approach, when the bronzed gates leading into 
the transept were flmig open, and the full ci-ash of chorus, band, and organ 
burst into " God save the Queen," only to bo drowned by the acclamations 
which simultaneously arose from floor and palleries, from nave and aisle.?, 
as the Royal procession advanced to the splendid dais prepared for them. 
Following the Lord Chamberlain, and a group of the principal officers of 
the household, all of them walking backwarth--, and ushering in her Majesty, 
came the Queen, leaning upon the arm of Prmce Albert, and holding the 
Prince of Wales by the hand ; the Prince Consort conducting, in like 
manner, the Princess Royal. Following the Royal group was a glittering 
line of lords and laiiies — the uniforms and Court dresses of the gentlemen 
contrasting with the toilettes of the maids of honour and ladies in waiting. 
Close to her Majesty walked the Prince of Prussia, with the Duchess of 
Kent on his arm ; then followed a long Ime of officers of the Court, &c 



ARTS OF DESIGN AND DECORATION. 



MocEL OF THE Falls OF NiAGAEA. — Among the various models to be 
found in several parts of the Great Exhibition, is one of the Falls of 
Kiagara, which ha.5 doservecUy attracted a large share of attention. This 
model has been transferred by Mr. Catlin from his collection of American- 
Indian productions, and faithfully represents the " Horse-shoo " and 
American FalU (the former descending 150 feet, and the latter 163 feet), 
the various mills, hotels, residences, roads', and Goat Island, extending to 
15 acres, embraces an extent of countrj' equal to nearly a Houare mile ; and 
being constructed to a scale of ao feet to an itich, every object is very dis- 
tinctly shown. The amount of water descending over the two falls is said 
to be equal to 1,715,000 tons per muiute, and which is chiefly derived from 
the drainage of Lake Superior, Lake of the Woods, Lake Michigan, Lake 
Huron, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Erie. 



PRESENT STATE AND PROSPECTS OF DECORATIVE ART. 
1'HE ornamentation of works of utility is a subject which, after very long 

and almost total neglect, is beginning to engage the attention as well of 
producers as of those who employ them, and which it may be interesting 
to consider in reference to the examples presented in the Great National 
Exposition. The subject is a very wide and a very inviting one : we .shall 
endeavoxir, however, to restrict our ob.servations within the limits of the 
practical bearings of it. Yet, in doing so, we must not omit to point out 
wh.at we conceive to bft the legitimate province over which such an inquiry 
might extend, as it involves a necessary relationship, in an a;sthetic point 
of view, of several branches of art hitherto having little connexion w ith one 
anotlier, but which, nevertheless, have strictly common interests, in this 
at least — that for success they must conform themselves to the prevailing 
taste or prejudices of the age. The I'ule is imperative — there is no escape 
from it ; and though fine art may pretend to turn its back upon useful art 
it is difficult to say where the province of the one begins and that of the 
other ends ; whilst it is positively certain that where fine art has " no con- 
nexion " with useful art. like other fine people amongst a non-productive 
community, its resources become sapped, and, it dwindles to decay. What^ 
is architecture but building u2:)ou principles of taste in which the eye is 
consulted ] the same " taste"' which prescribes the form of a hat and the 
fashion of a sleeve? The chain which connects all the handicrafts employed 
in the various intermediate matters of social requirement may be a long 
one, at some points a slight one, but still it is an unbroken one, and will 
make itself felt sooner or later. As between architecture and internal 
decoration and furniture the links are very palpable in the recent adoption 
of raeditcval models ; where the wood carver and the upholsterer very quickly 
followed upon tlie heels of the builder, and where the artificers in silver, 
and brass, and potter's clay, and now the book-printer and bookbinder (to 
say nothing of the writer of book.s) and the embroiderer of silks and 
woollens, and the whole host of those who minister to the need and fancy 
of othei'S, are with very gi'eat precision following upon the footsteps of one 
another, or, rather, walking hand in hand over the same path. How long 
it may be before the tailor and hatter join in the march, and turn us out 
into ye street off £ondee, "a fine old English gentleman" after the fashion of 
his forefathers in the thirteenth century, we do not pretend to gues.s. 

There should be a nice and critical scrutiny of the principles of art 
evinced in every class of works from the highest to the loweot, if we would 
hope to educate or guide the public taste in these niatters. There is no 
doing things by halves, and fortunately so, as we think ; for the same course 
of culture which brings t!ie judgment to correct appreciation of excellence 
and beauty in the structure of a palace, will apply equally to the fashion 
of a dress, and the ornamentation of the material of which it is composed. 
The same principles of harmony, the same rules of propriety, the same 
submission to the dictates of common sense and common fitness which 
regulate the one. regulate the other also. And surely not without justice, 
surely not ignobly, is art, high art, employed, if whilst it builds and 
decorates temples for man's resort, it decorates man also — if, whilst it 
paints the portraits of om* wives and daughters in the most becoming 
costume, it gives some hint how we m.ay have the originals as advan- 
tageously " treated" in that respect when at home. 

This brings us at once to a consideration of what has been done towards 
this art-culture — what has been done towards the accomplishment of this 
only profitable "Art- Union" — we mean the association of decorative art 
with art purely useful. AVe should observe that (speaking of modern 
times) it Ls only very recently that tlie idea of such an association entered 
into the minds of men : fine art always before that sticking to its picture- 
frame ; useful art to the stockmg-franie and the loom. And now that they 
have consented, as it were, to a conference, with a view to establishing a 
commercial league, it is not without eou^iderable misgivings, and reserve, 
and jealousy, resulting from an imperfect understanding of their relative 
right positions and their common interests, that they go on, or stand still 
over the matter. The great dirficnlty at present, as it appears to us, 
required to be settled, is, wh»re art ends, and w here handicraft begins —the 
middle gi-ound upon which head and hand work together. In a cabinet 
picture for the annual exhibition, and in the manufacture of a coarse calico, 
there is no room for doubt upon this point ; it is where the picture and the 
calico require to be combined. So, in the building of your house, the R.A. 
is your mau to superintend, and take his percentage of commission ; but 
when it comes to the carpeting and furnishing, upon which, as much as 
upon the actual disposition of the stone-work, the comforts and " effect" of 
your new mansion depend, he leaves you to the upholsterer and the carpet 
manufacturer. He will not take commission out of wood-work and 
woollens. Yet it was not always so — it is not so to the full extent now 
abroad ; and when we all know our own interests better, it \rill not be so 
with us. The advantages of a co-operative association of ai't and handicraft 
will neither be one-sided nor short-lived, Art will educate and reclaim a 




OPEHIKG 01' THE GKEAT EiHlBlTIUN, MAY 1, Itii.— EjS'rilAhXK Ui' Ulilt MAJliSTV, nU^'CIi ALiilillT, AiM) TUE liU\AL i.UllL^. 



26 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



LITERATURE OF THE EXHIBITION. 



The Exhibition of 1851, &c. By Charles Badbage, Es^., 8vo. Pp. 231. 

Mui'i-ay. 
THIS work is illustrative of the uuparalk-led Exhibition, and its unpn- 
ralleled Ciyfltal Palace repositorj', and treats not only the immediate sub- 
ject coDiprehensively and scientifically, but also discusses, in no forbearing 
temper, the conduct of Government and the evils of party iu other respect*. 
The fame of Mr. Babbage, as a mathematician, is too well known to need 
" exposition" (as he j)refers to iise tluit French word instead of the usual 
English "Exhibition"); and Ins mifui-timate differences with the Govern- 
ment concerning his calculating machines, and disputes with several of his 
contemporaries in the pursuit of science, are also fiuniliar to the scientific 
public, and we shall, therefore, in reviewing his book, not fuUow liim in 
any references to those subjects, which though mostly topics of much public 
interest, may be dismissed with bare enumeration in a notice which we 
would rather confine to the direct illustration of the actual Exhibition and 
its prospective results. 

The philusophical mind and great intelligence of the writer are displayed, 
for our purpose, much more satisfactorily in his views of the principles of 
interchange, and of the rules by which judges and jurors ought to be 
f^iided; and his statistical facts and reasoning upon them, and their 
presence or absence in as far a'^ the conduct of the Exliibition has been 
carried, and its futm-e management :md effects, are implicated. The grand 
principle enunciated upon the inquiry into the interchange of commoditiea, 
that the errors which have heretofore beset that difficult question, ia, that 
the/ri'€ and wilimifed exchunpe of commniiities between nations coiUributfS to 
the advantage and the wealth of all ; that thin benefit arises from no sacrifice 
of one nation for the profit of another ; and that the genu of the productive 
powers of man is by these means, without any increa=!ed labour, largely 
augmented throughout the world ; that tliis increment is won paitly by tho 
suppression of ignonince and fi-aud. and partly by the imited effects of 
industiT. of skill, and of science, iu compelling Nature to adminLster to the 
wants of man. 

The tendency of the World's Fair to'extend and cultivate these principles 
and relations is, ounsequently, highly applauded by Mr. Babbage ; but he 
(bsapproves of some of the measures adopted for establishing them, and 
a^pecially the rejection by the Commissioners of the proposal to mark the 
prices of the articles exhibited, which he cou^idere to be the leading fault in 
the whole scheme. Upon this most practical point he observes — 

"This consequence of the absence of price is injurious both to ai't and to 
artists : it occasionally removes from the field of competition the best 
judges of real merit. It is true that in several professions a certitii 
delicacy ra^pecting money matters exists which is wanting in others. 
Medical men. and artists are peculiarly aubJcLt to its influence ; but it is 
not reported of any lawyer that he ever refused a fee ; and it is recorded j 
of some Sdcretaiy of the Admiralty, that he claimed a quarter of a year's 
war siilu)!/, on account of two days' interruption of peace by the combat of 
Algiers. 

" § Another result of prices not being mai-kod upon objects is, that the 
public are unable to form any just estimate of their commercial value; 
consequently, no proper public opinion ai-L'teB to assist the juries in their 
decisions. This is a matter of considemble importance ; the duty of a 
juror at an exposition is quite different from that of a juror in a legal 
question. It is the busiuef* of the industrial juror to avail himself of the 
knowledge and the observations of iJl around him. Much of what he thus 
hears he may be able himself to verify by eiamination or experiment, and 
thus public opinion will be more matured, and the dedaions of the juries 
have greater weight. 

" § Slany of the quaKti^ of the articles exhibited can only be a'*certainod 
by use, or even by their destruction. In such ca&es a single sample would 
often be purchased if it had ite price affixed to it. 

'• Another class, small indewi in number, but important from its func- 
tions suffers the greatest inconvenience from the absence of price. Tboiie 
engaged in studying the commercial autl economical relations of various 
inunufactures, either for the gratification of their own tastes or for the 
instruction of the public, are entirely deprived of the most important 
element of their reaaonings. 

" If crer;/ atiicU had its price affixed, many relations would strike the eye 
of an eipL'rienced obeerver which might lead him to further inquiries, and 
probably to the most interesting results. But it is quite impossible for 
him to write to any considerable portion of 15,000 expositors for their list 
of prices, or even to go round and ask for it in the Imilding itaelt Price 
in many cases offers at once a verification of the truth of other statements. 
Thus, to a person conversant ■with the subjects, the low price of an article 
might prove that it had been manufactured in some mode entirely different 
from that usually j>ractised. This would lead to an examination of it, in 
order to discover the improverl process. The price of an article compared 
\rith its weight might prove that the met-d of which it is maile could not be 
genuine. The piice of a woven fabric added to a knowledge of its breadth 
and bub&tance, even without its weight, might in many cases effectually 
disprove the statement of its being entirely made of wool, or hair or flax 
or silk, as the case mig^t be. ' ' 



" The exchange of commodities between those to whom such exchanges 
may be desirable, being the great and ultimate object of tho Exposition, 
every circumstance that can give pubhcity to the tilings exhibited should 
be most carefully attended to. Tho price in money is the most im- 
portant element in every bargain ; to omit it, is not less absurd than to 
represent a tragedy without its hero, or to paint a portrait without n nose. 
" It commits a double error ; for it withholds the only test by which tlie 
comparative value of things can be known, and it puts aside the greatest of 
nil interests, that of the consumer, in order to favour a small and particular 
claw — the middle-men. 

" Tlie composition of that commission muntbo most extraordinary, where 
an error so contrary to the principles and so fatal to the objects of tho 
Exposition, could have been committed. It is not too late to apply at 
least a partial remedy to the evil, and it is scarcely credible that those 
with whom it rests can remain unconscious of the mistake into which they 
have been led." 

The style and feelings of the author may be gathered from this extract, 
05 well as his cosmopolitan manner of looking round upon the collaterals 
which are linked, however slightly, with his main arg\iment, Which, in 
this case, is to show, that, by their rules in this matter, the Commissionera 
"riolato the very foundations of thosa principles on which the whole ad- 
vantange of the Exposition rests." 

Adjudication of prizes. — Leaving the topic, i,e. of tho utility, yet largely 
practicable, of affixing prices and even of facilitating sales, which is also 
recommended, we quote some observations on the adju(licati<m of the 
prizes, which are full of sound sense and instruction, and wliieh, at the 
present moment, ■will be read with great interest — 

'* A clear statement of the princijilea on which each jury is to award 
prizes should be placed before them. These principles ought to be well 
discussed, and in that discussion manufacturers should be invited to take 
a part. 

*' The first object of the jury should he to lay do^vn rules by which these 
principles are to be carried out. Each class of the subjects to be rewai'dcd 
will have its own ndes. They will generally be few in number, imd capable 
of being expressed in few woi'ds ; some of these are suggested below, but 
merely by way of example. 

" One of the most general rules will indicate the means by which the jury 
can ascertain the fact, that the material of the manufacture under considera- 
tion is truly the substance it is represented to be. For instance, some 
woven fabric is examineth professing to bo made entirelj' of wool or wholly 
of flax. It may be quite true that es|icrienced manufacturers nnJ dealers 
are able to detect any adulteration of either material by admixture with the 
other. But statements of facts made on authority, never possess the same 
weight with the public as those which are accompanied by information 
enabling any individual among the public to verify the fact for himself. 
The foiTu of the fibre as shown by tho microscope is one test. A moi'o 
simple one is to bum some fibres in the flame of a candle. Every fibre 
which, when thus treated, produces the smell of burnt feathers, is animal 
matter of some kind, as wool, silk, horse hair, &c. The burnt fibres of 
hemp, flax, cotton, and other vegetable matters, have a totally different 
scent ; a fact of whicli any one may readily a.'-surc himself by making the 
cxpeiiment It may, perhaps, be necessary in some ciises to wash the 
fabric under eiaraiuation, lest, in what is tcraied the 'getting up for the 
market,' some onimal matter or size might mislead. But the jury ought 
to be acquainted with all such difficulties, and they should state the method 
they took for investigating them. 

" The microscope is of great use in detection of adulterations in most 
vegetable sub-stances. 

"Every object produced is subject to certain defects, and possessed of 
certain excellencies : these should be clearly enumenited. 'Wheuever such 
statements are expressed by numbers, the" information will be more satis- 
factory. Tlius. in cutting tools, as applied to various metals, it is very 
impoitimt that the angle at which the tool is applied should be stated : it 
is also necessary to state the angle which the edge of the tool receiving the 
sharing cut off makes with the surface cut. The velocity of tlie tool 
in cuttiug should be stated, also the names of the fluids, if any, used in 
cutting. 

"The durability of woven fabrics, as well as of a great variety of other 
manufactured articles, is a most essential quality, on which, combined with 
the price, their chief value to the customer depends. It is very desirable 
that the jury shonld find satisfactory means of testing this most important 
character, which is not disceraible even by the most curious and instructed 
spectator. 

" The knowledge of the weight reqnii'cd for tearing asunder any woven 
fabric, as a ribbon, a staylace, Upe, &c., together with the breaking weight 
of their individual threads, and the number of these threails iu an inch, 
may in some cases be very valuable, especially iu coarse tii-ticlcs. such as 
sail-cloth, sacking, &c. In other cases, the articles may be submitted to 
twenty or thirty wa^nhings and dryings, during which time it may repeatedly 
be examined. The greatest change will most frequently occur on the first 
washing, which removes the dressing. 

" In many articles the durability of different parts varies considerably. In 
some cases one part will wear out, if replaced, many times before the 
remainder of the article is at all injured by use. In all such cases, the jury 
should adopt such rules as the following ;— Examine the durability of each 
part, and also the difficulty and the expense of replacing it when injured. 
Examine; also, for the same purpose, what parta are most exposed to injury 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP/EDIA OP THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



23 



larger field in the public mind; will, so to say, create a ta=te to which it 
will afterwards profitably mmister ; — handicraft will, by means of improved 
and novel designs thus placed at its disposal, be enabled to compete vnih 
the markets of the world, from a bold and independent gi-ound, which it 
does not occupy at present; — finally, the artificere employed in this joint 
production will have constant opportunities of developing their inventive 
talents, and of advancing their position beyond that of mere live mecha- 
nism ; and England, instead of being for ever a mere nation of shopkeepers, 
may become the luH^producer of the world, and the founder of a new school 
worthy of bearing its name. 

For want Q(f this application of inventive and original taste to hmidicraft, 
the latter, left unaided and iu the dark, has bad, through a series of gene- 
rations, to resort to mere copying of favourite models of former periods — 
models more or less meritorious in themselves, but whose merit consisted 
mainly in their originality, and their general conformableness to the pre- 
vailing tastes, and tho prevailing fa-^hious in other matters, of the time in 
which they were produced- Thus have We con.qtant boastings of pure 
cinque cento, pure R'-naismnce, pure Elizabethan, pure Louis Quatorze, and 
most abundantly of all puro rococo, as though these were passports to 
honour and favour , instead of 'simple confessions of bankruptcy in idea, 
and almost hopeless extinction of inventive faculty. 

It is now fifteen years since not only the public, but the Government, 
began to aw.ake to a full appreciation of the miserable state of darkness 
in which the country lay in respect to all that related to the ornamental 
part of manufacture — a circumstance which it was proved militated very 
seriously against the commercial prosperity which we are otherwise entitleil 
to enjoy ; and seeing the hopelessness of a spontaneous movement on the 
part of high art in aid of its humbler brother, it was resolved to establish 
Schools of Design, with a view to affording elementary instruction in the 
arts applicable to the decoration of manufactures, &c. The establishment 
of the Government School was quickly followed by that of others, some 
subsidiary, others independent, in various parts of the country. What the 
result of these efforts has been, may be gathered by those who take interest 
in the advancement of their kind, by inspecting the exhibitions of works of 
students which annually take place ; for, as yet, we are sorry to say, there 
has been little direct effect upon actual manufactured productions. 

In simple truth, the school of design system, considered in reference to 
what was expected from it and what has been done for it, has proved a | 
failure. The cause of this failure has been much and angrily discussed by 
several parties who have been more or less mixed up or interested in the 
scheme ; but, upon a calm revision of the whole case, we think it may be i 
summed up in very few words : Jirst, the schools of design have been too 
limited iu the field over which their influence was proposed to extend, being 
restricted chiefly to the manufactures in whlcli patterns are artiricially 
multiplied, and not touching the higher branches of decorative production, , 
such as architectural de.sign, wood-caning, room-fumiahin?. Ac, to which | 
textile manufactures are but tributary ; secondly, the instruction has for the 
iao.st part been limited to mere copying, whether by drawing or modelling, : 
of actual objects, whether natural or manufiietured, no attempt having been 
made to inculcate the principles of design aa design, much less to encoui-age 
the inventive powers and educate the tastes of the pupils : tho consequence is, | 
thirdly, that the latter, having been left to their own devices. With their 
mere acquired faculty of imitating actual objects, without any sound prin- I 
ciples as to the selection and disposition of those objects for decorative [ 
purposes, having regard to their respective fitness as enibellishmenta of 
various classes of productions to which decoration may be applied, have 
(with few and trivial exceptions) failed of producing anything which has 
proved worthy of practical adoption by our manufacturers ; so that, whilst 
they themselves have but little tulvaneed their stations and prospecta by 
years of study, the manufacturing taste of the country is just where it was 
before the scheme was started, _ ! 

We have too much reason to apprehend that this unpropltious state of i 
things is in part attributable to the very men who would be most benefited 
by an oppowte result ; that the textile manufacturers, with whom the con- 
coction and plagiary of jiattems haa always been a sort of mystery, have I 
viewed with jealousy the attempt to educate pattern drawers by scores in , 
every manufacturing town in the country. They see in all this abundant 
means of competition, but none of advancement; and knowing that art, as 
involved in design and colour, can only be succesufully applied to mauufac- , 
tures by one who understands the techiiical details of the latter, In whatever 
brancli it may happen to be, they have too g[enerally refused to give their I 
aid to the general cause by cnlighteuing their students of art in the mys- j 
teries of their handicndt. Mr. Thomson, of Clitheroe, in liis evidence before ^ 
a committee of the House of Commons, indeed, very clearly lays dowii the 
views which manufacturers have commonly entertained upon this subject, , 
and we qu>ite a passage from his evidence, the more reatlily as tho com- 
mittee in their report particularly refer to this witness, as "a gentleman of , 
great taste and experience in manufactures." Mr Thomson saya : — j 

"The manufactiu-ers of England want etlucated designers; and they \ 
look to your schools for that instruction to our young men which irill train I 
the eye to an accurate perception of beauty, and forui, and harmony of | 
colour, and the hand to correct the delineation of it, and thus lay the mo.«t 
solid foundation for the application of design to that branch of industrial 
art in which the student decides afterwards [to engage. In six montha 
they will Itaru more technical skill relative to their own art in our work- 
shops and manufactories, than you could teach them in six years at 
Somerset House, Besides, who .is to teach them ] Are you to have a 



master or professor of pattern drawing in 'every department of industry? 
for cdico-printiug and its subdivi-sions, furnitures, shawls, dresses^ for silk- 
weaving in its subdivisions of rich damask furniture for kings and princes, 
dresses for the refined and the vulgar, and a hundred articles of fluctu- 
ating fashions in scarfs, shawls, ribbons, &c. i Where wdl fyou find the 
universal genius that is to teach all thisi or will you have a master for 
each ! You will advertise, and your small salary will bring you hosts of 
broken-down pattern -drawers of all sorts, who, though unable to get 
employment in a manufactoi-y, or find a sale for their own designs, will yet 
boldly un<Ieitake to teach everything in yom- school. Bewai'e how you 
excite the doubts and suspicions, and eventually lose the confidence of the 
manufacturer themselves, by failing, as you assuredly will do, in the 
attempt to do th.it which it is impossible you should ever succeed in." 

Although it is two or three years since the above observations were made, 
we have reason to believe that they correctly describe the opinions and 
views of the great bulk of the manufacturers of this country, at the present 
moment, who have not yet got rid of all their apprehensions and misgivings 
about pattern-di-awiug and art-movement. If the concourse of genius and 
industry attracted to tlie Crystal Palace jdoes no more than rub away a 
little of this rust of prej udice, it will have achieved a great and ceilain good 
to the whole industrial commuuity of this country. 



THE CEREMONIAL OF CLOSING THE EXHIBITION AND 
DECLARING THE PRIZES AWARDED. 

Toe foUowmg is generally believed to be tho programme of the closing 
proceedings on the 11th prox. : — Seats will be provided, up<tn a raised stage 
in the centre of the transept, for the accommodation of Prince Albert and 
the other royal commisoionei"s, and in the immediate neighbourhood for 
those inrited to be present. The principal portion of the business trans- 
acted will consist in one of the coimcil of chaLrmen— probably the chairman, 
Viscoimt Canning, announcing to the commissioners the awards of the 
prizes which the juroi-s have made, and stating tho Kronuds upon which 
they have been given. Prince Albert, as president of the commission, will 
then, in all probability, on behalf of the royal commissioners, thank the 
jurors for the attention which they have bestowed upon the subject: and 
he will, no doubt, take that opportunity of alluding to the great success of 
tho undertaking — the assistauce which it baa received from all classes of 
tlie community— the benefits to art, manufactures, and commerce which 
may be expected to flow from the lessons which it has taught — and tho 
Services of the foreign, metropolitan, and local commissioners and com- 
mittees ; and lost, but not least, the cordial support and assistance rendered 
by the exhibitors will be duly acknowledged. It is not intended to admit 
the public upon this occasion, as accommodation for witnessing the ceremony 
and hearing the addresses could not be prorided for a greater number of 
persons than the exhibitora, jurors, foreign and local commissioners, and 
members of local committees, whose presence it is intended to request. 
The distribution of medals will be a matter of after consideration, as com- 
paratively few of those requiring tho names of the owners to be stamped 
upon them will be ready for deliveiy by the liJth of October, 

The programme of the closing was settled, and circulars are about to he 
issued to exhibitors, informing them that the building will be closed on 
the nth : that on the 13tli and 14th they will have the privilege of going 
there with two friends, and that on the 15th they are mvited to be present 
at twelve o'clock at the meeting of the royal commissionei-s. By this 
aiTangement the exhibitors will have the farewell view of the Crystal 
Palace, and a deference is thus shown to their labours and their sacrifices 
in its behiilf, which we are sure they will not be alow to appreciate. 

It is understood that Lord Sej-mour hits intimated to the commissionera 
that the government would be prepared to sanction tho purchase of a 
portion of the valuable collcctioQ of minerals and raw produce, for the 
purpose of completing tho collection at Kew. The Ru^ian government 
have also given instructions to their commisaioner to purchase a Bimilar 
collection for the Museum of St. Petemburg. 

The lists of the successful competitors are in hand, but proceed slowly, 
as, it being intended that each person's name should appear in full on his 
medal, any mistake in the orthography (and that of some of them ia very 
cm-ious, as may be supposed), would be fatal to his fame. 

The collection of records or memorials of the Exhibition ia going on 
most favourably. They are to consist of specimens of raw matcnala. 
samples of textile fabrics, and drawings of the machinery and engineermg 
inventions. The exhibitors take great interest in this collection, and nio 
seudinff in contributions with great liberality and promptitude. 



It is stated that numerous and valuable presents havo already been made 
by exhibitors to the Royal Commission, for the formation of a permauuut 
museum, after the present display in Hydo Park shall have termmated. 

The fate of the Crystal Palace appcai-s to be still undecided, but unless 
some royal interposition takes place the contractors ^rill, certainly, com- 
mence and pull do™ the buUding as soon as the goods lu-e cleared out. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOIM-IDLV OP TIIK CRKAT FA'IIIIUTION OF 185]. 



or (IcHtruetiuu by acciilcnt. Kxivmiiio, aim), the ivliitivc uxiieiiHO of ]Mittiiig 
tlio ivrtiulo ill a working «tato wliou fii'Ht i)Urclia.fed anil brought honiu. 
Tlicso nikw will bo bent undurHtoocl by an illnntration. Lot im Hiippoao a 
jury to bo cxaniininf; Ibo relative; niorits of BOvoral cotta^o Btovcs for cook- 
ing. Of cour.-io, tlic lirxt inqniry will be as to wliiuli aflniits of tbe best |ior- 
forniance of tlio oiicrutioiiK of 'bolliiig, slewing, roanting, broiling, baking, 
nnjiply of liot water, ironing, &c. Tlic eost of tlio fuel iiuist not only be 
given, but al^n its wei;,'lit, because the price of fuel v.arie« in dilferont 
locaIitiet4. The capability of u«ing diffbiviit Kort.s of fucl^ in llio Hoveral 
stovoM, ainl the amount of fuel so conHumcJ for its equivalent of coal, 
Hhoulil also be stated. These and other conipaivativo impiiries having been 
made, the dmubility of that jjart of the stove wliieh is subjected to the 
direct action of the burning fuel iiiu-st be examined. It will be made either 
of iron or of earthenware : and the relative merit of the various stoves will, 
as far as this ]ioint is concerned, consist in the facility and economy with 
which such jiarts can be removed, auJ'the corresponding new parts be pur- 
cl.a.sod and replaced in their proper position. It is always desirable for tlie 
consumer, that the vendors of such articles should keep a stock of the parts 
liable to wear out, and that the latter should undertake to replace them at 
a fixed price. Those parts of the stove which project so as to be liable to 
accidental blows, and those which are from their more constant use much 
exposed to accident, as the hinges and tlie latches of doors, should then be 
examined. Those, if of cast iron or otlicr brittle material, and constituting 
part of tlio substance of tho door, should bo sufficiently strong to resist 
fracture : if they are attached to it by rivets or otherwise, they will be 
■lighter and strongi^r when made of wrought iron. The last inquiry is into 
the ex])en3e for fixing the stove for use. It may be set in brickwork, within 
the chimney, in which case it will require a bricklayer .and a largo m.a.ss of 
materials in tin; .shape of brick.s and mortar, and possibly of stone. Or it 
may stand on its own baj3e containing its own ash pit, imd by means of a 
small iron jiipe the smoke may bo conveyed into a flue. In this case, 
almost any workman, with hammer and chisel and a small quantity of 
mortar or cemont, can fix it ready for use. Again, the stop-cock for the 
water-cistern may be either hard-soldered, riveted, or screwed in. If the 
latter, it can easily be unscrewed or rc-gi-ound when necessary. The same 
remark applies to the leaden supply-pipe ; it m.ay be connected by solder- 
ing, or by a union joint. In the former case these parts will require the 
aid not only of the tinuKin or coppersmith, but ;dso of tlie plumber. 

"The cxiieuso of repairing a machine does. not in all cases depend on the 
cost of the part repluccil, or even on the actual cost of replacuig that part 
alone. It often happened in the eai-lier days of locomotive engines, that 
the expense uf some small repiu-atiou necessary to keep the machine in good 
working order did not amount to ten shillings ; whilst ' the expen.se of 
removing and replacing other parts, without which the workman could not 
get at the defective part, amounted to fifty or eighty shillings, or even to 
a still larger sum. Thus, facility of getting at all the parts of an engine for 
the purposes of repair, or even of examination, is one of the advantages 
which the broad possesses over the narrow gauge. 

" In many articles exposed to great or suddeil force, and to much weai' or 
tear, it is very desirable, that, if any breakage occur, it should happen at that 
point where the eonsequeuces would be the least dangerous to the persons 
using it, and the repai'ation of it least expensive. 

" During a series of experimeuts made by the author, in 1839, on the 
Great Western Railway, it was necessary, amongst a variety of other om-ves, 
to cause a pen to draw upon long rolls of paper the curve described by tho 
centre of a carriage, projected on the plane of the road. When everything 
is in proper order, this line ought to be parallel to, and in the middle 
between the two rails. But it is well known, that, instead of answering 
these conditions, it often describes a serpentine curve, arising from that 
snake-like motion of a train wliich the cai-riages acquire by rolling alter- 
nately towards each rail, until they are checked by the flanges pressing 
against it. To accomplish the drawing of l;he line above mentioned, it was 
necessary to have depending from the carriage a very stout jointed wooden 
arm, terminating iu an iron shoe with a steel projection. This shoe wa?, by 
a powerful spring, pressed close to the rail in the middle point between the 
two side wheels of the carriage, and by a communication with the pen the 
required curve was described. But such an appai-atus was exposed to very 
rough work, and. iu fact, was generally broken three or four times during 
each experimental journey. If the broken part had fallen between the wheel 
and the rail, it might have caused a serious accident. To prevent this the 
following precautious were taken : — The wooden arm was strengthened 
with tliiu strips of iron, except at one part about an inch long. At this 
part a small notch was cut with a .saw. The lower portion had a strong 
iron eye fixed into it. which was connected loosely to a hook by a rope 
passing through a hole in the middle of the cairiage. Whenever the 
apparatus broke, it was always at the notch. The position of the loose rope 
holding the broken part was such, that the tendency was immediately to 
di'ag it into the middle of the road, under the centre of the carriage. This 
at once removed it from interference with the wheels. The pen describing 
the curve soon g.ave notice, by ceasing to move laterally, that the arm was 
broken; on which one of the assistants immediately took hold of the loose 
rope, and pulling the broken fragment close up to the bottom of the 
carriage, prevented the possibility of any fiuiher danger. 

" If each jury were to explahi concisely the means employed by them to 
examine the qualities of each class of objects submitted to them, much 
y.\luable information would x-esult. A collection of these rules for the 
J udgment or yerihcation of articles, if reduced into order, and published 



in a small compiws, by a competent [icrsoD, at the cIohc of the Kxjioiiitioii 
would bo invaluable to the public. Tlic rcHult would be buneficial t<j all 
himcal tnodcMinen, and injurious only to t]\e fraudulmt. Such mcanii, when 
put into the hands of the public, would noon enable it to dixtiogiiish the 
genuine from the sophisticated articles, and to Hclcct those which in point 
of excellence .and dur.ibility are best suited to the means or waiitri of tho 
purch.a.ser. The increaseil knowledge of tlic public would be felt by tho 
retail dealers, and wouhl make them more unxiouH to obtain excellent and 
durable goodn from the niaiiiifacturor. 



MACHINERY & MECHANICAL CONTRIVANCES. 

THE MACHINERY COURT. 
'PHE annexed cngiaving presents a view of a portion of the Machinery Court, 
in which are comprised throe of the moatinteresting enginen for the tranji- 
ferring and modification of power for the purpose of lifting weights, ic. ; 
namely, the great hydraulic press, which was used iu raising the tubes of 
the Britannia liridge, manufactured by the Bank Quay Foundry Company, 
Warring'ton ; Armstrong's hydraulic macliincry ; and Henderson's patent 
Derrick crane. 

The principles of hydraulics by which repeated increments of power may 
be stored and accumulated, in a rosen'oir of sufficient strength to retain 
this aggregation in the form of a certain bulk of water, was first applied to 
the hydraulic press, by Mr. Braiuah, in 1790. It has since been applied 
to a variety of purpose.s, with signal success, both in lifting of enormou-s 
weights, and puttmg enormous pressure upon bales of goods, for the 
purpose of diminishing their bulk in packing. Before proceeding to 
describe the details of this machinery and its gigantic labom-s, it may be 
proper to warn mexperieiiecd readers against a vulgar error which pre- 
vails sometimes, that power is made or gained by the use or intervention 
of machinei-y. Such is by no means the case : — no more power can be 
obtained from luiy machine than what is put into it, whether by manual, 
labour, the force of tho elements, or the application of natural phenomen.a, 
as the explosion of gunpowder, the evaporation of water, the action of the 
electric fluid, &c. All that is obtained is the .storing of small quantities 
imtil they become a bulk sufficiently large to be useful for the desired 
purpose. Five hundred men by repeated direct efl'orts, or by one simul- 
timeous direct effort, could not lift the monument the eighth of an inch ; 
but the power of one man continuously applied for a sufficient length 
through the medium of an hydi'aulie press, would be able to lift it and 
caiTy it across the river. In this process, however, so far from gaining 
power, some power is lost in the very working of the machinery, so much 
power, in fact, is as it were paid for the use of the engine required. To 
use a homely dlustratiou of another ehai-acter. You may accumulate suc- 
cessive penny instalments in a savings' bank till they amount to 100/., but you 
have to pay something for the accommodation. We i^roceed now to describe 

THE GREAT HYDRAULIC PRESS. 

The principal parts of this macliinery are an iron cylinder, in which a 
piston works, at the bottom of which is a tube opening into it, with a valve 
closing downwai'ds. The other end of this tube communicates with a small 
forcing pump, by. which water is driven through the said valve, into the 
portion of the cylinder beneath the piston ; which is, consequently, gradu- 
ally forced up by it. By connecting the iiiston end with a set of chains, 
&c., supported from strong cross-beams, any object, however gi'cat its might, 
(so that it be not gi'eater than the constructive power of the machinery 
itself,) may be raised gi-aduidly but surely. 

In the gi-eat hydraulic press now under consideration, the internal 
diameter of the cylinder is '2.2 inches, the diameter of ram is 20 inches, 
the external diameter of the cylinder is -12 inches, external length 9 feet 
14 inch; thickness of metal 10 inches; the cast iron crosshead has 
wrought iron links let in at the top, for the pui-pose of strengthening the 
part subject to tensile strain : the sides of the jacket also are strengthened 
with wrought iron slabs, weigliing oO cwt. each, expanded first by heat and 
then fitted on hot, and allowed to contract. To cast the cylinder, it 
required 22 tons of fluid metal, the additional quantity beyond its finished 
weight being required for the head, or git, which weighed 2.J tons. This head, 
or git, was kept iu a fluid state for six hours after the run, by replacing the 
materiid after it became stiffi with metal fresh from the furnace, and of the 
highest attainable temperature, for the pui-pose of supplying the space in 
this immense body of metal below, consequent upon the contraction. In 
three days afterwards the cylinder was partly denuded of its outer coat of 
sand, when it was foimd red hot : in seven days it was lifted from the pit 
in wliich it was cast, and in ten days, or 210 hours, it was sufficiently cool 
to be approached by men well inured to heat, for the pm-pose of dressing 
the remai nin g sand off it. 

The beams, for supporting the press, consisted of six vertical ribs of 
boiler plates, -j^ths thick, united by vertical strips, to preserve them iu 



28 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



form; the 2| inch spaces between ribs were filled with American elm, so 
that the vertical rib wa^ a sandwich of elm and iron. The top and bottom 
flanges were each formed by twelve wrought iron bai-s, extending the whole 
length of beam. The top bar 7 inches wide, the bottom bars 9 inches by 
IJ inch; the whole rivetted together. The weight of each girder was 12 
tons. I'u order to prevent the crushing at the ends, cast iron plates were 
inserted instead of the wood. 

The weight actually supported by one pair of beams was 1717 tons, but 
they were" capable of sustaining 2000 tons. The length between the 
bearing was 17 feet 4 inches. The ram was cast hollow and turned to bed 
truly, beneath the crosshead, which was bored to receive it. The crosshead 



was guided by two wrought iron rods, 6 inches diameter, fitted in sockets 
on the top of the press, and keyed above into a cast iron girder, built in 
the masonry. 

There were two sets of clamps ; the one placed on the crosshead and 
rising with it, was immediately used for lifting the chain and tube, the 
under set was fixed on the cast iron girders which support the press, and 
was used for securing the chain at the end of each lift, while the press was 
lowered, and the upper set of hnks removed : they are in all respects 
similar to each other. The wrought-iron clamping cheeks are slotted to 
fit closely beneath the slotted shoulder in the head of the links ; they are 
withdi-awn or closed_by right and left handed screws, on turning which 




JI.^'-ul^■]lIlV cuLiii. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDLV OF Till'] GREAT EXIITBITION OP 1851. 



29 



the cheoka rocnlc: from cnch othor. or aro drawn into cIoro contact with 
tho chain. To ins\irc a parallel action, tho ncrows aro moved Bimnltaneonsly 
by a winch and ^caring ; tiny arc tlnw easily worked hy one man. TIium 
at eacli Rtrokc of tho press the tube \va» raised (i feet, tho time ocoipicd 
in one lift bcinR iisually from 30 to 45 minutes. 

The lifting chain.s were mannfactod by McsarH. Howard and Kavcnhill ; 
tho clamps and valvos by Messrs. Ka.ston and Amos. Tho superinteiidcnco 
of tho dosiu'ns anil confltruction of this machinery wcro entrusted by 
Mr. Robert Stephenson, tho engineer, to Mr. Hilwin Clark. 

The greatest weight lifted by tlio press at tho Hritimnia bridge was 114'1 
tons; tho quantity of water used for each 6 feet lift 81 .J gallons. "The 
pressure iit .3 tons per circular in(^h, equals 3-810 tons per square inch, 
which would rai^o a column of water .l-ll miles in lieight ; this pressure 
would, therefore, be suflicient to throw water o\'cr tlie highest momitains 
of tho globe." This extraordinary fact is derived fnmi Mr. Edwin Clark's 
work on tho Britannia and Conway bridges. Tho following additional 
extract shows indirectly the vast power of this machine : — 

" If it were required that lib. hhould raise the tube, or 2000 tons, then 
one arm of the lever must bo 418,000 times a.s long as the other; but if 
tho lib. move through tho sp,aco of ono inch, tho tube will bo only lifted 
iTuKmit'' part of an inch; and in order to raise tho tube 100 feet, the 
pressure of lib. must bo continued through a space of 83,522 miles ; and, 
conversely, a prcs.-ure of 2000 tons through a space of 100 feet, would 
raise lib. 83,522 miles ; thus tho descent of a clock-weight through a space 
of 6 feet overcomes the friction of tho machine, and moves the extremity 
of an ordinary seconds-hand through a space of two miles in a week, and 
-tho descent of the tube to the water would maintain the going of an ordi- 
nary clock for 240.000 years," or the power expended by tlie press in 
lifting the tube 100 feet, if applied to au ordinai-y clock, would work it 
for a period of 240,000 year.s. 

" After the first tube was raised, tho cylinder met with an accident, 
described in the following terms by Mr. C'l.ark : — 

" In a little more than a fortnight after this operation, the presses were 
removed ready for raising tho next tube. They were lowered and raised 
ng.oin by means of capstans, with au 8-incli rope : and in this operation 
another accident occun-ed with the unlucky press. The cylinder was 
lowered from a cat-head at the top of a tower; the rope from tho blocks 
led to a capstan on the beach, on which three turns only were taken ; while 
the cylinder, weighing 15 tons, was suspended at an elevation of 140 feet 
above the water, the rope unexpectedly sm-ged on the capstan, and was 
dragged out of the hands of the men who were holding it: the cylinder 
descended -n'ith fearful velocity, dragging the rope through the block tackle 
and round the capstan, which fortunately became palled by the jerk. As 
the velocity increased, the cathead in the tower gave way, and the 
cylinder fell on the stone shelf below, fracturing tho masonry, and gliding 
off 60 or 60 feet in the Straits. Several men-n-ere injured, and a sailor who 
was serving out the coil of rope was dragged round the capstan and killed. 
None of the tackle was broken, and the press was easily raised bj the 
ropes attached to it, and was found to be uninjured by the fall." 



ARMSTRONG'S HYDRAULIC HOISTING MACHINERY. 

Nearly opposite to the great hydraulic press, are working models of 
Mr. W. G. Armstrong's Hydraulic Hoisting Machines : the principles 
illusti-ated by which are, fir.st, ''the transmission of power" from a steam- 
engine to distant points, by means of w.ater conveyed in pipes at a high 
pressure ; and, secondly, " the accumulation of power " by the intervention 
of a reservoir, which enables the continuous action of a small steam-engine 
to meet momentary demands of po-n-er greatly exceeding its direct capar 
bility. The substitution of steam power for manual labour in docks, for 
the purpose of discharging ships, hoisting goods into warehouses, and 
opening and shutting lock gates, sluices, and sw-ing bridges, is au object 
much to be desired, but cUtBcult of attainment by ordinary means. To 
effect these purposes by the direct application of a multiplicity of steam- 
engines scattered over the premises would involve an amount of complica- 
tion and encumbrance wliich would be quite inadmissible ; and to transmit 
the requii'cd power by the common expedient of shafting, is not only 
attended with much mechanical difficulty, where the distance is consider- 
able, but is incompatible with any system of accumidating power beyond 
the extent that may be accomplished by means of a fly-wheel. The 
emplojTnent, however, of hydraulic pressure as a medium of transmission 
removes these difficulties, and affords the additional advantage of a steadier, 
safer, and more controllable action than is attainable by any other means. 
The models aro so arranged upon a table as to be worked by a small 
steam-engine. By means of this engine, the water is forced into the 
" accumulator," which is a species of press loaded with weights, maintaining 
a pressure upon the water within, and thus imparting to it the same 
mechanical efficacy that a head of great altitude would afford. From the 
accumulator the water is conveyed in a pipe to the hoisting machines, and 
when these consume more water than the engine at the moment supplies, 
the excess is furnished by the accumulator ; but when, on the other hand, 
the machines use less water than is pumped by the engine, the surplus 
16 received by the accumulator, which thus gathers po-wer to meet subse- 
quent demands. 'VVheu the water has produced its required effect, it 



returns to the pump well, to bo forced up again into the accumulator, fo 
that tho same watei- cr)ntirnieH in circulation without material wutc. It in 
also to be observed that tho accumulator, by a connection witli the steam- 
valve, acts as a governor to tho engine causing it to quicken its npeed 
when power is wanted, and to retard tho motion when the production of 
power is greater tlian neccsBary. 

The models of the hoisting machined compri«e three (ipccimenii, vir. Int. 
A machine for discharging coal ships, in which a vibrating jib is employcl 
to eari-y the coal tub fonvards and backwards. 2nd. A hydraulic swing 
crane, which lifts and lowers a large cast iron ball, and turns round with it 
citlier to tho right or to tho left, as directed by the attendant. 3rd. A 
machine for lifting com stacks into warehouses, wliich works two ropes, 
tho range of which is readily ajljustable to any floor of the building. 

In all these machines the general principle of construction is the aamo, 
tho lifting action being produced in each by the pressure of tho water upon 
a piston, or plunger, which acts upon the chain, through a system of pulleys, 
which multiply the motion, and give to the chain an increase of trarcl 
proportionate to the number of the pulleys. The traversing motion of tho 
jibs is also effected by the pressure of the water upon a piston, and suitablo 
valves are employed to regulate the various actions. 



HENDERSON'S PATENT DERRICK CRANE. 

The Derrick cranes, patented by Mr. David Henderson, are extensively 
used in many large establishments, especially in the North of England. 
They were called into operation with signal good success in the course of 
the building of the Crystal Palace, when testing the girders by means of the 
Hydraulic Machine. There are, altogether, six varieties of these cranes, 
numbered from 1 to 6 ; that represented in the View being one of those 
known by the Number 4, the power of which is from two to four tons, and 
the radius of range from 25 to 45 feet. Some of tho advantages obtained 
by this description of machine over the ordinary form of derrick crane, aro 
the facility with which a load can be moved nearer to, or farther from the 
centre of the crane, and deposited at any point of the space included 
within the range of the derrick ; and increased safety while raising or 
lowering the derrick, whereby extra labour is saved in bringing the load to 
its original level. 

In the derrick fixed at the "Industrial Pahace," three-fourths of the 
circle included within the sweep of the crane is obtained, while the remaining 
fourth of the circle is likewise available, if logs of timber, or long lengths of 
iron, &c., are required to be moved. The don-ick cr.ane consists of the 
stem, den'ick, and the stays — usually made of timber, but which may, if 
dssired, be constructed of -ivrought iron. 

The stem consists of two pieces of timber, which meet at top, and are 
connected both at top and bottom by means of cast iron shoes. The lower 
shoe is constructed so as to turn on a fixed gudgeon ; and the upper shoe is 
also fitted with a gudgeon, by which it is connected w-ith the pair of stays, 
and which enables it to be turned freely round. The crab-engine, as shown 
in the View, is worked by three men, and Ls fixed at the bottom part of the 
stem, the roller, or chain-barrel, being fixed between the two parts of which 
it is composed. The stays are fixed at their lower ends by being attached 
to horizontal .sleepers, -which meet at the centre of the crane, and support 
the lower gudgeon of the stem. 

The derrick, wliich is constructed of a single piece of timber, has a cast- 
iron shoe at the top, .and another at the bottom, the lower end being jointed 
by a pin to the bottom shoe of the stem, so as to enable it to be moved 
vertically. Winch-handles, with wheels for single and double purchase, 
together with the barrel, form one part of the crab ; while the other part, 
which raises or lowers the derrick, consists of a barrel and two wheels, by 
which it is connected with the first portion of the crab — the necessary 
connection being effected by means of a clutch fixed on the spindle of the 
lift barrel. The derrick is supported by a chain, passing from its barrel up 
the stem to a pulley at the top. From this pulley it is carried nearly to the 
top of the derrick, to which, in the present instance, it is fixed ; but, in 
some of the other forms, passes over a snatch-block attached to the 
den'ick. .and, returning to the stem, it is securely fastened to the upper end 
of the top giidgeon. 'The left chain passes up the back of the derrick, from 
its barrel, to a pulley at top, and thence down to the load. In order to 
prevent the den'ick barrel from turning, the two portions of the crab are 
disconnected — the derrick being supported by a catch, or pall, which acts 
on one of the coupliug-wheeis. When the two parts of the crab are dis- 
comiected, the craue is in a proper state to be used in raising its load ; and 
when it is necessary to move the load nearer to the centre of the crane, tho 
two barrels are again connected, simply by means of the clutch, the motion 
of the crab being reversed. When the load has been moved nearer to the 
centre of the craue, it is necessary to raise the derrick. The coupling- 
wheels are so proportioned, that the lift chain is unwound as much as the 
point of the derrick is raised, and thus the load is moved horizontally. 
When it is required to lower the derrick, the lift chain is wound up, and 
the horizontal motion of the load is still preserved. The chain barrel is 
tapered, the increased diameter of the barrel moving the derrick through a 
laiger range in its higher position, in proportion to the length of the Uft- 
chain unwoimd, by which the load retains its horizontal position while in 
motion. 



30 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851' 

II. — The History of the "Crystal Palace. 
l*;E come now to consider tlie arrangements Ijy which the Great Exhibi- 
tion has received not only a local habitation, but a name ; — the origin 
and history of the Ci-ystal Palace. We shall begin by quoting the state- 
ment in the OScial Catalogue : — 

"As early as Januaiy, 1850, the Commission named a Committee 'for all 
matters relating to the Building,' consisting of the Duke of Buccleuch, the 
Eru-1 of EUesmere, 3Ir. Rirry, R.A., Mi-. Cubitt. Pres. Imt. C.E., Mr. Stephen- 
son, Mr. Cockerell, R.A., Mr. Brunei, and Mr. Donald.son. 

*■' Mr. Cubit was elected Chairman of this Committee, and from the earliest 
period to the opening of the Exiiibition, ha? given daily and unremitting 
attention to the subject, at gieat personal sacrifice of his valuable time. 
On the 21st of Febniary, 1S50, the Building Committee reported favourably 
on the fitness of t!io present site in Hyde Park, which had been suggested 
in the eai-ly stages of the undertaking, and for the use of which it had been 
already anuoimced that Her Majesty's permission had been obtained. The 
Committee ventured at once to recommend that upwards of 16 acres should 
be covered in ; a bold step at that time ("21st February), when no data 
whatever of the space likely to be filled had been received {yiin. vii., p. 5). 
It was their opinion that it was desirable to obtain suggestions, by public 
competition, as to the general aiTangements of the gi-ound plan of the 
Building, and public invitations weie accordingly issued. They also 
reported that when a plan for the genei"al aiTangement should have been 
obtained au'l approved, they would invite, by a second public notice, 
designs acconipauiuil by tenders, from tlie builders and mamifaeturei's of 
the United Kingdom, for the construction of the Building, in the foi-m, 
and according to the general arrangement, which should be fixed upon. 
In answer to the invitation to send in plans, upwards of 245 designs and 
specifications were submitted. Of these 3S were contributed by foreigners : 
France sending 27 : Belgium 2 ; Holland 3 ; Hanover 1 ; Naples 1 ; Swit- 
zerland 2 ; Rheiu Prussia 1 ; Hamburg 1 ; 128 by residents in London and 
its environs ; 51 V>3' vesidonts in provincial towns of England ; 6 by residents 
in Scotland ; 3 by residents in Ireland ; and 7 were anonjnnovis. All these 
plans were publicly exhibited during a month, from the 10th of Jiuie, at 
the Institution of Civil Enguiecers, Great George Street, Westminster. 
The Building Committee reported on the merits of them, selecting two 
lists of the competitors. They considered the one 'entitled to favom-able 
and honourable mention,' and tlie second 'entitled to further higher 
honorary distinction.' But they accompanied their report with the 
imi)ortant announcement, that in their opinion there was no 'single plan so 
accordant with the peculiar objects in view, either in the principle or 
detail of its arrangement, as to warrant them in recommending it for 
adoption ' {Mhi. xvii., p. 6). The Committee, therefore, submitted a plan 
of their own, and assisted by Mr. Digby Wyatt, Mr. Charles Heard Wild, 
and Jlr. Owen Jones, they prepared extensive working di-awings, which 
were lithographed. They issued invitations for tenders to execute works 
in accordance with them, requesting from competitors, in addition, such 
suggestions and modification, accompanied with estimates of cost, as might 
possibly become the means of effecting a considerable reduction upon the 
general expense. In the actual instructions they stipulated that tenders, 
in v.'hich changes were proposed, would be only entertained provided they 
were 'accompanied by working di'awiugs and specifications, and fully priced 
bills of quantities.' 

" The Building Committee published in detail tlie reasons, both of eco- 
nomy and kvste, which had induced them to prep.ai-e plans for a structure 
of bi'iek, the princijial feature of which was a dome two hundred feet in 
diameter. Public opinion did not coincide in the propriety of such a 
building on such a site, and the residents in the neighbourhood raised 
especial objections. The subject w.as brought before botli Houses of 
Parliament: and in the House of Commons, on the 4th July. 1850, two 
divisions took place on the question, whether the proposed site should be 
used at all for any buikliug for the Exhibition. In the one divisiun, the 
nvimbcrs in favour of the site were 16*) to 47, and in tlie second 166 to 46. 
The Commissioners published, at cousider,ablc length, a statement of the 
re.T'ons which had induced tliem to prefer the site, and there can be no 
doubt that the force of this document mainly influenced the large mnjority 
in both divisions. 

'•Whilst the plan of the Euildiug Committee was imder discussion, 
Mr. Paxton was led, by the hostility which it had incurred, to submit a 
plan for a structure chiefly of glass and iron, on principles similar to those 
whicii had been adopted and su;cessfully tried by him at Chatsu-orth. 
Messrs. Fo.'C. Henderson, and Co., tendered for the erection of the Building 
Committee's plan, and strictly in accordance with the conditions of tender, 
tliey also submitted estimates for the construction of the buikUng sug- 
gested by Mr. Paxton. and adapted in form to the official ground plan. 
An engi-aving of Jlr. Piixton's original design was published in the Wm- 
trated London Naoa, 6th July, 1850, which when compared with the 
building that has been actually erected, will show wh.at changes were 
siibaequently made. The Commissioners havmg fully investigated the 
subject, finally adopted, on the aetli July, Messrs. Fox, Henderson, and 



Co.'s tender to construct Mr. Paxton's building, as then proposed, for the 
sum of 79,800?. Considerable modifications, additions, and improvements 
in the architectural details were subsequently made, which have raised the 
proposed original cost of the building. As soon as the decision was made, 
fi-esh working drawings had to be prepared, and every means taken for 
expediting the works, lliese were carried on under the sui>erintcndence 
of 'Mr. Cubitt, assisted by Mr. D. Wyatt, Mr. 0. Jones, and Mr. C. Wild. 
The formal deed of contract w.as not signed until the 31st October, 
although the first iron column was fixed as early as the 26th September, 
1S50, the contractors having thereby ineun-ed, in tlieir preparations, a 
liability of 50,000/. without any positive contract ; in fact, great reciprocal 
confidence was manifested by the contracting parties. Whatever objections 
were entertained originally against the use of the site, gi-adually disappeared 
during the progress of the present building, and have become changed into 
positive approval and admiration, of the building itself and assent to the 
particular location of it. It should, however, be stated that a deed of 
covenant, to remove the building and give up the site within seven months 
after the close of the Exhibition, namely before the 1st June, 1 852, has 
been entered into between Her Majesty and the Commissioners. The deed 
was sealed on the 14th November, 1850." 

Mr. Paxton, at a meeting of the Derby Institute, ^ves the following 
graphic and annising narrative of the affair : — 

" It was not," says he, '' until one morning, when I w.is present with my 
friend Mr. Elli.s, at an eariy sitting in the House of Commons, that the 
idea of sending in a design occurred to me. A conversation took place 
1-ietween us, with reference to the eonstniction of the New House of 
Commons, in the course of which, I observed, that I was afraid they would 
also commit a blunder in the building for the Indvxstrial Exhibition ; I told 
him that I had a notion in my head, and that if he would accompany mo 
to the Board of Trade, I would ascertain whether it was too hate to send in 
a de-ign. I asked the Executive Committee whether they were so f;u- 
committed to the plans as to be precluded from receivitg; another ; the 
reply was, ' Certainly not; the specifications will be out in a fortnisjht, but 
there is no reason wliy a clause should not be introduced, allowing of the 
reception of another design.' I .said, 'Well, if you will introduce sucli 
a ekause, I will go home ; and, in nuie days hence, I will bring you my 
plans all com[ilete.' No duubt, the Executive thought me a conceited 
fellow, and that what I had said was nearer akin to romance than to 
common sense. Well, this was on Friday, the 11th of June. From 
London I went to the Menai Straits, to see the third tube of the Britannia 
Bridge placed, and, on my return to Derby, I had to attend to some 
business at the Board Room, during which time, however, my whole mind 
was devoted to this project ; and, whilst the business proceeded. I sketched 
the outline of my design on a large sheet of blotting-paper. Well, haWng 
sketclied this design, I sac up all night, until I had worked it out to my 
own satisfaction; and, by the aid of my friend, Mr. Barlow, on the 15th, 
I was enabled to complete the whole of the plans by the Saturday follownng, 
on which day I left Rowsleyfor London. Ou arriving at the Derby station, 
I met i\lr. Robert Stephenson, a member of the Building Committee, who 
was also on his way to the meti'opolis. Mr. Stephenson minutely examined 
the plans, and became thoroughly engrossed with them, \mtil at leugth he 
exclaimed that the design was just the thing, and he only wished it liud 
been submitted to the Committee iu time. Mr. Stephenson, however, laid 
the pl.ans before the Committee, and at first the idea was rather pooh- 
poohed ; but tlie plans gradually grew in favour, and by publishing the 
design iu the Illuslralcd London News, and showing the advantage of such an 
erection over one composed of fifteen millions of bricks and other materials 
which would have to be removed at a great lose, the Committee did, in the 
cud, reject tlie abortion of a child of tlieir own, and unanimously recom 
mended my bantling. I am bound to say, that I have been treated by the 
Committee with gi*eat fairness. Mr. Brunei, the author of the great dome, 
I believe was at first so wedded to his own plan, tliat he would hardly 
look at mine. But Mr. Brunei was a gentleman, and a man of fairness, 
and listened with every attention to all that could be urged in favour of 
my plans. As an instance of that gentleman's very creditable conduct, 
I will mention, that a dirticulty presented itself to the Committee as to 
what was to be done witli tlie large trees, and it was gravely suggested 
that they should be walled iii. I remarked, that I could cover the trees 
without any difficidty ; when Mr. Brunei asked, ' Do you know their 
height 1 ' I acknowledged that I did not. On tlie following morning. 
Mr. Brunei called at Devonshire-house, and gave me the measurement of 
the trees, which he had taken early in the morning, adding, 'Although I 
mean to try to win with my own plan, I will give you all the information 
I can.' Having given this preliminary explanation of the origin and 
execution of my design, I will pass over the question of merit, leaving that 
to be discussed and decided by other.s, when the whole shall have been 
completed."' 

Mr. Fox, at a dinner given to hiin at Derby, June 28th, made a speech, 
giving the following imteresting particulars of the actual progi'ess of the 
works : — • 

" In June. 1850. the Royal Commission invited contractors to tender for a 
building to be erected in Hyde Park, in conformity with plans and specifi- 
cations prepared by the Building Committee. 

"The Building, which was intended to consist principally of brick and 
iron, with a splendid dome in the centre, was considered of too permanent 
a nature for subsequent removal, and public opinion to this effect was very 
generally expressed. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CVCLOP.EDLA OF THE GREAT EXITITiTTIOX OF ]H-] 



31 



'• 111 llic )iiintc(l comlitioiis of loiulor jusuoj by tho BuUiUng Comuiittcc, 
tlio folli)wiiig cluuso was introduced : — 

"'Tciidera for iiiotlioda of connlniction otlioi' tlinii tliono bIiowii npon 
tlio drawings, uinl described in the spccilieatioiih will bo cnlertiiined, but on 
condition only of tlieir beiiiK ncconi|paiii<-d by worliinj; driuvings and 
siJecilieatioiiH, and fully priocil bills of iiniintities.' 

'■This inviliition to iiaition to scud iu lenders, based not only ou tlio 
Coniniitteo's jiluns, but upon mioh other designs a» they might wish to 
submit, iiulueed mo to beliovo that a tonder for a building of gloss and 
iron, as suggested to me, for tho first tinu'. by Jlr. raxtoii. ou the 22ud 
Juno, ISIiO, just twelve mouths ago, an engraving of whieli was published 
in tho IllHstnikd Lowluii A'eics on the lith of .luly. woulil meet not 
only with the appivhalion of the Duilding Committee, but wilh that of the 
public at large ; and I therefore went to lUrniingham on the 2bth Juue, 
and jjut in harul tho drawings and spocificatious upon which our tender to 
the Comuiittce w;us to be Ii;ised. 

" On the 2iul of July, Mr. Colo, having heard of our intiiition to luako an 
offer for a building of the kind, and feeling strongly that the sueeosa of 
tho Kxhibition dejiendcd upon having au atlraetive and suitaVdc buildiug, 
came down to liirmingham, at his own suggestion, but witii the penuissiou 
of eoniiieteut authority, to stimulate us to proceed, and to (jiVor such liuits 
in reference to the reipiirements of the case as would enable us to make 
the eoneeptiou of Mr. I'nxtou conform strictly to the condition of tender 
required by the Commissioners, and therefore most likely to meet with 
tho approbation of the Kuilding Couniiittee; and I am of opiuion, that to 
his spirited advice wo are mainly indebted for obtaining an impregnable 
locits sta/till on the merits of our case. 

" In all this I had tho co operation of my partner, Mr. Henderson, who, 
feeling with mo the value of Mi'. Cole's suggestions, and the great im- 
portance ui the preparation of these drawings, of conforming as much as 
po.ssiblo to the arrangements adopted by the Comiuittee iu tho plau upon 
which they had invite<l tenders, proposed the addition of the transept, 
in the propriety of which Mr. Paxton, after due consideration, entirely 
concurred. 

" Before completing our tender, and with a view to a more precise appre- 
ciation of tho magnitude of a building covering 18 acres — 1850 feet long, 
408 feet wide, and 04 feet high, irrespective of the arched roof of the 
transeiit — I walked out one evening into Portland-place ; and there settiug 
off the 1850 feet upou the pavement, found it the same length within a 
few yards ; and then, cousidei-ing that the building would be three times 
the width of that fine street, and the nave as high as the houses on either 
side, I had presented to my mind a pretty good idea of what wo were about 
to undertake, ami I confess that I considered the difficulties to be sur- 
mounted in constructing that great I'alace were of no ordinary kind ; but 
feeling confident that, with great energy, good arransemeuts, and a hearty 
co-operation on the part of our extensive and well-disciplined staff, it 
might be accomplished, and that upon it depended, iu all probability, 
the success of the Exhibition, we determined to undertake the responsi- 
bility ; and the opening on the 1st May has proved tho correctness of our 
conclusions. 

" The plans and specifications prepared by us in great haste were sub- 
mitted to the Comiuissiouei's, together with a tender, on tho 10th July; 
but, though sutficient to enable us to bring the subject before tliem, and 
to convey to their minds au idea of what wo proposed to erect, they were 
necessarily very incomplete, aud did not contain eitlier sufficient areliitec- 
tural or mechanical detail to admit of their beuig used iu the execution of 
tlie work.s. The arched roof was afterwards added to the design, and sub- 
uiitteil to the Coniinissiouers on the loth July, with the view of getting 
over a difficulty which existed in consecpience of the elm-trees being too 
tall to be covered by the flat roof proposed by Mr. Paxton. 

" These trees were, as Professor Cowper stated in his admirable lecture 
on the last day of tho past year, 'John Lull's Trees of Liberty,' upou 
which, for some reason, he hatl set his heart iu preference to all others, 
iuid would not consent to their removal. For the expense attending the 
addition of the arched roof to the transept. Fox, Henderson, and Co. did 
not increase the amount of their former tender, and it was consequently 
executed at their sole expense. 

" The EuilJing Comnnttee, having had the matter under their considera- 
tion from the lotii to the 25th July, resolved unanimously to recommend 
the Coumiissiouei-3 to accept our offer fur the building with the arched 
roof, aud nething could be more disinterested than their conduct in settiug 
aside the drawings and specifications which, with much labour, they had 
prepai'ed, and adopting others which, though laid before them in so imper- 
fect a state, presented to their minds, as experienced engineers and archi- 
tects, the mode of constructing a buildiug of iron and glass better fitted for 
the purposes of the Exhibition. 

" On the recommendation of the Building Committee, the Commissioners 
on the 26th July were pleased to siguify their wish fur us to construct the 
building, but were met by a difficulty \vluch threatened to postpone for a 
year, if not to put an eud to the Exliibitiou altogether. 

" The Solicitor to the Treasury gave as his opinion that, until the Com- 
missiouei-s had obtained a royal charter, they could not legally proceed, 
and were therefore not in a position to give an order to any one. These 
cu-cumstances were explained to us by Lord Granville on the 2Gth of July, 
in tlie presence of the Commissionei-s, who at the same time told us that it 
was their fixed intention to apply to Government for the charter, and he 
had every reason to believe it would be granted ; and having informed us 



that an Hoon us they were a legally conKtitulc'l bo'Iy tlicy would probably 
coueludo a conti-aet with Fox, Hcndojion, und Co., fiuifthiug by a«king 
whether, under these cireumstimcefl, wo hIiouW consider It running t^jo 
great u risk to enter lit once upon tho execution of tlio work, an othcrwiito 
many weeks would unavoiilably be lo.st, and the clianec of opening tho 
Kxhiliitiou on the Ist of May jiliiced beyond poBsibiiity. In reply to his 
Iioid«hi[i's iiKpiiry, seeing the iiujierative ucceiwity for imniediat<j action, 
and desiring to render all the a-saistiince in our power in furtherance of tho 
important objects of the K.xhibition, we expressed our williugncsti to iTiu tho 
risk, whatever it might be, and without waiting for the charter coinmcnced 
at oneo the drawings and tho ncce-SKai-y oiiti-ation.s for tho croctiou of tho 
building. 

'■ As tho time for tho execution of the Building \va« no extremely limited, 
aud being well aware, from experience, that when matters of biwiucRS had 
to he decided by a conunittee composed of many pcrson.'i, much valuablo 
time wiui generally wasted, we requested tho Commjssioneiv, iu^tcail of 
referring us to the Building Committee, to select one of its mcraboj-8, 
either the chairman, Mr. Cubitt, I'resident of tho Institution of Civil 
Kngiucers, Mr. I{(jbcrt 8te]j|ieiisou, or Sir. Brunei, and give him ab.si)lut« 
power to settle with us finally all mattci's connecteJ with the arduous task 
we wei'© then willing to enter upon. The Commls-sioners, appreciating 
the iniportaucc of this request, appointed Mr. Cubitt to fill this office. 

" It was now that I commenced the laborious work of deciding upon tho 
proportions aud strengths rcpiired in every part of this great ami novel 
structure, so as to ensure that perfect safety essential in a buildiug destined 
to receive millions of human being.s — one so entirely without precedent, 
and where mistakes might have led to the most serious di.sa.sters. Having 
satisfied myself ou these necessary points, I set to work and made every 
important drawing of the BuikUng as it now stands with my own hand ; 
and it was no small source of gratification to me, when asking Mr. Cubitt 
to look over the drawings I had prepared, to find that he not only 
hud no desire to suggest alterations, but expressed his entire approbation 
of tlu-m all. 

"The Commissionci-s haviug carefully considered the merits of tho vaiioua 
sites proposed for the Exhibition, amongst which may be named Leietstor- 
square, Somerset House, Trafalgar-square, the Isle of Dogs. Battersea-fields, 
and Regent'spark, selected, after the most careful con.'iideration, a portion 
of Hyde-park, situated between the Serpentine Kiver and the Queen's Drive, 
and gave us possession of the gi'ound on the 30th of July, when we pro- 
ceeded to take the necessary levels and surveys, and to set out with greafc 
precision the po.sition of the various parts of the building. 

"The drawing.? occupied me about eighteen hours each day, for seven 
weeks, aud as they came from my hand Mr. Heijderson immediately pro- 
ciu'od the iron work and other materials required in the construction of 
tho Building. 

" As the drawings proceeded, the calculations of strength were made, 
aud as soon as a number of the important parts were prepared, such as the 
cast iron girders and wrought u'on trusses, we invited Mi'. Cubitt to pay a 
visit to oiu" works at Birmingham, to witness a set of experiments in proof 
of the correctness of these calculation-s. "We first placed upon eaeii part 
the greatest load it could ever iu practice receive, and proceeded to show 
that above four times that load was required before fracture would occur. 
These proofs were made on the 6th September, when Mr. Cubitt was 
ple;used to state that he never witnessed a set of experiments of a more 
conclusive uaiure. Being thus .satisfied by actual experiment tliat the pro- 
portions of the various parfs of the Building were sucii as to en.sure perfect 
stability and safety, the jireparation of the iron work and other materials 
was pushed forward with the greatest vigour, and large deliveries w-ere 
made in the Park within the next three weeks; so that on the Sfith Sep- 
tember wo were enabled to fix the first column iu its place. From this 
time 1 took the general management of the Building under my charge, and 
spent all my time upou tho works, feeliug that, unless the same person 
who had made the drawings was always present to assign to each ]iai-t as it 
arrived upon the ground its proper position in the structure, it would be 
impossible to finish the Buihling iu time to ensure the opening on the 1st; 
of May, aud I am coufideut that if any other eoui-se had been taken, or if, 
as is usual in the construetion of large buildings, the drawings had been 
prepared by an architect, and the works executed by a contractor, instead 
of, as in tho present ea.se, these sepai-ate functions being combined by my 
making the drawings aud then superintending the execution of the work, a, 
building of such dimensions could not have been completed within a peried 
considered by experienced persons altogether inadequate for the purpose; 

" The ex-ectiou of the Building, now fairly commenced, w as juished forwaid 
with all possible speed, and a good notion of the lunount of work may bo 
obtained from the fact that at one period we fixed as much ironwork every 
day as would be reciuired in a roof of equal extent to the jiassenger station 
of this town, which is one of the largest iu the kingdom. 

'• It was not uutil the 31st of October that tho contract with the Com- 
missioners was completed ; up to which time we not only had received no 
order for the BuikUng, and no payment ou account of the work we had 
done, but we had run tlie risk of expending upwards of 50,000?. without 
being in a legal position to call upon the Commissioners for any portion of 
the sum we had so expended ; and such was the appreciation of our con- 
duct in this matter, that Lord Granville was pleased, iu the presence of the 
other members of the Commission, to state, on the 6tli of November, that 
they were of opiuion, that, but for the courage evinced by Fox. Henderson, 
aud Co., iu commencing the work without any order from the Commis- 



32 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 



Bioners, the Exhibition of Industry of all Nations 
place. 

" Perhaps the most difficult and hazardous, and 
resting portion of the -n-ork, was raising 
the sixteen ribs of the ti-ansept to their 
places. A month was the shortest time 
assigned by any one fur this operation. 
We commenced on the ■ith of Dec, 
and succeeded in raising two in the 
course of that day. 

"Two more were safely deposited in 
their places in the presence of his Royal 
Highness Prince Albert on the follow- 
ing day, aud the last pair on December 
the 12th; so that the sixteen ribs were 
all placed in eight working days. 

" As the Building progi-es.«ed. I was 
assailed on all sides, not only by un- 
professional persons, but by men of 
high scientific attainments, who, not- 
withstanding the careful calculations 
which had been made, and the satis- 
factory proofs to which all the im- 
portant parts were individually sub- 
jected, as soon as these pai'ts were put 
together, producing a structure of 
unparalleled lightness, doubted the 
possibility of possessing, as a whole, 
that strength which was necessary to 
make it safe against the many trying 
influences to which it mast necessarily 
be subjected. 

" One gentleman, after compliment- 
ing me upon the beautiful appearance 
of the Building, stated his belief tliat 
it would never come down unless it 



would never have taken 
certainly the most inte- 




tumbled down, and which he had no doubt, in his own mind, it would ; or 
that the first gust of wind would blow it down like a pack of cards. 
Another, holding a high scientific appointment under Government, after a 

long investigation of the various parts 
of the Building, expressed at the 
Institxition of Civil Engineers, a belief 
in the entire want of safety in its 
construction ; and after explaining the 
mode of connecting the girders with 
the columns by means of projections 
technically called snugs, went on to 
indulge in an airy prophecy that a 
wind exerting a force equal to 10 lbs. 
per super6cial foot would bring such 
a strain upon these snugs as to break 
them all off, and cause them to fall 
down in showers. I may just remark, 
that, since the exprf-ssion of tliia 
opinion the wind-gauges around Lon- 
don have registered, in the late storms, 
upwards of 20 lbs. per foot; and I 
have pleasure in informing you that 
the encouraging predictions of this 
gentleman, as w-ell as tliose of many 
others, have not been fulfilled. 

*' In fact, statements of this kind 
were so frequent and pointed, that we 
were often seriously advised to reply 
to them ; but feeling confident we were 
right, and that we should succeed in 
all we had undertaken, and tliat the 
more people spoke against ua the more 
complete would be the reaction in our 
favour, we abstained from taking any 
notice of what was said, leaving the pub- 
lic to judge of the matter by the result." 





AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPyEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



THE LAST DAYS OF THE EXHIBITION. 

The last days of tlie Exhibition have passed off iu a mauner at once 
gratifying and surprising. Everybody was prepared for a great accession 
of numbcra to the iisunl average of shilling visitors, but the most extrava- 
g.mt expectations could hardly have anticipated anything so remarkable as 
the actual reality. On Monday, 107,815 people entered the building, and 
51751. 16s. was taken at the dooi-s. On Tuesday, tliere were 109,915 
visitors, and 523U. 10;(. taken at the doors. On Wednesday, 109,760 
visitors, and 5283^. Ss. taken at the door. On Thursday (a very wet day), 
90,813 visitors, and iSHl. 7s. 6d. taken at the doors. 

Facts so astounding speak for themselves, and derive no additional force 
from expatiating upon them. Were it not so, we should despair of 
describing the scene which the interior presented. Popular demonstra- 
tions ai-e always grand. Taking place in such an arena they exercise a 



transcendant and overpoweriug influence. In the presence of euch an 
a.s.semblage of human beings the highest triumphs of industry and art are 
forgotten, and the mind has only time to think of that great nia.ss of 
humanity tendering its homage at the shrine of Laboui-, and vindicating 
the nobility of toil. If any lingering doubts Iiave been entertained that the 
Crystal Palace has not been popular among the masses, its closing hours 
will set them completely at rest. That nearly 110,000 people should 
within one day and under one roof have enjoyed the grandest spcctaclo 
that the world has ever witnessed is of itself a sufficient mai-vel, but that 
they should have done so without a single known casualty to life or pro- 
perty is almost mcredible. So, however, it is, and we leave to revolutionary 
and discontented minds the study of facts which place in so clear and ' 
unquestionable a. light the love of order and the genuine kindliness of spirit 
which pervade all classes of our population. 




No. 3, OcTOBEn IS, 1851. 



TUF. UOAD TO TI:e EXIUniTIOX. — HYDE VAV.K roiiNrr. 



Price Oxe Pexxt. 



34 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



Notliing like it has ever been witnessed before, nor can such a spectacle 
be soon repeated. The excitement was not confined to the building itself, 
but was manifested in every part of the metropolis. The sLs railway 
termini were regularly choked up with arrivals from the country. Omni- 
buses were filled in.side and out with a rapidity which far outstripped the 
zeal of their conductors, and a coui'age which set the weather and all other 
dangei-s and discomforts at defiance. Cabs were frequently not to be had 
on the best attended stands, and the thoroughfares leading to Hyde-park 
were swept tlirougliout the day by a continuous and inexhaustible stream 
of public and private conveyances of all descriptions, including innumerable 
vans and carts. Where they all came from was the wonder, nor could the 
stranger help admiring th-^* marvellous dexterity with which this moving 
panorama of life was du'ectcd in its perplexed and luizardous course. Amid 
all the apparent hubbub and confusion order prev.iilod, and so complete 
■were the arrangements for preventnig injury to life and limb, and for 
Becuriug tlie passenger traffic of the streets, that at the principal crossings 
policemen were stationed to watch over tlie safety of the timid and the aged. 
Till long after midday the pavements on eitlier side along Piccadilly, and 
from Hyde-park-corner and up Sloane-street to Knightsbridge, were swarm- 
ing with dense black columns of pedestrians, all wending their way to the 
Crystal Palace. Within, the vast area of the nave and transept could be 
compared to nothing so aptly as to a stupendous beeliive : it was alive with 
human beings, who moved to and fro and defiled along side aisles, and 
clustered in comts and galleries, while the hum of their voicts and the 
sound of tlieir footfalls rose in one continuous swell upon the ear, im- i 
pressing upon the mind of the listener mingled sentiments of a«-o and ! 
mystery. 

An incident occun'ed on Monday, however, which for a moment occa- 
sioned some little anxiety, not to say alarm, yet from a cause which no 
effort of prudence could have prevented. When the crowd a.ssembled 
within the building was at its culminating point, it was suddenly discovered 
that the Duke of Wellington was present. Instantly the manifestations of 
public admiration arose. Hats were taken off, and loud cheers burst forth, 
which were prolonged with immense energy. Those wdio were at a distance, 
siu-prLsed by an unwonted agitation which they could not understand, 
fancied that there was something wrong, and rushed towards the doors. 
The Duke also felt the awkwardness of his position, and beat a retreat. 
His gi'eat age does not now permit him to execute sucli movcnients with 
the precision and firmness \vhich in former days were his characteristics, 
but he made his way nevertheless to the south entrance of the transept 
with surprising alacrity, followed as he went by the most vigorous demon- 
strations of popular regard. Superintendent Pearce, with great tact, stopped 
the rush towards the places of exit, and, by his judicious management, the 
fears of the most timid spectators were in a few minutes effectually quieted. 

In commemoration of the exciting and wonderful scenes above imper- 
fectly described, we give Fom- Illustrations : one of the ai)pearancc of the 
road at Hyde-park-corner ; tlie second, of tlie crowd at the soutli entrance ; 
the other two taken from two distinct parts of the interior of tlie Building. 



DEMPSTER'S SEA TELEGRAPH. 
Telegbaphixu at sea, by means of Cags and other deseription of signals 
communicating messages from one ship to another, and from shore to 
vessels, and vkc vcvs^i, has long been considrred a subject of much import- 
ance. Various methods have been projected, and improvements have been 
Kuggcsted upon those mothodii. Tliere are now sevei'al telegraphs extant 
for sigualisiiig at lica, and books publialied to correspond with the arnmge- 
lucnta of those telegraphs ; but, for various reasons, none of then; are 
sufficiently widely circulated amongst the shipping interest as the import- 
ance of the mbjoct demands, for public security and convenience. It is 
rather a dtrikiiig aud remarkable fact, that amongst the many thousands of 
fiehing-veii-sels and coasters that are couslautly navigating along our coasts, 
scarcely any of their commandcry^ avail tliomeelves of the advantage of a 
systematic mode of eonuuiiuiciting their de.-iros and wishes from one 
point to another. This may in a great measure be attributed to the want 
<'f a timple ond easily wcrkud code of signals. To obviate this want 
Mr. Dcmpetcr, who haa hmg advocated fishery iniprnvements, has con- 
cocted a scries of signals, which deserve the attention of all persons inter- 
ested m maritime aft'airs. Tlio contrivance consists of a (lag-staff, with an 
equilateral triangular signal, hoi.sted to mast-head. With tliis one signal, 
wliicli is divided into four colours — red, white, blue, yellow, Mr. Dempster 
manages to symbolize fully the twenty-eight letters of the alpfcabet. Tlie 
telegraph is exceedingly simph-, and might be rendered very useful at sea, 
piartieularly during light winds and calms. The signal always shows its 
colouii) distinctly, put it in wliatever position you choose. Under the old 
systcin the flags hang down during ealm.s, and it is difficult to niake their 
numbers out distinctly. Mr. Demjistcr gives a coni]>relicnsive idea of liis 
system of signalising in a lainted voluiue, wliieh is appended to the flag- 
staff. There is also a large map, with the twenty-eight characters of tlie 
alphabet in coIoium, neatly cxeeutcil. 'I'ho ba.-e of Mi'. Dempster's im- 
provement on signalising at sea, chiefly rests on the princi[)le of clianging 
colours, by keeping one colour as a centre, until the other three work six 
different ch.angcs. ICaeh of tlie four colours acting as a centre gives tw cnty- 
four different letters or numbers, and the four flags appearing separately 
give four more number.^, which make up the twenty-eight letters. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 

+ 

III. — Gebehal DEScniPTioN op the Buildinci. 
THE building in its general arrangement resembles the distribution of 

li.irts in a cruciform cathedral with double aisles, consisting of a vast 
nave 72 feet wide, 64 feet high, running from east to west, 1848 feet in 
length. This nave is crossed at right angles near the centre of its length 
by a transept of the same width, and 403 feet long. The roof of this 
transept is soinicylindrical, the curve commencing at a height of 68 feet 
On each side, both of the nave and transept, run aisles 24 feet in width, 
and 64 in height, with galleries covering the whole width of the aisles at 
a height of 24 feet from the ground. Beyond these first aisles, and parallel 
with them, at a distance of 48 feet, ai-e second aisles of similar widtli, and 
similaiiy covered for their wiiole width with galleries on the same level as 
those over the first aisles. In order to communicate from one gallery to 
another, bridges at frequent intervals span the 4S-feet avenues, and divide 
them into courts, each of which has been so an-anged as to present an 
ensemble to the eye of the spectator looking down upon it from the 
galleries. The avenues of 48 feet, whicli w'e have described as thus 
subdivided, and the second aisles, are roofed over at a height of 44 feet 
from the ground. The remaining portion of the buildmg consists of one 
story only 24 feet high : in which there ai'e of course no galleries. Ten 
double stair-eases, each 8 feet wide, give access to the galleries. 

The total area of the ground floor is 772,784 square feet, and that of the 
galleries 217,100 square feet. The galleries extend nearly a mile in length. 
The total cubic contents of the building are about 33,000,000 feet. Tliere 
are nearly 2,300 cast iron girders, 23 feet 4 inches long, and 3 feet deep ; 
and 358 wrought-iron trusses for supporting tlie galleries and roof; 30 miles 
of gutters for carrying the roof-water to tlie columns which support the 
roof, and 202 miles of sash-bars. 

Commodious refreshment rooms, &o., have been provided around tlie 
trees at the northern extremity of the transept, and adjoining open courts 
towards the eastern and western extremities of the building, where the 
presence of the groups of trees dictated their location. Tlie offices of the 
Executive Committee adjtin the soiitheru entrance. In addition to the 
southern or piincipal entrance, there are two others, one at the east and 
the other at the west end of the building. Fifteen exit doors permit 
visitors to leave the building. 

Water is supplied in abundance by the Chelsea AVater-works Company, 
not only to guard against contingeucics by fire, but to supply the numerous 
fountains which are distributed about the building. 

Ventilation is effected and regulated by means of " louvres " consisting 
of metal blades fixed in wooden frames. These louvres resemble Venetian 
blinds in their action. An area of not less than 50,000 feet, superficiid, 
of ventilating surface is thus distributed generally over the building. An 
ingenious arrangement of cranks, &c., so connects these louvres one with 
another, that a single man can open or close with great eiuso no less than 
600 feet, superficial, by one motion of the arm. 

The decoration of the building, which is in wiiito and blue stripes, 
relieved with red, was designed by Owen Jones, Esq. 

To give an idea of the enormous extent of the building, it maybe noticed 
that the width of the main avenue is within ten feet double that of Saint 
Paul's Cathedral, whilst its length is more than four times as great. The 
walls of St. Paul's are fourtueu feet thick, those of the " Crystal Palace" 
only eight inches. St. Paul's oouupied 35 years in building, whilst the 
Hyde Park building occupied less than half that number of weeks ; the 
celerity of the con^ruction has been most remarkable. As many as 308 
girders have been delivurad on the ground in one week. Seven of the great 
trusses of tlie nave were rai^iod Ji; one day. Each man fixed about 200 
superficial feet cf glass per day. In order to perform these marvels, it was 
necessary to devise ond emidoy various contri\anccs for economising 
labour, such as the sasli-bar machine, the gutter machine, the morticing 
machine, the jiainling macliine, the glazing machine, besiilcs many others 
of an equally ingenious nature. The average number of workmen employed 
was about 1800, omougst whom about i2,500 was weekly paid in wages. 
Even in the payment of the worknicn ingenious machinery was called into 
requisition, Viy which it was found possible to make nearly 2,(ni0 distinct 
payments within the space of two hours ! 

With regard to the internal arrangements as they appeared during the 
period the Exhibition was open, a brief survey maybe sufficient as a record 
for future reference. 

Upon entering at the eastern end of the building, the productions of the 
United States were found arranged upon the north and south sides. 
Ailjoining the United States on the north side, were the productions of 
Russia; Norway, Sweden and Denmark occupying the space opposite to 
Rustsia, upon tli"e south side. Exhibitors fioiii Norllicrn Germany came 
nest, on the north side to Russia, and upon the south to Denmark. The 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP.I^DLV OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



35 



proihictiona of the ZoUveroin oceupiofl a coimiilenvljlo n\)two >i)Kiri Imlli 
uidos, Riijoiiiiiiy to those of Norlhorn (icniiany. ArticlcH coiitriluitoil by 
Aa-triuii oxhihitoiu caiiio next, altio occupying a poHioii of ciic-h tiilu of the 
central iias&ut'O. Tlio routrilnition!) fioiii llolluinl joined, on the north 
8ule, the AuBtrian proiliu'tions. Belgium next Ofinpicd a fair amount of 
Bl)aco upon each Ki(h'. France had 24I-) feet of fronta^'C npon the nortli. 
and about 200 feet u|)on the wHith Bide. To Tortufjid and .SiKiin were 
allottod a Hpaee upon the north side, a.s well an to Italy. Hwilzorluud 
exhibilocl licr jirijiluctioun upon tlio soutli side, and hy their side wore 
arranged the articles sent from Brazil and Jlexico. EKyjit and Greceo 
oeenpied a epaco upon the north Hide, near to the traiihcp:, and in imme- 
diate proximity to some of the rich productions of Turkey, which stood at 
the point of junction with the transept, t'liina had a frontage upon the 
Honth side, and a portion of that of tlie transept. I'er.sia and Arabia 
adjoined to Greece and Turkey, iu the nortli transept; whilst Tuni.-i occu- 
pied a portion of the south transept. 

Crossiiit; the traiisejit w•c.^t^vard, the vi.-^itor found him.solf amid the 
productions of Briti.sh India, Ceylon, and tlie rest of our colonies, from 
vvliich he passed to the prodvictions of the United Kiiigdoni, arranged in 
vai'ious way.s, according to their classes ; the productions of Ireland being 
near the extreme west of the nave. The machinery in motion occupied 
the north-western part of the buildiu'^ : the steam-engine, of upwards of 
100-horse power, being outside the buiKlini;. Tlio galleries were allotted 
to the respective countries in almost the same proportions as the space upon 
the grimnd floor. All the lighter and more elegant articles, including the 
plate and jewellery of the British contributors, were displ.iyed in the 
galleries, the heavier articles being of course exhibited npon tlie ground 
floor. tSculiitme and the tine arts occupied a position soutli of tlio west 
transept. Articles of statuaiy and sculpture were also placed upon each 
side of the c'-ntrai passage, small fountains and other oniamcutal works 
being placed in the centre. At the centre of the interseetion of the 
transept and nave, or central passage, was the very beautiful glass fountain 
by Messrs. Osier, of which wo have already given au engraving and 
description. 

The general aspect of the building, externally, was thus described by the 
Times, about the time of its completion : — The eye, accustomed to the 
solid licavy details of stoue ami litue, or brick and mortar architecture, 
wanders along tliose extended and transparent aisles with their terraced 
outlines, almost distrusting its own eonelusions on the reality of what it 
sees, for the whole looks like a splendid phantasm, which the heat of the 
uoon-day suu would dissolve, or a gust of wind scatter into fr.agmeuls, or 
a London fog utterly extinguish. There, however, the Palace of Industry 
remains, a monument of the extent to which li,i;litncss of structure can be 
combined witli permanence and strength, a building remarkable not less 
for size tlian for the beauty of mathematical proportions and rectangular 
■outlines. The varied dimensions and fantastic features of other edifices 
there find no parallel. Everything is done by the rule, and yet everything 
is graceful, and it might almost be said grand. Wherever one stands no 
disagreeable effects present themselves — nothing crooked, awkward, or out 
of [ilaee. Tiio subordination of parts to the whole is complete, and an 
exi)i'ession of order and exactitude reigns thi'oughout, not unaptly typical 
of the jirogress which the mech.auical sciences h.ave made in this country. 
But for tliat jirogrcss this great building could never have been constructed, 
and it certainly is curious to reflect, njv,- that the work has been aceom- 
pli.jhed, and the great result stands patent to the world, that with the 
facilities we posde.?sod glass and iron have hitherto been so little employed 
by our architects. 

Unforniintely, the south side, -which is the principal facade, stands so 
close to the public thoroughfare that its proportions cannot be seen to 
advantage. Like many other great structures which will readily suggest 
themselves to the mincl of the reader, the Palace of Industry must be viewed 
from a distance to be appreciated. Vvhoevcr would see a great mountain 
to perfection, must not survey it immediately from its base, and on exactly 
the same principle the new edifice in Hyde Park cannot be well viewed 
from the Kensington-road. The drive along the .Serpeutine and the bridge 
over it are the best points for a spectator to select. There the gi-ouud 
rises, and the vacant space enables tlie eye to reach over a largo proportion 
of the building. Tne trees partly shut out the prcspect, but enough 
remains to astonish and to captivate. The vast extent of area covered, the 
transparent and brilliant character of the structure, the regular and 
terraced elevations, the light airy abutments, the huge transept, with its 
archcl and glittering roof shining above the great vitreous expanse around 
it, and reminding one of nothing that he has ever heard of before, — all 
these things are worth seeing, and threaten to interfere seriously with the 
seleetness of Rotten Row. The drive along the Sepentine should certainly 
be made the main carriage approach to the Exhibition, for visitors, by a 
good vie%v of the exterior, will have their minds prepru-ed to appreciate 
the industrial wonders collected inside. 

We have now made a comprehensive review of the Origin and History 
of the Grtat Industrial Exnibition of 1S51, down to the selection of a site 
for the building devoted to its use ; and we have also given a general 
description of tlie building as it now stands. The details of the ingenioas 
machinery by which this stupendous and ever-memorable structure was 
completed in the incredibly short space of six-months, with illustrations, 
will form the subject of a distinct chapter. 

In the meantime, pursuing the History of the Great Exhibition, rather 
thau of the building of the Crystal Palace, wc must speak of a matter very 



essentially bearing upon the ultimato object* of the undertaking, namelj 
the \>nzfa. ■ 

IV.— The PitiZE! MEDAt3. 
It was originally intended that largo uioiiuy prizfs vliould be giren : 
including ouo of 5,000/., and one at lea-St of IfiilOt. to each of the four 
sections. Considerable division of opinion upon tbU subject wna f'juwl to 
exist, and the prevalent opinion of the country seuined to coincide with 
that of Birmingham, at a meeting in which town it wag resolved, " That it 
is nut desirable to award money prizes to the sncccsaful competitors in the 
intended Exhibition, being of opinion that honorary distinction and com- 
mercial reputation are the most sure and honourable reward, and will prove 
the most generally satisfactory to the nianufaeturci-s of this diatrict." 
The following are the final decisions upon this important subject: — 

"Her Majesty's Coniniis»loncrrt Imvc liarl under thijlr c»»ii8itli;niti<>ii the stibjcct of Uie 
prizes to lie iiwiinlcd to cxtiibitoru, mid Iiavc roHolvud to tuke tmnieUiuUi Hti-'pn for having 
(tinvi'j llleiliils stnicll of various sizes and dilTirent designs, it lieing llieir opinion that 
tliis is tiie form in wiiicli it will, gencraliy speaking, lie nio.it desiralile that tlic rewards 
sliouia he distributed. Tliey have decided to select Inonic for the maUTial In wiiich tlio 
medals are to be I'xecntcd, considering that metal to be better calculated than any other 
for tile deveiopnunt of superinr sltill and ingcnnity iu tlie niedalic art, and at thii sama 
time tlie most liltely to constitute a lusting memorial of the J^xliibitiun. 

"Willi legard to the mode in which the prizes are to he awarded, the Commissionei-s 
tliinli it inexpedient to cslablisii beforehand rules so prociso as to fetter the discretion of 
tlie juries upon which the task will ultimately devolve. It will be sutBcient for the 
present to indicate tlio geuelal piinclplcsto wliicli it will probably be advisahia hi conform 
in tlie award of prizes for successful c-aupetiliou iu the several departmeuts of tlio 
Exhibition. 

" In tiie department of Haw Materials and Produce, for instance, prizes will be awarded 
npon a consideration of the value and importance of the article, and the supenor excel- 
lence of the particular specimens exhibited ; and iu the case of prepared materlal.s, coming 
ui.dcr this liead of the Kxliibition, tlic juries will take into account the novelty and 
importance of tlie prepared product, and tiie superior skill and ingenuity monifeated in 
the process of preparation. 

" I u the department of .Machinery, the prizes will be given w ith reference to novelty iu 
the invention, superiority in the c-kecution, incrca.sed ethciency or increased economy, In 
the use of the article exliiliited. Tlie importance, in a social or otlier point of view, of the 
purposes to which the article is to he applied, will also be taken into consideration, aa 
will also the amount of the dillicnltics overcome in bringing the invention to pei-fcction. 

" In the department of iMauufactures, those articles will be rewarded which fulfil in the 
highest degree the conditions specified in the sectional list already published, viz — 
Increased usefulness, such as permanency in dyes, improved forms and arrangements in 
articles of utility, &c. Superior quality, or superior skill in workmanship. New use o 
known materials. Use of now materials. New combinations of materials, as in metals 
and pottery. Beauty of design in form, or colour, or both, with reference to ntiUty 
Cheapnes.s, relatively to excellence of production. 

"In the department of Sculpture, Models, and the Plastic Art, the rewards will havo 
reference to the beauty and originality of the specimens exhiiiited, to impi-ovements in 
the processes of production, to the application of art to manufactures, and, iu the case 
of models, to the interest attaching to the subject they represent. 

" These general indications are sufflcio.nt to show that it is the wish of the Commis- 
sioners, as far as possible, to reward all articles in any department of the Exhibition which 
may appear to competent judges to possess any decided superiority, of whatever nature 
that superiority may he, in their own kind. 

'■ In selecting the juries who are ultimately to guide them in making their award, the 
Commissioners will uike the greatest pains to secure the services of men of known ability 
to form a judgment above the suspicion of either national or individual partiality i for 
which purpose they will be composed partly of English, and partly of foreigners) ; and 
wlio may be expected to recognise and appreciate merit wherever it may be found, and ia 
whatever way it may show itself. 

" No competitor for a prize in any section will be alloired to act upon a jury to award 
the prize in tliat section. 

" The names of persons selected to act on these juries will he published when decided 
upon. 

" All persons, whether being the designers or inventors, the manufacturers or the pro- 
prietors, of any articles, will he allowed to exhibit, and it will not be essential that 
they should state the ciiaracter in which they do so. In awarding the prizes, however, 
it w ill bo for the juries to consider, in each individual case, bow far the various elements 
of merit should be recognised, and to decide wliether the prizes should he handed to the 
exhibitor without previous inquiry as to the character in which he exhibits. 

" Lastly, the Commissioners in announcing their intention of giving medal prizes, do 
not propose altogether to exclude pecuniary gi-ants, either as prizes for successful com- 
petition, or as awards under special ciicnmstances, accompanying, and in addition to, the 
honorary distinction of the medal. There may he cases in which, on account of the con- 
dition of life of the successful competitor (as, for instance, in the case of workmen), the 
gi ant of a sum of money may he the most appropriate reward of superior excellence : aud 
there may he other eases of a special aud exceptionable nature, in which, from a con- 
sideration of the expense incurred in the prcp.iration or transmission of a particular 
article entitled to a prize, combined with a due regard to the condition and pecuniary 
circumstances of the party exhibiting, a special grant may with propriety be added to 
the honorary distinction. The Commissiouers are not prepared, for the present at least, 
to establish "any regulations on these heads. They cmsidcr it pi-nbable that a wide discretion 
must be left to the iuries to be hereafter apppointed in respect to the award of money 



66 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



THE PRIZE MEDALS. £100 EACH. 



prizes, or the grant of money in .-lid of honor.iry distinctions ; it being understood tliat such | 
discretion is to be exercised under the snperinteudence and controul of the Commission." 

An advertisement was issued on 
the 23rd of March, 1S50, and exten- 
sively published in the English and 
Foreign jouraals, inviting the artists 
of all countries to compete for the 
designs for the reverses of three bronze 
medals, illustrative of the objects of 
the Exhibition, or appropriate as the 
reward of successful competition, and 
offering at the same time three prizes 
of 100?. each for the three designs for 
the reverses which might appear the 
most meritorioits and the most suit- 
able to the purposes of the Commis- 
sioners, and three prizes of 501. each 
for the three best designs which were 
not accepted, the Commissioners re- 
serving to themselves the right of 
making such arrangements for exe- 
cuting the successful designs as might 
appear to them to be the best. In 
consequence of this advertisement, one 
hundred and twenty-nine designs were 
sent in, and were publicly exhibited 
in the rooms of the Society of Arts. 
The Commissioners appointed the fol- 
lowing gentlemen to act as a committee 
for selecting the best designs : — Lord 
Colborne, W. Dice, Esq., R.A., J. Gib- 
son, Esq., R.A., M. Eugene Lami, 
C. Newton, Esq., of the British Museum, Herr J. D. P.-issavant, and Dr. 
Gustavo AViuigcn, who, on the 29th of June, reported to the Cornunssioners 




that they had selected the following : — 1 00/. each : Mons. Hippolyte Bonnardel, 
of Paris ; Mr. Leonard C. Wyon, of London ; Mr. G. G. Adams, of London. 

50/. each : Mr. John Hancock, of Lon- 
don ; Mons. L. Wiener, of Brussels ; 
Mons. Gayrard, of Paris. We give 
engravings of the three medals ac- 
cepted. 

M. BrninardeVs Medal shows Mer- 
cury holding a female figure by the 
hand (apparently intended to represent 
Industry, from the anvil, locomotive, 
&c., near her), in front of a figure of 
Britannia, standing on a slightly raised 
pl.ntform, with both hands extended, 
holding wreaths : flags of different 
nations make up the background. 
Motto : " Est etiam in maguo quaedam 
respublica mundo." 

Mr. Wyon's Medal — Britannia, seated, 
is placing mth one hand a laurel 
wreath on the head of an emblematical 
figure of Industry; and leading her 
forth with the right hand. Behind, are 
representations of the four quarters 
of the world, who have brought In- 
dustry to Britannia. To the right are 
emblems of the four sections : — 1. The 
cotton plant and wheat-sheaf; 2. A 
wheel ; 3. A bale of goods ; i. A vase. 
Motto — " Dissociata locis concord! pace 
ligavit." 

Mr. G. G. Adams's Medal is a grace- 
fully modelled group, in low relief, of Fame, Industry, and Commerce. 
Motto — "Artificis tacitte quod nicmcre manus.'' 



Mons. Hippolyte Bonnaedel. 




No. 24.— Mb. Leo.vard Wvos. 



No. 105. Mh. G. G. Adams. 



THE AMAZON, BY KISS OF BERLIN. 
The Colossal Group of the Amazon attacked by a tigress, by Kiss c-f 
Berlin, is oive of the marvels of the Great Exhibition, and has received more 
tributes of unqualified praise than perhaps any other single object in the 
Crystal Palace. It is certainly avery masterly production, and in a style which 
is almost new to sculptors of our day ; though at the same time, "from the 
nature of the subject, it is not entitled to rank with works in the liighest 
cla.S3 of sculpture. It is more animal than spiritual ; the conception more 
startling tlian poetic. For the Amazon, it is a figure of tremendous 
energy. The manner in which she is represented, as having tliruwu herself 



back out of her ordinary seat, in order to get beyond the reach of the 
tiger, whose claws are already deep dug in the neck and flanks of the horse, 
whilst she takes deliberate aim for a single and critical blow at the head of 
the savage monster, is admirably conceived and carried out; the face with 
its mixed expression of ten'or and determination, is of itself a study sufli- 
cient for an erjtire work iji sculpture. The horse and tiger are both 
masterpieces in their way, but unfortunately more than divide the interest 
with the human subject. This work is a copy in zinc, bronzed, from the 
original in bronze, erected in 1839, at tlie foot of the steps before the 
Museum at Berlin ; having been made a present to tlie King of Prussia by a 
Society of Amiteurs. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOIVEDLV OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF I85I. 



.37 




TiiK a;.!azon', bv kiss 



38 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



CARPET MAinjFACTtJRE, BY HAITO LABOUR AND BY 
MACHINERY. 

pARPETS are comparatively a modern luxury in Europe, and especially 
in England. It was not until the seventeenth centm-y wa.s somewhat 
advanced that carpets were considered a necessary article of furnitiu-e by 
the wealthy ; and it is within the recollection of the present generation 
that their presence in the cottage was considered a sure indication of oom- 
fortable prosperity on the part of their possessors. Up to a very recent 
period, flooi-s of concrete were all that was felt to be necessary for the 
cottage ; and the gi*ound-floor of the farm-house could boast of no better 
material, whilst the fir or pine boards of the bed-room floor were rarely so 
close as to prevent a conversation V)etween the oeciipants of an upper a.nd 
lower chamber. The more wealthy occasionally indulged in the luxury of 
polished deal or oak, and sometimes added the attraction of parquetrie : 
but a carpet, if met with, was an imported article — the produce of Persia, 
the shores of the Levant, or Flandei'S. Persia still produces some carpets 
for the European market, and our Turkey carpets for the dining-room are 
Btill from the shores of the Levant ; but France has for some years past 
supplanted Flanders in supplying our richer classes with those charming 
specimens of design and harmonising colouring which have for a long time 
justly placed the French manufacturer as the first and most tasteful of 
carpet producers. Persia and Tui-key carpets arc now what they always 
were in manufacture, and probably, in the majority of instances, in design 
also — abounding with strangely fantastic forms, luxuriantly and harmoni- 
ously coloured, and manufactured in materials second in durability only 
to the floor of wliich they form the cover. On this account we view the 
exhibition of these carpets in the ludian, Turkish, and Tunisian collections 
with much interest. Yet they evidence no progi-ess ; whilst those in the 
European, especially in the English portion of the Exhibition, sliow that 
the day is probably not far distant when the far north will supply the oast 
with all that may be required of this class of goods, and when tlie manu- 
facture — at least as at present conducted — will become as p>erfectly extinct 
as the manufacture of cottons for which India was once so renowned. For 
there exists, with respect to the manufacture of carpets in this country, 
the same careful study of the nature of tlie fabric — the same evidence of 
the successful application of mechanical contrivances to cheapen labour 
and reduce cost — the same steady progress and marked success in deve- 
loping itself — which characterises tlie production of cottons of the present 
day, as compared with those of the hand-loom weaver of the early part of 
the present century. 

It may somewhat sxirprise many of our readers when we say that there 
are but few kinds of carpet, and that the mode of operation pursued by the 
different manufocturers of carpets bearing very dissimilar names is precisely 
similar — tliat Tapestry and Tournay, Axmiuster and Wilton, are names 
that are given at tlie caprice of the maker, and, in many instances neither 
indicate the locality of the manufacture nor the quality of the carpet. In 
fact, one of these places, Axminster, has long ceased to manufactjre the 
luxurious productions beariag its name. Tapestry carpets are those pro- 
duced by ihe needle — they are, in fact, needle-work carpets, in which 
machinery has very limited duties to perform, and those of a simple 
character. Toiirnay and Axminster carpets are produced by hand also ; a 
machine — if such it may be called — which is nothing more than a frame 
such as ladies use for stretching their canvass for needle-work, is set up 
perpendicularly, and the women occupied in the production are seated in 
front, and work horizontally. Eacli thread is knottol to the fomidation or 
back, and is not in any other way eonnected with any other thread, and this 
ia the distinguishing chai-acteristic of the manufacture. There are no con- 
tinuous threads, as iu Turkey and Tape-stry carpets — no weaving process 
of any kind whatever — no mechanical appliances worthy of particular 
mention. The process is unquestionably exceedingly primitive, though the 
production is often resplendent with the most marvellous beauties both in 
design and colour. '■ Veivet-pile" carpets, "Royal pile," and " Saxonv," 
are all the same kind of carpet— the names being given at the caprice of the 
manufacturer, and conveying no detnitc idea of quality. They are each 
and all manufactured in the same loom, and are in different degrees the 
name f.ibric, and often the satne pattern, as Brussels carpet. In fact, the 
wor-sled hop is the distinguishing characteristic of the Brussels carpet. 
AVhen cut open by an old i-azor — the tool generally used by the weaver for 
the purpose — passing across the carpet, and guided iu" its course by a 
grooved wire over which tho loop has been formed, it becomes a " Saxony." 
A wire of larger dimensions protloces a larger loop, and this, laid open by 
the same primitive process, produces a "A'clvet-pile." 

Here, again, we may notice that names are capricious. Brussels ha.s long 
since ceased to supply us with carpets, and carefully guards against our 
produce by prohibitory duties ; else the Kidderminster manufacturer would 
supply Brussels carpets to the city bearing their name. Again Kidder- 
minster no longer makes tlie carpet that beai-s the name of that borou'di, 
and we depend on the iioith of England or the west of .Scotland for that 



production — the Kidderminster makers having directed their attention to 
the higher (pialities of carpet manufacture. 

No portion of the Exliibition offers more pleasing proof of the fact that 
as manufacturers of luxuriant products we are moving forward than that of 
carpets. Not only are the designs of many very superior in conception — 
showing that a knowledge of forms and colours is well understood — but 
the presence of some of the finest qualities of Axminstcr and Wilton 
encourage the hope that the highest descriptions of carpet manufacture, 
such as those of Anbusson and even of the Gobelins, will ere long be 
supplied by British manufacturers. Among this class of articles exhibited, 
we notice an Axminster, exhibited by her Majest}', manufactured at Glasgow 
for Messrs. Doubiggin and Co., from a design by M. Gruiier. There is 
much in this that indicates the artist, but we canuoc think that it will add 
to his reputation as a designer ; the design is Italian, and the general form 
combines three parallelograms, a long one as a centre and a smaller one at 
each end, the longer sides of which extend the width of the carpet. Tho 
border is, in our opinion, stiff in delineation, being principally composed 
of geometric and architectxiral forms; the year 1851. expressed in Roman 
numerals, is in the centre, on a tablet of a white ground, surrounded by an 
oval band of flowci-s. A filling of damask pattern in crimson occupies 
the space between the border and centre. 

M. tSallandrouze, the justly celebrated manufacturer of the Anbusson 
tape.stries and the kerseymeres of France, has a fine display of these pro- 
ducts, which worthily sustain his reputation. We tliink, however, that he 
has been unfortunate iu the work which is evidently intended for the 
current year — a tapestry carpet of large dimensions, bearing the royal arms 
as a centre, and covered with devices of typical imd emblematical character, 
each device being surrounded by a frame of French scroll ornaments. In 
the corners are representations of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America ; in 
the border we find Poetry and Sculpture, Music and Painting, &c. ; Com- 
merce and Industry are on each side of the Royal arms, and in the inter- 
vening pni-tions. Astronomy and Chemistry, Architecture and Agi'iculture. 
The names and the emblems of the principal seats of mannfacture of Great 
Britain and France are also shown in panels. We have heard the fastidious 
object to llowers in carpets, but what shall be said of pictures? or who 
could reconcile himself to the notion of treading them underfoot? 

Messrs. Jackson and Graham, No. 390, are the exhibitors of a '■ Tournay," 
or "Axminster," to which they have given the name of a ''London Carpet." 
Why cannot manufacturers agree on an appropriate name for these hand- 
work carpets, and not continue to puzzle the public with a variety of 
merely local nani^^s for the same class of productions? This is a very 
superior specimen of fine Renaissance forms and drawings ; the colouring 
also is unexceptionable, and would be warm and cheering by ai'tificial light 
— a never-to-be-forgotten consideration in the manufacture of carpets for 
reception rooms. 

Messrs. Watson, Bell, and Co., also exhibit a hand-worked carpet — 
"Axminster" — of an arabesque pattern, with flowers nnitcd, correct in 
drawing and colour, and fitted to bear a close examination of detail. There 
is another carpet shown by this house to which we would direct special 
attention; the card attached to it notifies that it is the design of "James 
Ciubb." The general character is arabesque ; well dra\vn and varied 
coloured ornament forms tho outer border and centre ornament of tho 
carpet, and both these have orange-tinted, or what is usually denominated 
"salmon-coloured" grounds. The portion intervening between border and 
centre is filled with a well drawn small foliagenous ornament in citron 
coloui-s, on a green ground ; perhaps few of our manufacturers would have 
ventured on such a display of artistic colouring. The designer is 
" unknown to fame," but whoever he is, we commend him for the success- 
ful way in which he has dealt: with colours which the manufacturer in 
general carefully avoiils — which he will tell you *' won't endure," and can 
never be combined with pleasing effect. We should be apin-ehensive of 
the effect by artificial light, hurt it is an excellent dayliyht carpet. 

Messrs. Turberville, Smith, and Co., also show a carpet of peculiar pat- 
tern and colour, that will repaj' attentive observation: a dark ruljy 
coloured ground is covered by the leaves of the fern, glowing with all the 
tints that autumn gives to them, and forming an excellent pattern for a 
library or morning-room, mth a wai-m southern aspect. 

We now propose to notice the carpets produced by patented ]iroccsses, 
premising by a few remarks upon the objects sought: to be attained, and 
the relative value of these inventions. In the manufactiu'e of Brussels 
carpet, about two-fifths of the worsted used is absorbed in the hack of the 
carpets, and seven colours are the greatest number that can be introduced 
by the weaver ; in consequence, the carpet is more costly than is necessary 
for wear — good material being absorbed in a p.art of the carpet never 
affected by use — and the designer is much shackled in his drawing by tho 
limitccl number of colours or shades of colour that he is permitted to use. 
Mr. Whytoek's patent was the first of importance applied to the manufac- 
ture of carpets. A tliread drawn out of any printed cotton affords the 
best illustration that can be produced of the peculiarities of this beautiful 
and comparatively successful invention. A thread so drawn out will bear 
a certain quantity of each colour that is used in the portion of the p.attern of 
wliich it formed a part; and it is manifest that, if the whole of a piece 
of printed cotton were separated into the threads of which it is composed 
— these threads re-arranged in the order in wdiich they were originally 
placed — and the piece re-woven, leaving each in the same relative position 
that it originally occupied — the pattern would be reproduced in its in- 
tegrity. Now, this is precisely what Mr. Whytock s patent accomplishes 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOr.l'DLV OF THE GREAT EXIIIRITION 01' J85L 



89 




in tho uinnnOicture of carpcU. lly IiIm proccsH, cacli inili\lilual lIiroa<l in 
ilyod witli all tlio reiniisito colourK, ami in tlio precise iiuaiititios required 
for it« posilioii ill tlic pattiTii, ami tliiH ia doiio before tlio weaving com- 
DiOIicos, lint this jtrorcH: 
cafaialtics in tlio courrfo 
of weaving, tliat vuiiit it 
for rapid produition — 
that in, for being pro- 
duced by tlio power- 
loom ; and altliough no 
woretcd passes into tho 
back of tho carpet, yet, 
from Bomo cause or 
other, tho price has not 
been afl'ecied, and tho 
ordinary BrusscUi and 
velvet-pile carpets can, 
wo believe, be bought at 
a price 9oiiic\\'hat lower 
than those manufactured 
inidcr this patent. 

Tho next patent wor- 
thy of note is the one 
obtained and worked by 
Messrs. Tempi eton and 
Co., of Olxsgow. It 13 
only used for producing 
carpets of a superior 
cjuality, which arc ex- 
pected to find consum- 
ers amongst those who 
would othcrwi.'ie be pur- 
chasers of Tapestry or 
Axminster. We deem it 
sufficient for our present 
]nirpose to say that, by 
Templcton's patent, che- 
nille is dyed and woven in pattern, as worated threads are dyed and 
woven in pattern by Whytock's patent. Many differences exist between 
tho two, In tho way of working, but the general result is as we have 
stated. 

Tho last and most important patent in that of Messrs. Bright and Co. 
By this process the carpet is woven in white worsted by jiower-looms ; tho 
wires used in the ordinary process are dispensed with, and the loop is formed 
by a peculiar arrangement in the machinery. The pattern is ti.en printed 
on the carpet by a process that strikes tho colour.s through the fabric, 
and, at the same time, prevents the possibility of their running into and 
mixing with each other. Thus a Brussels carpet is produced by a simple 
mode of operation, and by machinery that is admirably and ingeniously 
adapted for the purpose — efTccting, as compared with the old method, a 
considerable saving in material, and leaving tlio designer perfectly free to 
indulge his ta.ste or fancy to the utmost. We have already mentioned the 
fact that an old razor is the tool in general use for cutting the loop, and 
producing what is called velvet-pile. Messrs. Bright and Co. have accom- 
plished the same effect by mechanism as licantifully simple as it is admirable 
in its adaptation for the purpose — for whilst the power-loom is producing 
the fabrics, it sets in motion a neatly-arranged iu.strument that cuts the 
loops, and thus perfects the plan and accomplishes all that the manufac- 
turer could desire. We do not say that this process is perfected, or that 
all that i.9 thus produced is so excellent as not to be distiuguished from 
the best goods manufactured by the old loom and "draw-boys;" but we 
do think that it is highly probable that mechanical and chemical science 
will so far perfect it — will so combine in removing defects in machinery 
and difficulties in the production of clearly defined pattern and brilliancy 
of colours, a.- to lead to a v.tst change in the sy.stem of manufacture, and a 
consequent revolution in the interests of those engaged upon it. 

Amongst the samples added to the Exhibition after it first opened, was 
one of a seven-frame Brussels carpet, " wrought on a new principle, 
by which the same results are obtained with half the worsted;" so it is 
described hy the inventor, Mr. Favvcett, of Kidderminster ; who adds that 
it was sent in too late to compote for the Exhibition prize, but that it has 
received the prize of 100 guin^-as offered by Mr. T. S. Lea, one of the jurors 
in this class, as a prize for " any now invention or improvement that would 
employ the working classes, and benefit the town of Kidderminster."' 

Stdl as the result of all the display in the Great Exhibition in this 
branch of manufacture it does not appear that any process has been made, 
or is as yet likely to be made, towards materi.allj^ diminishing the cost of 
this article so es-cntial to the comfort and decent appearance of our homes. 
Indeed it can hardly be expected, when it is considered how large n pro- 
portion of the price is made up of the cost of raw material, and how im- 
possible it seems to be to economise upon the quantities used of the latter, 
without considerably diminishing tho lasting qualities of the article 
produced. 

It may be worthy of consideration, however, whether a suggestion 
thrown out. by a oorrespond'-nt in the Times, as long ago as 184,5, for the 
manufacture of cheap carpets from coarse cotton, might not be .adopted 
witli success. He states, " There are many kinds of carpets made of 



cotton in India — stout, fcndccablo, linndKomc things; gfmerally they am 
termed tcrriijec. These are of all Bizcs, from the email 7 f et by D feet, 
which every man posscRSCH, to cnormou)i oiico for roomo and hnlld. Theiw 
nrn gonerally striped, red and blue, .n three 8hadc« of blue, HOiiictiiu<;» 
/jr- — 3i'^*"-^rT' woven Into pattcmH ; 
\\1 \'n'r..r1^ 1 rmd I have often tliouKht 
.IV uacful they wouM 
m Knglau'i, their 
'.arse kinds for tho 
l.oorer cl.xssc.i, for bed- 
rooms, ic. Again, n hat 
bc.iutifiil designs might 
not be iiiannfactured by 
tho skill of English work- 
men ; how large a quan- 
lity of pmall ones for 
lodividuals, or large for 
1 alls, might not be made 
I- <v exportation to Africa, 
.South America, and even 
India! At Warungole, 
ill tho Nizam's couuti-y, 
beautiful carpets of tho 
same description as Tur- 
key, — that is, with a nap 
raised, — aro made of 
cotton." 

Those who have care- 
fully examined the va- 
ried coulents of the East 
India department at the 
Great Exhibition will 
have found abundant 
and satisfactorj' evidence 
of the tiiith of the above 
remarks ; a large assort- 
ment of " cotton carpets 
of different sizes" for Bengal and Saascram, being a distinct entry in 
the catalo^e. and a striking and interesting feature in the general display. 
It remains to be seen whether our manufacturers at home can take up 
the same line of business with profit to themselves; and if they do, iva 
aro sure it will be conducive to the comfort of the public. 



LECTUEE ON ART MANUFACTURES. 
QNE evening last week, Mr. Wornum delivered nn interesting lecture at 
the Government School of Design, Somerset House, on some of the 
prominent art manufactures in the Exhibition. In his opening remarks 
the lecturer mentioned the different styles that were to be found thtre. 
There was the Greek style developed to some extent, tho Oriental or 
Byzantine, a tolerable sprinkling of Cinquecento, a little Gothic as sho.\n 
in the ^ledircval Coyrt, some Elizabethan, and an immense qniniityof 
Louis XIV. and Rocoeco. It was impossible to give more than a geuei-al 
view of the different styles. Tliey were all very important to knoiv, as it 
was the first business of every designer to make himself master of the 
different styles. The study of one style alone would be more fatal to hi3 
success than the absence of any ; for in the former case his mind would be 
left free, but in the latter he became regularly stei-eotyped and marked 
everything with one style under all circumstances. After imjacssing on 
his hearers that natural forms might be used in design if attention was 
paid to a fit combination and use of them, he considered the question how 
far using the revival of past styles might be considered a servile following 
of medimval art, and not sufficiently expressing the sentiments of the 
present age. In using the old styles they must be careful not to ignore 
the ptirposcs their designs would be intended for in the present age. 
There might sometimes he injudicious revivals, but that which was 
naturally beautiful must remain so for all ages, and the revival of classical 
ornament Wixs a good proof of the inherent beauty of those forms. It was 
perfectly legitimate to preserve beauty, but not to let it interfere with tho 
uses for which it was designed. In the pottery department of the Exhibi- 
tion he called attention to the difference shown in the articles exhibited by 
Messrs. Wedgwood and another house. Wedgwood's pottery was a revival 
of Greek taste, not slavish copies, but a classical taste adapted to the 
present requirement in those articles. In the other case they were merely 
Greek copies, perfectly ignoring present use. This was an example of the 
good aud bad use of the pa-t styles. Alderman Copeland, who exhibited 
in statuary porcelain with great success, also adopted the Greek style, and 
in th.it material had greater scope to display it. The Greek was the most 
imjiortant of tho ancient styles, as it was the result of the labour of 
8U0 years. The more modern nations had never had the opportunity 
to devote so much time to the elaboration of any of their styles. The 
Sevres china exhibited by tlie French was very beautiful, but from its 
costliness it was not so important to the many as the manufactm-es before 
mentioned. The display in bronze was, considering all things, but small, 
and the general style trifling. France and England were the principal 
exhibitors. The principal works of France were clocks and candelabra in 
the renaissance style, although there were other styles as well. The renais- 



40 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND iTS CONTENTS; 



TOLEDO BLADE. 

EXHIBITED BT M. DE TSASr. 

Thb temper and 
flexibility of the To- 
ledo steel are well 
known as being un- 
rivalled in the world, 
for the manufactory 
at Damascus is ex- 
tinct. The singular 
looking weapon exhi- 
bited in our cut is a 
Toledo sword of ex- 
traordinary powers of 
endurimce, as shown 
by its being thrust 
into a metallic scab- 
bard twisted into a 
circle, like a serpent. 
When drawn out it 




is immediately as 
straight as an arrow, 
and gleams with 
formidable aspect iu 
the sunlight. For 
an account of the 
manufactiire of steel, 
see our article on 
"Iron, &c.," in No. 2. 



COLOUR-BOX. 

BY MESSRS. ACKERMANN. 

Messrs. Ackermann' 
exhibit in the Fine 
Arts Court a magni- 
ficent Colour-Box, in 
papier miche, the 
decoratiim of which 
is very chaste and 
pleasing. 



TOLEDO BLADr. BY M. DE YSA5J. 



sajtce was much used by jewellers and goldsmiths, while the purer style, 
the Cinquecento, was piincipally used by painters, sculptors, and architects. 
The Damascened work from Liege was very fine. In hardware he regretted 
that a high tone of art was not applied to the cheaper articles in cast iron. 
In the silver work he pointed out the great advantage of oxydising the 
silver, or rather rubbing it with sulphur and ammoni;i. The effect of this 
was to make the silver of a more leaden hue, but at the same time the 



design was seen to much greater effect. Sometimes this was done to too 
great an extent ; but it might be very slightly oxydised, so as to be hardly 
perceptible, and yet take off the dazzling glare which prevented the design 
being seen. He recommended this process more to the notice of the 
English. If they wished merely to exhibit their work for its value as a 
precious lump of silver, it was useless to make it look like lead, but if 
their object was to exhibit design, it must not have a bright and glaring 




THE KORTH TRAN^LIT. — GREAT GATES OE THE COALBIIOOK DALE COMfAKY. 



AN iLLUSTllA'ri",!) CVCLOl'.KDIA OF Till'; (AU'A'V KXllUiJ'l'KJ.X OF is:,]. 



11 



Blirfaco. Ho montioiied tliree spccimons of oxyiliBcd Bilvor in tlio EiiRliHli 
(li-Iiartmont— tlio ^roup of Qucun Klizabeth and Leicustcr, exliibituil l)y 
Klkinntou aiul tlic Sliukcsijoaro shield and Titau vase by Mosbiu Hunt ami 
Uoskell. ]u wood curv- 
iuK bo awarded tbo palm 
to tlio l''roiicb, althouf,'b 
it wa'f all in tlio nnaia- 
nance stylo, and oxcmi>U- 
fietl by a dorfcriptiou of 
KOino of tlio Iviiglisli fur- 
nitiii'o tlio faults to bo 
found ill an unliappy com- 
bination oronianient. In 
ono ca.'o tbo ailist had 
supported his sideboaid 
by conmciipiio foi' Ioks, 
but, not contented witli 
that, bad inado a satyr's 
bead pcerius outof the tup 
of each horn support tho 
sUb; and a dolphin's bead 
at the oxtreniities form tbo 
lower support, so that 
there were heads at both 
ends. Again, bo said, tbo 
strong parts of the orna- 
ment in the Froncli woric, 
although most elaborate, were so arranged that they protected the wfakor 
pai-ts and might be brushed all over witli a bard broom without fear of 
breakage ; but the English he should be afraid to touch with a feather 
broom, there were so many exposed delicate angles and corners. In shawl 
fabrics be thought tbo English did not employ sufficient colours, nor were 
tliey always well coutra-^tod ; but the principal reason of this was that, as 




coT,ouit-r.ox, HY Al■K^.l:■.J^^■^*. 



tlioy worked by machinery, tbo Hliuttlc was tlirown right acrojw the web, 
and tho colour consequently oppearcd all throuifli the shawl whcroan in 
tlio costly French specimens tlio weft wiui worked in by hand ; and in th» 

Indian KhawU tbo whole 
wai worked by hand, 
leaving it to the tanto of 
the workman what colour 
should bo used ; aliwi, 
that it wa« iinpossiVjIo 
to judge of the eirecti of 
a combination of colours 
■vhcn viewing them 
• parately, and throwing 
tlie shuttle by machinerj', 
til',' cft'cct could not bo 
judged of till the work 
w.is done. Of course in 
England they would not 
produce shawls by hand 
a.s in India, owing to the 
difference in wages, as 
in tho latter country 
they could get workmen 
for a penny aday ; but he 
thought if ladies would 
get ovtr tbo prcjudioe that 
no one but the French 



could produce good tilings that the English could compete with them. For 
although i>eople would give fifty or sixty guineas for a French sbawi, th<-y 
would not give more than twenty guineas foraSpitalfields one. llr.Womum 
described several other departiUH-nt.s of art manufacture in silks, priut«d 
and woven fabrics, glass, gutta perclia, and many others, and was lUtcued 
to tbroughuut his lecture with great attention. 




r!l.!.-- 



Jr.-,'^t I. r>^ 



Han*,^ 






it|^ 









\ 



P^^' 
1^\% 




SOnXE IK THE INTERIOR OF THE GPEAT EXHIBITION, 



42 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



PIANOFORTES. 
A MONG the objects of interest and curiosity wliich form tbo contents of 
the Crystal Palace, a prominent plnce is held by Musical Instruments. 
Of these the piaooforte is the most important, whether we consider its 
capabilities (being almost an orchestra in itself), its ad.iptation to all pur- 
poses of musical representation, its-universal use in every family as an in- 
dispensable requisite for amusement and instruction, or its consequence 
as a branch of manufacture, employing a large amount of capital and 
skilled labour. Fifty or sixty years back there were scarcely a dozen 
pianoforte-maters in England ; there are at present between 200 or 300 in 
London alone, while there are makers in most of the capital towns in 
the United Kingdom. It is calculated that there are not less than l.iOO 
pianofoi-tes made every week in Grfat Britain and Ireland, employing, 
when trade is good, full 15.000 workmen of a superior class, and receivmg 
wages accordingly. From tliese facts the great magnitude and importance 
of pianoforte-making a.s a department of our national indu,stry are at once 
apparent. 

It is curious to contemplate the transition from the old harpsichord, 
with its tinkling lute-like tones, to tlie power and richness of the present 
grand pianoforte. To do tliis, we nuist refer to some of the old firms of 
emmence, such as Broadwood's, Kirkman's, &c.. who were originally harp- 
sichord makers. The harpsichord was the original model for the grand 
piano ; the shape, the scale, the strings, sounding-board, and keys were the 
same ; the principal alter.ition was in the mechanism — in the adoption of 
percussion as the mode of putting the string in vibration, in preference to 
pulling it by me ins of a little piece of crow'squill inserted in a piece of 
wood, moved by the key. Tfiis alteration made, the progress of the in- 
Rti-ument was very rapid. There is scarcely an eminent firm in the trade 
who have not contributed to its improvement. It is not, however, to any 
one house, but to the exertions of a number of individuals, each acting 
upon, and taking advantage of tlie labours of the other, that the present 
perfection of the instrument is due. 

In this department the leading houses take the first rank, while the 
display by makere of less eminence is exceedingly creditable. Tlie manu- 
facturers seem as desirous of pleasing the eye as delighting the ear, and, 
accordingly, we notice some very beautiful instruments, in which the art 
of the carver, inlayer, ,and gilder is lavishly employed ; but we miss any 
attempt to give a more elegant and uniform shape to the grand pianofoite, 
which is so muc*] to be desired. Messrs. Br^adwood exliiljit four grand 
pianofortes (one in a magnificent case designed Ijy Barry), iu which the 
beauty of the wood and the excellence of tlie workmanship are conspicuous. 

The house of Erard sends several splendid harps, and a number of 
pianoforte.5. among which we perceive a revival of the old method of 
attaching pedals to an instrument. This calls to our mind having seen, 
long ago, an instrument with an octave and a h.alf of pedals, by 
Kirkman, belonging to the celebrated Bartleman, and which he con- 
sidered a great curiosity. Messrs. Collard, among other instruments, 
send specimens of their square and cabinet pianos, for which they are so 
famous. But the greatest attraction in this department appears to be the 
miniature model grand of Messrs. Kirkman. The ait and science of 
pianof'irte-making seems to be concentrated in tl'is little instrument : and 
were it not there to speak for itself, no one would believe it possible to 
produce such clear, full, and sparkling tones in so small a compass, while 
no difEc'ilty seems to be avoided, h.aving GJ octaves and all the modern 
improvements. We have had our attention directed to the new repetition 
mechanism introduced into tlie concert grand pianoforte exhibited by the 
s.ame firm, which, while it is as effective as that patented by the late Mr. 
Erard, is of a totally different construction ; and the tendency of those 
actions to get deranged and to become noisy is here removed, ami with a 
perfect repetition the touch is as smooth and light as can be desired. 
Another improvement, also by Messr.s. Kirkman, is tlie addition of metal 
bracings to their oblique pianofortes, and the introduction of drilled metal 
studs and the harmonic bar fir tiic improvement of the upper notes, so 
often defective in this class of instruments. 

In regard to the foreign pianofortes, we may safely say. without any 
undue a.ssurapti<>n of national superiority, that they by no means rival the 
productiftns of English s»kill and industry. The Paris pianofortes, next to 
our own, are the best; and the best of thrm are those of Erard. also an 
English manufacturer. Good instruments, too, are made at Vienna, and 
largely supply the demand of Germany ; but even in France and Germany, 
the pianofortes of the great English makers have not lost the pre-eminence 
they h.ive so long enjoyed. The American insti'uments are merely copies of 
our own. The only original con.struction among those exhibited is a 
double pianoforte (in other words, two yiionofortes), each with its own set 
of strings and key-board (the sounding-board being common to both), so 
placed that two performers can play together sitting opposite to each other, 
or four if two are at each key-board. There is some ingenuity in this, but 
its a'iility in a musical point of view is very limited. 

In anot' er article we shall make a few observations on the other species 
of instniments, especially orgnns, of which there are a considerable 
number. 



JHE) 



FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

PRODUCTIONS OF ABORIGINAL STATES. 
first, and perhaps the most powerful and lasting impres.sion received 
by an attentive visitor at the Exhibition, when looking through its vast 
collection of articles from every region on earth, is this — that all men, 
differ as they may in other important points, more especially the 
uncivilised from the civilised, nevertheless obey at least one law in 
common ; they all, without exception, but in very different degrees of 
intensity, lalour. Tlie j;idgment that man shall live by the sweat of his 
brow, is here exemplified to the full, although a consolatory experience also 
proves that the curse may largely bring out its own relief. The most careless 
glance, however, at the multitudinous disphay of the material results of all 
men's industiy, establishes some striking distinction iu quality among 
them, even whilst unity in the one respect of effort is recognised ; and it 
cannot but bo useful to examine the several masses of products in detail, 
in order to search out the causes of the obvious difference in their respective 
values. 

The articles indicated in the title of this paper, for example — the pro- 
ductions of those who are commonly called Aborigines, or the less civilised 
races — are substantially tiie inferior fruits of human industry. Yet tlicy 
illustrate the primitive elements out of which tlie most advanced nations 
have elaborated their gorgeous and graceful, their eminently useful 
productions. The most polished nations may in them trace their own 
perfection backw.ard to its source. 

Then, tliese Aboriginal productions suggest, in their i-ude aptitude of 
jiuiTiose, sometimes in their skilfulncss, irresistible .arguments to the more 
refined, to look with greater indulgence upon their struggling fellows, by 
whom such interesting productions are made. The highly civilised man. 
rendered by science familiar with the works of uncivilised people, will 
subdue his own prejudices in regard to then- incapacity, and soon come 
practically to aid them to acquire the superior qualifications that shall 
rightfully place them on his level. 

China and India have so much in common with us, in their manufactures, 
their arts, and their agriculture, and they have made so much progress 
already in many respects, that inirelj Aboriyimd products are comparatively 
few in those countries, but both possess some worthy of notice. Ceylon 
and the Indian Archipelago have sent us more such ; and Africa still more, 
from all its quarters — east, north, west, and south. Turkey, although still 
too resplendent in ** barbaric gold," instead of cultivating the best taste, is 
fast assuming the great forms of our civilisation ; and Russia will bring 
from its remoter tribes only anything of a purely Aboriginal character. 
Noi'th America, in its prodigious new wealth of products of art and industiy, 
oflers some scanty memorials of deei> interest irom its Aboriginal tribes. 
Central and South America could have presented most curious combinations 
of civilised and uncivilised manners as now existing, and have sent us 
remarkable means of comparing the civilisation that existed before the 
New World was revealed to Europe, with the improvement introduced by 
Christians at a frightful cost of human life. Both regions, distracted with 
civil discord, have contributel a little — very little ; but one South Aniencan 
British colciny, Guiana, has made a zealous response to the call from home. 

A rapid survey of these poor treasures of the primitive man's ingenuity 
still in his own hands, will unquestionably tend to allay the melancholy 
feeling too prevalent among us, that numerous portions of our race should 
be doomed by Providence to perish at the approach of their more in- 
strnctcd brethren. Facts encourage a nobler and a wiser prospect. A 
capacity for a safer and better condition of life is clearly established by 
these productions of industry, exercised in every climate, within the 
burning tropic and at the pole, by Negro and by Esquimanx ; by the 
gloomy American forests, and over the bare steppes of Tartary ; by the 
half amphibious islander of the Pacific equally as by the Kaffir, to whom 
an iron bound coast and unn.avigable mountain streams refuse the use of 
the simplest boat — each, however, having his peculiar occupation. All 
this confirms the oft-repeated judgment, tliat " art is natural to man, and 
that the skill he acquires after many ages of practice, is only the improve- 
ment of a talent he possessed at the fir.st. Licstiued to cultivate his own 
nature, and to mend his situation, man finds a continual subject of 
attention, of ingenuity, and of labour." — Fcryumn's Civil SocicI}/, 

The same satisfactory conclusion is supported bj' analogous materials in 
the Exhibition, and more abundant ones than the purely Aboriginal pro- 
ducts. These are the contributions obtained for our daily use by the 
combined labours of civilised and Aboriginal men. They are the raw 
materials of commerce to an enormous amount in quantity and v.aliie ; tiio 
dyes, the gums, the drugs, the oils, the seeds, the woods, the woven and 
textile plants, the leaves, the roots, the skins, the furs, tlie feathers, the 
shells, which promote so largely the comfort and adornment of social life. 
The several deiiartments of each civilLsed nation in turn h.ave received 
these contributions from the haibari.an. and sometimes from the savage — 
the Aborigines — whom in return civilisation has not yet discovered a 
better way to manage than by almost incessant w,arfare. 

It ij a capital point, in considering these raw materials of the arts, to 
know how to obtain them in nf/ivuiiie condition; and on this point it will 
be found that our interests as manufacturers and merchants, and consumers, 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPyEDLV OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



43 



coincido happily with nur tlutiiH itfl inoii. Kx^ictly in i)itiportion nH tiie 
nativi) collectors of iiiiture'8 etorOH are well treated iiml well in»triiete<l in 
the lioBt ways of civiliHation, the inoro expert arc they, anil the more cIih- 
poBcd to be vigilant and honest in their work. 

£W//.iA ftiiiioia — The survey (if AhoriRinnl products in the Exhibition 
may be ccmvoniontly liegini with llritish Guiana, as the colleetions from 
thirt colony are reniarkahly complete, aiul it is a country admirably 
described by Sir llobert H. Schonibui'gk, one of the mo.st accimipliHhetl of 
modern tr:Lvellcra. It Ih a portion of South America on the Atlantic, in 
latitude G ilegrecs north of the ct[uator, and contains 48^ millions of acres 
of land. The staple pi-oduco is sugar, nmi, aiul coflee. with some cotton. 
Other produce of less value are its plaintains, and various esculents, with 
timber and other articles approved by tlie expeiicnec of the Aborigines. 

The chief fooil of the natives, the cassava bre.ad. is to bo seen here, 
which it is seriously propcwcd to export to ICnglaml, as being superior to 
the potato in nntiitious (juality. and so much more abundant tlmn any 
meal known, that a protit of i'.'iO per acre may bo gained by its culture. 
The graters \tsed by the natives in jireparing the cassava meal from tho 
root are of the manufacturo of jiarticular tribes, famous for this business, 
as others arc especially famous for tho manufacture of hannnocks — the 
materials jirobably in both cases being abundaitt in their eomitries. r^s 
Manchester owes its ancient celebrity to the streams and coals of its 
neighbourhood. 

The cassava bread is made in an elastic tube, called tlic meiappee, a 
very ingenious contrivance of the Indian.'^, cays Sir R. Sehombtirgk, to 
press the juice from the root, which is one of tho most violent poisons 
before being pressed. After the root is scraj)eil it is pressed in this tube 
plaited of the stems of the cahithea. A pole in the tube is u.sed as a 
powerful lever, and weighed down by two persons sitting on it. The juice 
escapes through the plaited work ; and the dried moal is baked in a pan in 
a few minutes. A specimen of tlie machine, .as well as of the bread, in in 
the Exhil)ition. 

Another new article of food was also exhibited— the plaintain meal — which 
the Indians use; and our settlei-s oalexilato it m.ay be made to produce a 
gross return of £112 per acre ! "Well may Europeans be sui'prised, as 
Humboldt says they are, upon arriving within the tropics, at seeing tho 
Email space of ground that keeps an Indian family. 

The juice of the cow-tree, sometimes used as .1 substitute for milk, is 
perhaps more valuable as one of the numerous materials for India-rublier. 
The physic nut in common use by the natives is one of the hundred 
reget.able medicines of the American forests, well worth further 'study. 
There is also, .a species of Jesuits' bark, of far gi-eater importance, con- 
sidering its dearness almost prohibits its proper .application in our hospitals; 
and this, also, is well known by the Indians. 

But the most valuable articles exhibited from Guiana are the woods 
originally made known to us by native experience. For ship-bnilding. 
they are certamly superior to oak and teak ; and the bright C'dours of the 
spceimous strongly recommend them for furnitui-e. In regard to ship- 
building, it is a curious fact, attested by Sir R. Sehomhurgk, that one triVie 
in particular, the Warraus, have been famous builders of canoes .and 
corrials, the durability and speed of which far surpassed any boats from 
Europe, They made a chass of launches, carrying from 50 to 70 men. 
celebrated in the last revolutionary wars. The timber they selected, the 
mora tree, is now acknowledged to be the very best for the prirpose. 
Specimens are in the Exhibition. 

A more primitive canoe is exhibited, also, made of the bark of a tree, 
quickly constructed, of extremely liglit dratight, and portable. Its con- 
venient use in this last respect carries us back to the d.ays of our most 
primitive forefathers, when the wicker and skin boat, to be still seen on 
the Wye and in Ireland, was easily borne on the shoulders of the adven- 
turous w.aterman when obstacles impeded his navigation, or he wished to 
suprise a neighbour at a distant stream. 

In this collection, too, we observed the original hammnclc, which we have 
so extensively adopted at sea. and which in France is wisely used in crowded 
rooms, from which it can be removed by day to purify the air. It is interest- 
ing to know that the Indians make their hammocks of extraordinarily strong 
textile materials, new to us, and of excellent cotton. Nor is it less 
interesting to learn that the sugar of Gxiiana. of which many specimens are 
exhibited, liiis furnished the native people with one comfort from us which 
they appreciate. They now grow sxigar for domestic use; and the cane 
they cultivate is imiversally of the kind introduced by us from the French. 
Cook found it in the South Seas, CougaiuvUle carried it to Mauritius ; and 
thence, by way of the French AVest India Islauds, it has spread, within 
about seventy year's, over the civilised and aboriginal Western World. 

These Aborigines, then, can adopt our improvements. They possess, 
also, the elements of the potters ai't, which usually denotes a decided 
advance from savage life. The mere savage is content with what nature 
has provided to put liquids in — a sea-shell, a gourd, a part of an egg. Tlie 
Indian of Guiana manufactm'es his buck-pots of clay ; a specimen of which 
is exhibited. In a new edition of Jlarryat's beautifid " History of PorceUun," 
the catalogue of such utensils, from those of Egypt to those of Peru, should 
be enriched from well-authenticated examples such as these among 
Aborigines. 

In some instances the Aborigines are proved to have completely adopted 
our usages. From Nova Scotia samples of wheat grown by Indians are 
Bent of tho same respectable weight ^64 lb. 11 oz. to the bushel) as our 
own farmers' wheat. The Sioux saddle and hunter's belt, wrought by au 



Iniliaii maiden, flc ut liy a citizen of the United .State*, in entitled U) bo 
aciounted a work of " honest liou-scwiferj'," quite an inuvh aa the carpet 
wrought for our gracious Queen by tho 300 EugllHli womt-n. So the New 
/i'ulan<l chief. Tao Nui, who HCnda his contribution;* Ibrougli hiH London 
agent Mr. (iillman, Hurvly han ccaHO<l to bo an uncivilised man. Tlic>:<i 
eontiibutions are, however, thorf>ughly Aboriginal '* Hpoeiuiem* of New 
Zealand wooilrt, gum", and bark, llux and llax mauufnctures." Tho sanio 
conclusions may be drawn in favour of the c:ip.-icity of tho Nortli American 
Indian to adopt our usagoi, from tho model of tho house of the once wild 
Carib, the ciuinibal of Columbus, with every hoiuehold convcnicnco most 
minutely represented. The c:uiy chair, the w.ix tafien, the neat table, the 
tinder-box, the old man's modern bed, luj well as tho aboriginal hammock, 
various musical instruments, various cooking utensils, the eugar-prc"<, 
cassava-pot, the grindstone, tho neat mat, even the ^'rog-cau and a hundred 
other articles are there, to show the profuaicm of comforts which civilis-ation 
produces. And yet this is tho race, thus making progress under a little 
protection, to which we often refuse common justice, and then we wonder 
that they flee to the bu-h. Tiiis little Indian picture of civilised barbarism 
is a lesson that should be perpetuated by such a simple work being, by and 
by, deposited in the Rritish Muccum, after the Exhibition is broken up. 

The models of fluiana native dwellings, also, arc very interesting, as 
furnishing, in tho abuntlance of their domestic conjforts, some guarantee 
for their permanence in one place, so that they have clearly arrived at a 
condition beyond th.at of nomadic life. Other South American modth aro 
exhibited ; for instance, there is one of a native raft in the Ei-azil depart- 
ment, although none. a.s far as we could find, of the far more curious flying 
bri-Igcs which spjau the awful abysses of the mountains. Mexico and New 
Grenada. Chili PUfl Pern, are no longer subject to civil disturbance so con- 
tinually, whatever may be tho case with Central America, but that their 
engineering wonders of that character, from very old times, might havo 
been produced with advantage. 

Western Africa off^i-s articles so various in kind, so abundant, and so 
valuable in commerce, that, when compared with the barbarism of the 
people, they irresistibly compel the admission, that trade alone docs not 
solve the problem how men are to bo civilised. These Africans, in parti- 
cular, are most active merchants ; and they have one usage which should 
strongly recommend them, as it furnishes a proof of their respect for honest 
dealing. If a bale of goods Is notfotmd at its place of destination to answer 
the sample, it may be returned to the broker, who is bound to get compen- 
sation fiom the orieinal seller for the purchaser. The specimens of cotton, 
both raw and manufactured, from this region, aro numerous. 1'he plant 
grows everywhere ; and if our be.st sort shall be found worth substituting 
for the native varieties, the habits of the people are prepared for its adoption. 

The pottery works are very v.arious, although calaba-hes, or vegetable 
vessel.s, are common. Dyes and inedicines are abundant ; and it is to be 
noted with regret, that poisons are familiar to the natives for the worst 
purposes. One article of export collected by the rudest people of West 
Africa is of great value, and it has an interesting history. 'Phis is palm oil, 
the import of which has increased since the abolition of the slave-trade, 
from a small amount, to more than 2fl.000 tuns a year, worth more than 
600.000/. This new Afric;m trade in a legitimate commodity is interesting, 
03 a proof of the coiTCctness of judgment in one of the earlier friends of 
Negro emancipation, whose very name has been forgotten in the long 
catalogue of the friends of that cause. Mr. Thomas Bentley, of Liverpool, 
a predecessor of Sharp, and Clarkson. and Wilberforce. was sagacious enough 
to perceive, and bold enough to maint.;iin, when a merchant in that slave- 
trading port, that some articles existed in Africa more suited to the con- 
science and commerce of Englishmen than Negroes. He told his fellow- 
townsmen that they should send their ships, not for slaves, but ior palm 
oil ; and now it is for Mr. Tliom.as Beutley's palm oil that the very fleets 
are sent, which, but for the eff<irts of such men as he, would still be gi'oan- 
ing with human victims. This g.iod man became the partisan of Wedgewood, 
in the famous potteries, to the beauty of which his excellent taste secured 
their most successful character. 

From Western Africa havo also been sent the small leathern bottles of 
dye for the eyelids, which aloug with other like usages have been cited to 
prove the assimil.ation of the Negroes with ancient Egypt. The real 
aboriginal products of both regions are well worth comparing together, in 
order to illustrate the question. 

£g;/pt, Tunis, and Alr/ici-f. — But the superior condition of modern Egyjjt, 
in point of progi-ess. has led its cxhibitoi's to confine their contributions too 
much to the results of civilised industry. Indeed, not only Egypt, but 
Tunis and Algiers, to judge from products thence on this occasion, must I e 
excepted from the class of barbarous states, more absolutely than it is to I e 
feared is consistent with the real conditions of a iai'ge portion of the r 
people. Their contributions are chiefly showy silks and woollens; but, es 
is betrayed in the case of some articles from Algiers, to which the prices 
are fixed, their dearness really detracts much fi-om theii- value, paradoxienl 
as this remark may seem. In truth, a barbiu-ous method of manufactui e 
rendei-s cheapness impossible, without in the slightest degree improviEg 
quality. These examples show how indiscreet has been the refusal of the 
Commissioners to let prices be set to all the articles exhibited. 

In one Tunisian article, barbai'ism, and the cause of its duration, are 
abundantly demonstrated. Tliis is clear in the Arab's tent. Snug euou^li 
it is, and by its lowness easily sheltered fi'om the wind, and even th.e Eand- 
waves of the desert. Its camel's hair roof, too, is doubtless water-tight, 
but it marks the nomade man ; and beyond all doubt the people whoie 



41 



The crystal palace and its contexts : 



voluntary habit is to wander, is scarcely less incapable of intellectual and 
social culture than the more unhappy beings who, like tlie Indians of North 
America, ai-e perpetually moved from home to home by the tyranny of 
their white iuviidei-s. It is probable that tlie principal cause of tlie unsub- 
dued barbarism of our gipsies is their life of strolling. 

The Cape of Good Hope has sent one article deserving special notice — the 
ivory of an elephant's trunij, of 1631b., which must be a fine specimen. 
Ivory is chioily bought of the natives ; and, from Mr. Gordon Cumming's 
account of his own trading, its mysterj' may be interpreted to mean extra- 



procured pamt by burning iron ore, and reducing it to powder by grind- 
stones, rhey converted sea-shells and seaweeds into convenient water 
vessels; they wove ba-skets, and they constructed boats with safe cata- 
marans. All these things are exhibited. Surely, then, the men whom their 
greedy supplantei-s admit to have done this, and whom the least possible 
pams ever bestowed on them proved to be capable of much more, ought 
not to have been hunted down, as we know they were, and th^n almost 
mveigled to be shut vip in an island too small for even the few remainin-' I 
lUe New South IVales contributions offer no sign of the Aborigin°e'3 




■a^ ' 



C.\N'.\DIAN V 

OAliuary hard dealing on o,u- part. He had carried into the interior 
muskets, for twenty of which he had paid IG/., and obtamed ivory in 
exchange at a proit of 3000 per cent., which, as he was informed by 
merchantmen was " a very fair profit." To be sure, the manner in which 
the black chief, of whom hebou-ht the ivorv, had obtained it, bv oppres.sion 
inllicted on the Buslimon who killed the elephants, invites little considera- 
tion for that chief; but the whole story furnislies a fresli argument in 
lavour of the cmlisation which we consumers of this beautiful product of 
the desert are bound to use all means to substitute for its existin" barba- 
n-im. The South African a.ssortment of himwji, or cloaks made of the 
skms of wild animals skilfully dressed, ostrich feathers, and ivory, represent 
the Abongmal produce, for which the Cane traders carry into" the wilder- 
ness to the native tribes, beads of many colours and sizes.'brass and copper 
wire knives and hatchets, clothing, guns, ammunition, &o. 

There 13 a melancholy tribute paid in the Van DiemenS Land depart- 
ment to Its now extinct Aborigines. In our forty years' po.sses3ion of that 
setdement we have utterly destroyed them, by as atrocious a series of 
oppres-sions a.s ever were perpetrated by the unscrupulous strong upon the 
defenceless feeble. Yet these poor people had ta.stes and industry too. 

I heir bread appears to be worth reviving as a new truffle for soup bv the 
gourmands of Hobart Town. The specimens of the root exhibited weighed 

II lbs. They obtained a brilliant shell necklace by soaking and rubbing off 
the cuticle, and gaiumg various tints by hot decoctions of herbs They 



M..KI1 t:;opi:i 



works, and prob.aljly the country contains no lunger anv trace of the peoiile • 
as Newfoundland eontiibutors do not pretend to an "interest in the works' 
ot the lost people who once inhabited it. New Brunswick seems to have 
nothing to show but the pretty models of an Indian family, tlie kindness 
of whose character is attested by having protected two maiden ladies, whose 
father emigrated from the United States after the Americans' war, and settled 
among ti.e tribe some 70 years ago. The remnants of the Indians and the 
remains of the Eoyalists must liave had many subjects of sympathy, and 
many feehngs in common, to have maintained so long a cai-eer of mutual 
respect. 

The whole amount of Aboriginal articles exhibited is much smaller than 
It would certainly have been, but for circumstances deserring of notice. 
Ut late years the political condition of the Aborigines connected with 
various civilised nations, has been a subject more than usually iuterestinc 
to the public The emancipation of our Negi-o slaves in lS34"havin» in a 
great measure settled that question, the attention of philanthropists was 
free to be directed to the persecutions suffercil by the Aborigines of our 
colonies. This was an extensive inquiry, and some refonus took place 
1 hen a reaction occurred ; until at length th» old law of force and oppi-e.s- 
sion extensively recovered its influence. In this state of things the Exhi- 
bition was ])lanned, upon tlie principle of an universal invitation of the 
nations of the earth to bring specimens of their mdustry and art under a 
common inspection. The Commissioners made no exceptions ; but it was 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP/EDIA OF THE GREAT EXIIIRITION OF ]8.-,L 



4o 



impnfsible that thoy h)ioii1(1 f-rant a privilogo, 
or any Hpccial advantapo, oven to tlio loast 
favoured in actual roiidition. Tlio collection 
of articlcH to bu cxliiliitcd was neccsHarily left 
to tlio cost Olid activity of tl)0 contributors 
and their various Kii]iporterH. I''ranco \va« to 
take caro of her people. Germany of hcra, 
America of hers. The peculiar claims of the loss 
advanced Aborigines for aid were discussed ; 
but all that covild bo done was carefully to 
niaUo known in various quarters that tlio 
Exhibition would be open to them. The result 
has been, that the sauio eircuinstancos wdiich 
render tlioin iiiferiur to civilised men in accu- 
mulated projierty and in ac(piired knowledge, 
have operated to leave their show of industrial 
development in the Exhibition somewhat 
meagi'c, whatever ei|uality of capacity may be 
conceded to them, and however acute their 
natural intelligence. 



THE CANADIAN TIMBER TROPHY. 

We come now to speak of the Canadian 
timber trophy, and in connection with it, of 
the timber trade of this important colony. 

The Ottawa or Grand River, which joins tho 
St. LawTence near Montreal, forms almost 
entirely the division of tlio Canadas, and is the 
gi'eat highway so far of the timber trade, which 
along its bank emphiys from eight to ten thou- 
sand men — an army waging perpetual war 
with the forests, and which, under the falso 
impulse of our former high differential duties 
in favour of C:madian tiinbei', carried on its 
operations most wastefully and unfavourably 
for the character of the timber and the advance 
of the trade. Hitherto, « hito and red pine have 
formed the chief timber exports of Canada, 
felled mainly within a short distance of the 
banks of the Ottawa, and floated in huge rafts 
down that river and tho St. Lawrence, a dis- 
tance of from 600 to 700 miles, to Quebec. 
A single raft of timber will not unfrequeutly 
have a surface of three acres. The trees are 
cut down in winter, lopped, squai-ed, dragged 
by horses over the frozou snow, which forms 
a slide for them, to the water's edge. The 
rafts are formed upon the ice, on wdiich, when 
the spring thaw sets in, the lumberers, as these 
forest-felling timber traders are railed, float 
down to port, anchoring when they como 
within range at each rise of the tide, and 
again pursuing their vovage at its fall. A raft 
seems almost as if some lan'1-slip, or ishmd, 
huts and all, wore sailing down the river ; it 
has five or six houses upon it, and, when the 
wind sets fiiir, a range of broad thin boards 
serves fir sails. Some of the white pine-trees 
yield planks five feet in breadth, and the largest 
red pine will give ISincli square logs, as much 
as 40 feet long. Of the pine order is the 
hemlock, a ship's futtock of which is shown in 



GLASS GOBLET. 

This most exquisitely engraved goblet, 
though exhibited in the Hamburgh depart- 
ment, is the work of Augustus Bohm, of 
Meistordorf, in Bohemia, and owes its location 
to the circumstance of its talented fabricator 
residing at Hamburgh. The skill displayed 
in engraving the glass, so as to produce a 
perfect bas-relief, is most marvellous ; and, 
when the numerous figures in action and 
horses (for the scene is a battle-field), ai'e 
taken into consideration, an extreme length 
of time must necessarily have been spent in 
its realisation. The glass is jiure flint, and 
colour'-ess. 




\ 







GLASS GOBLET, OY A. D0H3I. 




jrwn L!^D IT.^^^■K. 



the trophy, anrl wliich in nai'l bcant water 
well, and in of all woocIh in tliooc rcgionx tho 
nioDt ovcrloHtin^ for railway Hleopcm, pilcx, or 
for any other underground puri»oMe. But a 
Hingle tree of the kind, which ntandx on a 
little island in the river St. Maurice, w to bo 
found in all Eistern Canada. Tho tree in clone 
forests is drawn up frequently to more than 
60 feet in height, but itH best height is about 
40 feet, and its diameter in such Bpccimen« i« 
rather more than 2 feet. Tho /ipecimcn in the 
trophy wafl cut from a tree 15 feet in circum- 
ference and 60 feet high, (-'luso by this hem- 
lock is a thick plank of a be;iutifully-fuatherc<I 
and highly polished dark wood, out for vcnccrn, 
from the fork of a black widnut — a timber 
extensively used in Canaila for furniture, and 
some beautiful tables, sofas, chairs, beds, anil 
a piano of which are in tho compartmenta 
opposite, and to be sold at the clo.sc of the 
ICxhibition. The tree from which this plank 
was obtained was an old giant of its kind, 
and, judged by its size and iuteni.il ai)pearance, 
though sound as a bell, had probably spread 
up its evergreen leaves to the sun for more 
than a tliou.sand years. It stood in the valley 
of the Nanticoke, in the township of AValpolc : 
and in the winter of 1847, Mr. Fisher, having 
marked it for destruction, set up a shanty neai' 
it. Its circumference at the ground me:isured 
37 feet, three up 28 feet, from which it tapered 
very little to 61 feet, where it branched into 
two trunks, 6 feet and 5 feet in diameter ; 
from this part the veneer plank was sawn. 
The whole tree cut up into twenty-three logs, 
and made in all more than 10.000 feet of 
timber. Three men were engaged a fortnight 
in felling and trimming this single tree. The 
w.ilnut is a hard close-grained wood, and it 
deserves trial — as it is to be had in immense 
quantities all over Canadii— whether it would 
not serve as well as mahogany for ship-building. 
It is exported to the United States, but has 
not as yet entered into the timber trade with 
England. Another furniture wood in the trophy 
is curled maple, in its wavy grain very like 
satin-wood, not much differing from it in colour, 
and growing as abundantly a.s the pine itself. 
It has also found its way to tho United States 
largely, but in but small quantities to England, 
though it is a hard wood, and admu-ably adapted 
for furniture. A bu-d's-eye maple veneer is 
also shown. The first bird's-eye is from young 
trees, of from twelve to foui-teen inches 
di.ameter. As they gi'ow old and large the 
spotted curl dies out from the centre ; the 
veneer in the trophy wa.s, however, shaved oflf 
from a large old tree by a peculiar kind of 
cutting machine, which saws or shaves off the 
veneer in a spiral round the log. commencing 
at the outside, and stopping where the bird's- 
eye pattern ceases. 'There arc, besides, two 
other sorts of maple shown, the plain hard 
maple u.-;ed largely in house building, ordinary 
furniture, and in immense quantities for do- 
mestic firew-oodand steam-boats. In Montreal 
alone there are consumed in a single season 

JEWELLED HAWTC. 
The history of the Jewelled H.awk. the pro- 
perty of the Duke of Devonshire, in the Nether- 
Innds department, is not without interest. It 
rejoices in a name proper, being tlie "Knyp- 
hausen Hawk." and w.is made, many a long 
year ago, to commemorate the reconciliation 
of two noble Dutch fiimilies which had been 
long at variance. It contains within its gay 
plumage the identical goM drinking-cup which 
w.xs used by the rival Counts upon the aus- 
picious d.ay of their reconciling, and which is 
discovered upon removing the head of the bird. 
Tho wings and body arc chiefly covered w-ith 
rubies; turquoises, emeralds, and other precious 
stents are displayed in other p.arts. 'The bird 
stands about a foot high, more or less, and has 
a very stately appearance. 



46 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



from 2,000.000 to 8.000.000 cords of firewood— a cord of wood being a 
bundle eisht feet long, four feet high, and four feet broad, and costing 
thirteen .shillings English money. Each family on an average uses about 
six cords in a season. The soft maple is but rarely cut down, a.s it supplies 
sugar abundantly. In spring, before the snow ha.s left the ground, when 
the sun begins to gnin strength, and there is still a sharp morning frost, 
the farmer bores, about four or five feet up the trunk, a hole some two or 
three inches deep, and sticks a little cane spout in it. In a few hours he 
has in his wooden trough V.elow from two to three gallons of syrup ; and 
evei7 morning for a fortnight, as the sap rises with the sun. the tree poiu-s 
its sweetness luitil twenty or thirty g.dlons are collected. In a spring 
without frosts, the supply of sugar' fails, and its eoUection is a work of no 
small hardship. Its after preparation is a i-udc jiroeess : it is evaporated, 
to some extent, over a slow fire, and then poured out in pans to cool. The 
Bugiu- maplo grows fi-om forty to fifty feet high, and about six feet hi cireum- 
ference. The other timbers iu the Trophy are more generally known. The 
birch tree, a favourite town plantation, is used in common furniture, and 
the timber is largely exported to the States. The oak, both white and 
red. is exported as staves botli to America and England, and so is the a.sh, 
of which Canada can furnish inexhaustible supplies. The bass-wood is 
new to us, but. it seems, has been proved so useful at home that it may 
be imported with advantage. It is a soft wood, but close-grained and 
durable, resembling something our willow, and h;is been found most 
excellent in doors, and the panelling of railway carriages. The rock elm 
is also a new import ; it grows apparently from the bare rock to a 
height of 30 to 60 feet, and IS to 20 inches in diameter, a tough, durable 
wood, and deserving trial for ship-building purposes ; and the butter- 
nut, growing on fine diy land, and most of all a favourite, both in the 
States, and Canada, for veneering upon, as with ordinary seasoning it is 
never known to warp. Last on our list is a little log on the floor, witn 
light edges and a dark centi-e, marked iron-wood, of no earthly use, said 
our native informant : " It won't float, it 's the eontrariest wood in 
creation ; if you want a straight piece, and h.alf break your heart with 
hard work to get it, it will twist itself crooked in no time, and if you 
mark out a crooked piece, as sure as sun.diine it will stretch out as 
straight as a line ; it's as hard as iron and as hea-v^' as lead, and as obstinate 
!md cranky .as .an old mule, and never worth either letting grow or 
cutting down." 

In conclusion, we have a word of advice, in view of this timber trophy, 
to give our Canadian friends : it is that they begin to build ships of their 
better woods. Their fir-built craft stand but four years A. 1. on Lloyd's 
list. They do right well to send a cargo of timber to England to help to 
pay their cost, but are not profitable afloat. 'We have to faco the world 
now with our ships. Cana-la has no longer any advantage, and can only 
hold her place in ship-buililing, whether for sale or trade, by aiming to 
build as sea-worthy and durable vessels as tlie Northern and United States. 
Cheap run-up ships are the dearest in the end : try, therefore, your w.ilnut, 
red o.ak, hemlock, and rock elm, and use the pme only where pine is best, 
and where first-class vessels use it. 

The total value of the export of timber from Canada in 1S49 was 
1,327.532?., of which not less than 1.000,000/. worth cauie to England. 



Rival American RsArixa illAcmNES.— Since our publication of an 
eugrai-iug, with description of Jil'Cormack's American Reaping-machine 
(See No. 1), a trial has taken place, before the Cleveland Agricultural 
i-iociety, of the respective merits of that machine, and one invented by 
Mr. Hussey, also an American, and the report of the jiu'y of practical men 
appointed by the consent of bith parties to decide tlie question of merit is 
favourable to the latter implement. This decision throws considerable 
doubt upon the justice of the award of a great meJal at the Exhibition to 
M'Cormaok's ; but, howevei- interesting t!ie matter may be to the individuals 
themselves, it does not much affeet our fanners. Both tlie reaping 
machines, valuable as they are, are capable of great improvement, and wo 
confidently hoj'B that before next harvest comes round such elianges may 
be m.ade upon them, and such new features introduced, as may render the 
examples now exhibited comp.iratively unimportant. 



GovERNMEXT Purchases is the Cbtbtal Palace. — 'We understand 
that the Board of Trade, with a view to the development of a pure style 
iu the Government Schools of Design, h.as commissioned Mr. Redgrave, 
Mr. Cole, Mr. Owen Jones, and Jlr. Pugiu to make a report of those objects 
in the Exhibition which they would recommend for purchase, as models of 
ta.ste. The selection of iiei-sons made by the Board of Trade for tlie 
purpose in view seems most judicious, and wo have every confidence that 
their report, if acted upon, will secure to our scliools of design tliat of 
which at present they stand so much iu need, a collection of specimens by 
which tlio princii>lcs of art manufacture may be best illustrated. — Times. 



On Wednesday the Exhibition was visited by thirty boys and twenty girls, 
belonging to the Ragged .Scliool. Pye Street, Westminster, wdio obtained 
admission by subscription from the benevolent, sent in consequence of .an 
iidvcrtisement inserted in one of the morning newspapers. There were in 
also on the same day eighteen old jicople from Bletchingley, Surrey, whose 
expenses were defrayed by the rector, and other gentlemen of the p.arish, 
s\ik\ whose joint ages amounted to 1,1-il ycaiu 



PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PREPARATIONS. 

•- — 

THE MICROSCOPE AND MICROSCOPIC PREPARATIONS. 
THE use of the microscope has, within the l;«t few years, completely 
revolutionised the study of physiology iu this country, and microscopic 
objects n.aturally ilemand full consideration. In this particular, Mr. Hett 
has greatly excelled. He has devised a very excellent plan for showing a 
number of injected specimens under a microscope, showing the formations 
of various animal bodies, even to the manner in which the blood comes 
in contact with the atmo-sphere in the lungs, and becomes arterialised. At 
the College of Surgeons of London we have the finest anatomical and phy- 
siological museum in the world ; and the Exhibition, by bringing forth 
Mr. Hett's instrument, has shown how Mr. Queckett's preparations may be 
rendered available to the student at any time. With microscopical inves- 
tigators Mr. Topping li.as a great reputation. He exhibits five frames eon- 
t;umng the test objects which are suitable for the best microscopes, together 
with fossil earths and fossil and recent vegetable structures. He h;is also 
.showTi some beautiful specimens of dissections of insects, and specimens of 
bone, teeth, and shell, and even sections of Oriental and Scotch pearls. 
Beside these, he also exhibits anatomical injections, including a remarkably 
fine example from the intestine of the rhinoceros. All these specimens are 
entitled to the highest commendation. AVithin the last two or three years 
a second mounter of microscopic preparations has appeared in the person 
of Mr. Poulton, of Reading, who has exhiljitcd a case of first-class objects 
which he has prepared. 

Mr. Stark, of Echnburgh, exhibits a process of mounting objects in gutta 
percha cells, but we have not yet been able to try it. Messrs. Smith and 
Beck exhibit a model cabinet, well adapted for containing the objects; 
but we are afraid it is almo.st too aristocratic for the working philosopher, 
to whom expense is an object; and, lastly, Mr. Leonard exhibits drawings 
of microscopical objects. 

The ordinary mode of injecting the capillary vessels is either by size and 
vermilion, or by the chromate of lead. In examining the objects, we 
detected, however, unlabelled, one specimen of a carmine injection, which 
w.as manifestly a section of bram. Mr. Smee ha-s exhibited at various soims, 
as well as at the Microscopical Club, a series ol specimens of this character. 
The n:iieroscopic specimens which are here exhibited may be taken as a fair 
example of the minute knowledge which is now possessed by every well- 
erlucated medical man at the present time. Scarce fifteen years ago, no 
Englishman was conversant with the gorgeous structure which the micro- 
scope reveals in a piece of dry bone. Since that period the mode of 
arrangement of the ultimate blood-vcs.'els of every part of tlie body has 
been determined. The geologists now delight in the examination of fossil 
infusoria, or iu sections of the teeth of the gigantic tenants of a former 
world. The chemist now examines his precipitates, and has ocular demon- 
stration of the characters of the substances wliich he exauiiiies. The 
entomologist determines the genus by the form of the scales which cover 
the butterfly's wing; and no investig.ator, in any branch of science, is 
satisfied without the possession of a microscope to assist his powers of 
vision. The microscope is, to minute objects, what the telescope is to the 
starry firmament, and both must exemplify how limited are the powers 
of man, to grapple with either the luinutia; or infinite extension of Nature's 
work.s. 

IBBETSON'S CASTINGS. 
In a glass ca.se, in an obscure passage near the entrance to the machinery 
in motion, we observed some specimens of casting by Capt. Ibbetson, 
which are entitled to consideration, from their novelty and beauty, and 
their applicability to manufacturing purposes. The fir.st of these comprises 
castings in brass from works of nature, and in this way Capt. Ibbetson has 
contrived to render the leaf, with all its detail, in a manner wliich has not 
heretofore been accomplished. Chantrey some years ago 1 ad a liigh 
appreciation of casting from nature, and he devised means by which the 
object was encased in clay, baked, and then the powdered part driven out 
by means of a current of air ; but ho could only take one cast from a mould, 
while Capt. Ibbetson states that he can make any number of copies. He 
exhibits, also, a casting, of brass, of a raised map of the Isle of Wight, 
which may be useful for educational purposes. This model, although upon 
a small scale, is made from his own surveys, which he also represented in 
the wonderful geological model in the AVestern Nave. The second kind of 
casting consists of depo.sits of an alloy of gold and copper by electrical 
agency. Now, electro-metallurgists state that these depositions are in the 
highe.st degree ditficult, because the current will reduce th.at metal w-liich 
requires least force, to the exclusion of the rest. Capt. Ibbetson states 
that his specimens have been analysed, and they arc found to consist of an 
equivalent of each metal, a fact of much interest to the chemist. By this 
plan he has covered the fairy-like maiden's h.air fern, the pitch plant, the 
liurnming-bird, and many other cm'ious species which he has procured from 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP^EDLV OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF ]8.-,l. 



47 



tlio national pardcnH at Kevr. Tlic nioiln by wlii«li ho obtniiiH tlioso rosiilts 
lio lit prcsuiit lu'o|w Kc'iTct. Tlio tliinl invcntimi crmHists in a new ni'xlc 
wliiuli lio liiw (lisc(ivtT<«l <if Lironziufi inm. lIo states by liifl |plan lio 
contrives to throw tlie liron/.o, as it were, into tho tcxt\n-o of tbo iron, and 
that it dispenses with tlio uso of varnish or any other simihir snbstanee, 
The speeiinons exhibited are very beautil'id, and it has been reiiorted that 
tho Coidbnioii Dale Company are thinkinj,' of adoiiting the invention, whicli 
is also, for the jproHont, icept seeret. 

Tho importance of tlieso specimens is not so mucli to bo fonnd in their 
own merit as in tlio power wliioh thoyaftbrd to tho manufacturer to extend 
processes in directions liitljorto ujiknown. 



PILLISCHliR'S MICROSCOrK. 
Mr. Pilliseher, who is one of the best nioUers of niicro.soope« ill LuiiJoa, 
exhibits one of large dimeiwioi)«, of oxquisite workmanship, iu order to 
sliow what can be rluno in his way. This beuutirul instrument iii the 




MICRitSerH'T 



PY srn. 1 iT.LiSijiii:!!. 



largest whicli appears iu the building, and is of the most approved con- 
struction, being iu every respect properly placed as regards its centre of 
gravity. The stage is much simplified iu comparkon with those ordinarily 
used, and is worked by means of a rack and pinion, and an Archimedian 
screw, the two pitches corresponding .accurately with each other, giving 
gths of an ineh motion for each revolution. The fine .adjustment works 
with a lever and screw, having flO threads to the inch. The body slides on 
a groove, and can be adjusted by raek ami piuiou to the gic,ite.~t nicety. 
As in the best uiicro.<copes, a draw-tube is tixcd on the top of the body, 
to which the maker ha.s added a very useful contrivance iu the shape of 



a register, attaclio<l to one of tho millcrl beada, whereby tlic nicMt ndjiiat- 
nicnt may bo obtained, so that the examiner is enabled to look at the 
object under inspection, while he Is incrciising the power to any required 
degree. He haa also added ail erectipg eye-piec« tu the body, which m also 
another advautago. 

ANATOMICAL MODELS. 
Grouped nmong tho Surgical Instruments, in Section 10, arc Rome con- 
tributions of anatomical inodcli", a department of ort which, from tho 
I'xtensive collections in Italy. France, and Oermany hii« been supposed to 
be exclusively conlined to the Continent, but in which iioiuc of the iipcciniena 
1 xhibitcd on the Biiti.ih side will show that we have .a Ivonced to a high 
degree of jicrfectiou in this countiy. The inat«riul« of which the modelti 
are piijicipally componcd are pla.ster of Pari* painted, jtapier indchi, gutti 
porchu, and wax ; and tho subjects which they illustrate ars dissections of 
the human body — Home few morbid specimens— and the anatomy and 
dovclopmoilt of several of tho lower animals. With the exception of an 
interesting series of anatomy of the male and female tor]»edo in wax, 
presented by the Grand Duke of Tuscany to Professor Uwen. and de|)Osittd 
by him in the College of Surgeons, we have not recognised any striking 
display of talent on the Continental side. Tho nutgllificd models of gutta 
porcha, &c., which take to pieces and show in «ucce«8ive layers the deeper 
parts iu the organisms they demonstrate, however ingenious and amusing 
they may bo, have no pretentious to a high, ami far loss the highest, order 
of anatomical modelling. The French exhibit a variety of these; and a 
full-length anatomical figure in papier mdchi and gutta percha, with a 
section of the human head, is shown by llr. Simpson. Our attention, 
however, hius been ai-rcstcd by somo very striking wax models, by Mr. Towne, 
whoso experience and skill are ivell known from his works at Guy's Hospital. 
He appears to have selected some of the most intricate and diflRcult dissec- 
tions, and to display the several structures with a rigid regard to truth, 
which challenges the severest scnitiny of the practised anatomist. This is 
obviously the case in a model of the head and neck, with a deep section of 
the brain, iu which there is not only a most valuable piece of anatomy in 
the relative position of the muscles, blood-vessels, and nei-\'es of the neck, 
and the distribution of the gi'eat nerve of sensation, known as the fifth ncn'C ; 
but there is also a minute dissection of the internal ear and the orbit, 
which exceeds any that v,e have yet seen, in delicate, yet perfectly clear 
and accurate modelling. An arm at fuU-length, with the corresponding side 
of the chest, exhibits the minute distribution of the nerve.s, with the 
armn'^'cmeut of the muscles, blood-vessels, &e. A very beautiful and 
complete series of changes which takes place during incubation in the chick 
is also shown, and tho same subject is illu-^^tiutcd by an exhibitor from 
Newcastle. Tho latter arti--t has tried to unite natural structure with his 
models, but with no more than the usual success of such incongruities. A 
case filled with some small models of tho heads of the great division? df the 
human family aiFords an interesting subject for exainination, and a felicitous 
reference to the extent of race, which is includtd in the purposes of the 
Exhibition. 



LACE GASSING MACHINES. 
Mr. S.vmuel Ham., of Basford, near Nottingham, whoso name is favoiu-- 
ably known on account of his condensing api'aratus and other inventions, 
originally took out a patent for a machine for ga.=5iiig lace ; and in order to 
show tho importance of this invention, it is only necessary to state that 
the cost of liurning off the fibres from muslin and other delicate fabrics, 
some thirty -five years ago was at the rate of 6d. per square yard, whereas 
at the present time as much as COO square yai'ds of laee may be gassed for 
the same sum. The gassing machine iu tho Machinery iu Motion Depart- 
ment of the Great Exhibition, which is exhibited by Messrs Barton and 
Eanies, consists of a series of gas-burners, placed iu a straight line, and 
regulated iu length by the width of lace to bo •'gassed." The lace is made 
to pass through the various jets of gas at such a velocity as will just 
remove tho fibres by which the whole surface is covered, and yet not destroy 
the fabric itself. It is quite evident, therefore, that tho exact speed at 
which the lace is required to travel through the jets of gas must be regu- 
lated with great nicety; for if the velocity bo too gi-eat, the object in view 
^^•ill not be attained. During the process of gassing the lace is carefully 
watched by four persons, two of whom stand in front, and two behind the 
macliine, in order to see that the lace is duly gassed, and also to prevent 
the fabric itself taking fire. Cotton thread which has been subjected to a 
process somewhat similai' to that above directe-l, by means of a machine 
soinc«hat modified from that above described, is sold in the market as 
" gassed thread,"' and in consequence commands a higher price. 



48 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 




KSCAMPilF.NT OF FOOT GUAKD3, AT THE EASTEli:: END OF THE GREAT EXIIIBITIOS DUILDIXG. 




SOUTFI KSTRASCR OF TUT. dlKAT KXIIIHITIOX. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



GL'ASS M'ANUFACITURES. 

GLASS-BLOWING. 
'IMIIC miinufiicture of glass is one of groat and daily increasing importance 
in tliis country; tlio application of this material to many uses heretofore 
inithoiight of being daily on the increase ; thanks to the liberal policy 
which a few yoai'S ago abolished those fiscal bm'thens which had operated as 
11 bar to enterprise and progress. The subject is one of peculiar interest in 



connexion with the Great Exhibition of Industry of l?.")!, a.s but for tlio 
enfranchisement of the gla.ss manufacturer, the building in which that 
unrivalled display wa.s held could never have been constructed. 

The time at which glass wa.s invented is very uncertain. The popular 
opinion upon this subject refers the discovery to accident. It is said 
(I'lin., Nat. Hisl., lib. xxxvi., c. 26), "that some mariners, who had a cargo 
of nitvum (salt, or, as some have supposed, soda) on board, having landed 
on the banks of the river Belus, a small stream at the base of Mount Carmcl 




>'o. 4, OfTor.KU 2.1, IS.'iL 



fil.ASf-Iil.dWlNf: 



TiUrE L>NE Pennt. 



50 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



in Palestine, ami fmJiug uo stones to rest their pots on, placed muler them 
some masses of uitrum, which, being fused by the hcnt with the saud of I 
the river, produced a liquid and transparent stream : such was the origin j 
of glass." The ancient Egyptians were certainly acquainted with the art i 
of glass-making. This subject is very fully discussed in a memoir by I 
M. Boudet, in the " Description do I'Egypt," vol. h.., Autiq. Mrmoires. 
The earthen\yai'e beads found in some mummies have an exte^-ual coat of 
glass, coloured with a metallic oxide ; and among the ri(ins of Thebes pieces 
of blue "lass have been discovered. The manufiicttire of glass wa» long 
carried on at Alexandria, from which city the llomans were supplied Avith 
. that material ; but before the time of I'liuy the manufacture had been intro- 
duced into Italy, France, and Spain (xxxvi., c. 26). CJlass utensils have 
been found among the ruins of Hercuhmeum. 

The applicatiou of glass to the glazing of windows is of comparatively 
modern introduction, at lea^it in nortliern and western Europe. In 674 
artists were brought to England from abroad to glaze the church windows 



on crowii and German sheet-glass, SC«. ?d. per cwt. ; on broad glass, 
12s. Sd., and on common bottle-glass, -Is. id. per cwt. In 1S13 those rates 
were doubled, and with the exception of a modificatiou in 1819 in favour 
of p)ateglass, then reduced to 3/. per cwt., were continued at that high rate 
until 182o. In that year a chaiigc was made in the mode of taking the 
duty on ilint-glass, by charging it <>n the weight of the fluxed materials 
instead of on the articles when made, a regulation which did not affect the 
rate of charge. In 1S30 the rate on bottles was reduced from 8s. 2d. to 7s. 
per cwt. Tiie only further alteration hitherto made in these duties occTn-red 
in 1S35, when, in consequence of the recommendation contained in the 
thirteenth report of the Commissioners of Excise Inquiry, the rate upon 
flint glass was reduced two-thirds, leaving it at 2c/. per pound, a mea? ure 
which was rendered ncce.ssai'y by the encouragement given under the high 
duty to the illicit manufacture, which was carried on to such an extent as 
to oblige sever.al regular manufacturer.^ to rclin<piish the prosecution of 
their business. [Pen ny Cydoiia:.dia.'\ 




4 ^ 

SV'OCEgSIVE ST.VGr.a otp glass-bi.owiicq. 



at Wfvemoiit^i, iji f|v^ilin>l\ ; ft'l^ ?vfin in tlip year 1507 tli^s is^pt^? of 
oxcliuiing coVl fiona d\vel|ings was c'nifiupd to (ayge p.stuVlishuK'U^, an.d by 
no nicaiia universiil 'ovei( \\\ ilie:u. A\} entry tlie(i \ui\llo i(i the ^liqutes of 
JV survey of Al(i\viclc C,'\stie, the residence of the Duke of KorthuTuberland, 
informs us that the ghiss ciisements were taken down dming the absence of 
the family, to preserve thom from accident. A ceutuvy after tliat time the 
nse of window-glass w.-^s so small ui Scotli^nd i^liat only the upper rootns in 
tlio roy^l palacps were fiu'nished with it, Ihp lower part having woocleu 
sinittei-s to adudt or exchide the air. 

The earliest inanufacturo of ili;^l-glas3 in JlngU^d was begmi hi 1557, 
sunt t((e progress made in perfpctii^g it ^y^xs so iXoyy, tlwt i( wiis not until 
i^ear the close of \\^a sovoutesHj,!^ P^t"V.V: tHt tt\i.s ppuflt'T was inde- 
iieudciit of forcigiicv-^ for tlic supply of the comtqon article of (JviiAing- 
giasses. \\\ 1673, so;iio plate-glass w.as niado at Li^mbeth, in works sup- 
ported by tVe Duke of Ihukiugliam, but whicli vie\-c aopp abandoned. It 
\va8 cxi^c'ly one century \:\\f\ that tl(e first e-itahlisluueut of magnitude for 
the pvf'l'-'Ction of |datc gta-ss wa-s formed in thi-> country, uuder tho title of 
'■ The Oovernor and Coinpiiiy of pr(ti^li Cast ^'lats-rtlass Manufactuvers." 
The raonibera of this company SHbscvibod au "lupje capital, and works upon 
;i large scale werp erected at Ravopheatl, ^ear I're.so.pt, \\\ Lancashire, which 
have becii in oonstayt and supcpssfi^i onevatiou frpni tliEit titflo to, tb® 
present djiy. 

At an early period of its history in t^is country tho glass mauufactuve 
became an object of taxation, and ilnties v.-ero imposed by the S and 7 
• AVilliam and Mary, which acted so injuriously, th^t in tlie second year after 
tho act was passed one half of the ((niies were taken oH', and in the follow- 
ing year tlie whole was rojiealed. In ^746,, wheji tlio irianufactuve had taken 
firmer voyt. av* excise duty was agair^ u'lipospcl, (\t tlip rate of one penny per 
pound on tlip nritprials used for inakmg crown, plate, and flint-glass, and of 
one farthing per pound on those useil for making bottles. In 1778 those 
rales v.-cre iucrc.iseil 50, per cent, upon crown and bottUi glass, and were 
doubled on flint and plate-glass. Tlipso rates were further advaiiee(l froiii 
timo to time in conirtion with tho duties upon most other objects of tiixa- 
tion, and in 1806 stood as follows : — On plate and fiuitglas.H, 4u.s. psr cwt. ; 



Since tlie alteration in tlie tariff, tjic manufivctiire of glass in this country 
has received an iiiimeuss extension, and in several branches of the art we 
have outstripped the foreigner, who a f>?w years since maintained against 
us a flourishing competition. In tlie preparation of the raw material, with 
one or two exceptions, we occupy the highest place, and have acquired 
this advantage by our large capital, by our improved chemical knowledge, 
and by the i;idomitable energy of our character. Even tlie f ireigner 
ackuowledge^ our superiority in these r-spect-s, ami in ta=ite and colouring 
he also admits that we have made considerable progress. 

'• Por ii long time," says M. Step':iane Flacliet, '■ England has excelled us 
in the luannfacturo of glass, especially crystal glas^. The precise cause is 
not known; it docs not appear in tlip mode of fusing the materials — more 
probably it may be attributed to the purity of the lead which they use. 
We ku"*v h'>w poor France is in tliis impovtant resyiect, having imported, 
for several yeavs pa-t, from fifteen to sixteen millions of kilogranmies of 

that metal, principally from Spain Tho French ghvs is 

inferior to t'le t5^ii^lish in p"int of colour, and changes inuoli sooner when 
exposed to t^ie \\\v. Our manufaoturors decl.aro that tliis difference does 
not aviso from an inferiority of workmau-'bip, but from tho limited means 
which we possess of purchasing the article, and which in a great measure 
piay ho attributed to tho i)ii)iM(e division of the mil. In order to reduce 
tlie price of glass to the condition of the purchaser, our manuracturers 
have recourse to an extra infusion of alkali, wlach, being slowly absorbed 
by tliii atnii 'Sphere, causes the glass to lose its transparency." 

Glass may bo regarded, generally speaking, as an admixture of three 
kinds of ingredients — silica, alkali, and a metallic o.xido. The silica i.5 the 
vitvifiable ingredient, the alkali is tho flux, and the metallic oxide, besides 
acting as a flux, iinparls certain qualities by which one kind of glass is 
distinguishable from another. If silica be exposed to tliQ strongest heat it 
will resist fusion, but if it be mixed witli an alkali, such as potash or soda, 
and the mixture bo tlieu submitted to the same temperature, a combination 
will ensue which takes the form of a liquid, and when cooled becomes 
transparent. Tho quality of glass mainly depends on tlie proportions 
in which tho silicious matter and the alkali are coinbined, oil the tempe- 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCL0P;EDTA OF THE fiUEAT EXIIT13TTI0N OF 1851. 



51 



ratino to wliii'li tliey nro oxpo8e<l, irnd on tho skill witli which tlio culiro 
pi'ori'ss is iiorf'irnied. Wli»-n ;i poifoct combination of tlic iiiHtcrials i« not 
seciii'i'd, till) f,'lii«s Ih covoivil witli dafk spoln or ]jartick'», ami otUcr 
inoqvuditioK, wliich aro railed pti'iiP. Th-M-o ai-o tliijo kinds of Rla-s in 
onlinai-y use — ri'own gl;i«s, iilato-glasa, and Hint-glais. 'i'lio nilicious Band, 
wliicli f'onns tlio bauo of tho maiiufactmo of each, is ]ii-iiicipftlly deiivcd 
from Almn Hay, in thi> Islo of \Vlp;lit; from liVim, in Norfolk; and from 
Ayli'^niry, in I'.uckiiigliamnliiro. 'J'lio matcnals for fliiit-ghns arc nuarly 
as follow-s ;— Oho jmit of alkiiM, two parts of oxid'! of lead, threo of 
8ea-si\nd, and a small portion of the oxid' s of manrancne and ar*cnio. 'J'he 
oxhlt: of li-ud is employed ns a poworfid iliix; it also imparts a great histi'o 
to tho metal, and cansos it to bo mora ductile when in n semi-fluid Btato. 
Tho manKauoso renders tho gla.?3 perfectly cohairless. When tlieso 
ingredients ai'o mixed, it is called the hutch, and tlio niixtm''> is goncr.iUy 
of a sidmoncolourcd huo, tho red tinge being given by the oxide of lead. 

" Who," says Dr. .lohuson, " when ho firot saw tho sand or aishes by a 
casual iiilcnsoncss of heat molted into a metalline form, rugged with 
excroseenees and clo\idcd with impuritich, would have imaidncd that in 
this shapoU'ss lump lay concealed fo many conveniences of life as wouhl, 
in time, constitute a great part of the happiness of the world ! Yet by 
some such fortuitous litpicfaction was mankind taught to procure a body 
at once in a high degree solid and transparent; which might admit the 
light of the sun, and exclude tho violence of the wind; ■which might 
extend tho sight of tho philiisopher to new ranges of existence, and charm 
him at one time with the uuboundeil extent of material creation, and at 
aui'tiicr with tlie endless subordination of animal life ; and, what is of yet 
nn>rc importance, might supply the decays of nature, and s<iceo<u' old ago 
with subsidiary sight. Thus was the first ai^tiScer in glass cmnloytd, 
tlToui,'li without his knowledgo or expectation. He was facilitating and 
prolonging tho enjoyment of light, enlarging the avenues of scimcc, and 
conferring the highest and most lasting pleasures ; be was enabling the 
student to contemplate nature, and tlic beauty to b-bold herself." 

Owing to the injurious operation of the Excise duty upon gla.=s as already 
stated — since happily abolished by Sir Robert Peel — the Kngli.sh manufacture 
■was long inferior to tho French for plate-glass, and to the Bohemians for 
coloured and ornamental glass. Since tho exciseman was released from 
his attendance at the glassdiouse, the English have been gradually improving 
thomsclvea in tho manufacturo of every variety of this beautiful article, 
adopting processes now to England, but which had been long in use in 
other countries, where the mauufaeturcr was not impeded by the operation 
of impolitic laws. Among these new pi-ooesses, that of the manufacture 
of plato-glas.-,, in the mode represented in om' Illustration, is one of tho 
most interesting. When the Messrs. Chance of Spoii-lanc. near Birmingh.am, 
took the contract for the supply of tho large quantity required for tho 
Crystal Palace, amounting to nearly 400 tons, they found it necesfary to 
import a few foreign workmen, in consequence of a scarcity of English 
hands sutliciently skilled and experienced to cnmpli'tc the order within the 
tirao specified. The process represented by the artist is very simple and 
beautiful, but requires a steady and practised hand. When tho requisite 
weight of "mot.al"is taken from the furnace by the blower, it is blown 
into a spherical form in the ordinary manner. It is then, after being re- 
heated in tho furnace, swung iu the manner represented, above the head 
and bcliiw the feet of the workman, until it assumes the form of a cylinder. 
The worlcman stands upon a stage opposite the mouth of the furnace, with 
a pit or well beneath his feet, six or seven feet in depth. He swings and 
balances the molten metal — firmly affixed to a knob of glass at the end of 
a long iron b.ai-, or blowing tube — first above and then beneath him, mitil 
it gradually expands to the size which tho original quantity of "metal" 
was estimated to produce. The slightest miscalculation of his power of 
swinging it, or deviation from the proper course, might dash the hot glass 
cither .against the side or end of the pit or ■well, or ag.ainst the wall of tho 
furnace — or. worse than all, against the bodj- of a fellow workman or of a 
spectator. No such accidents ever happen, though the stranger unac- 
customed to tho sight is for a while iu momentary dread of some such 
result. When swung to the proper length, the cylinder is about four feet 
long, and twelve inches iu diameter. The next operiitions .arc to convert 
it into a tube, by disconnecting it from the blowing-iron, and removing 
tlio bag-like extremity. These processes are performed by boy.s, with 
strings of red-hot glass, which easily cut through the yielding metal." 
The boys then take tho tubes under their arms, and remove them to 
.".nothcrpart of the building, ■\vherotliey stand on end, like chimney-pots, to 
await the operation which shall convert them into flat sheets of glass. 
This is also very simple. The tube is cut down the middle, and iu this 
state placed in the "flattening kiln," where the moderate application of heat, 
aided by a gentle touch from the attendant workman, brings it flat upon 
r. slab or stone. It is then gently rubbed, or smoothed, with a wooden 
implement, and passed into a cooler part of the kiln, where it soon hardens. 
It is then tilted on edge, and the manufactm-e is coniploto. It is afterwards 
oit in the ordinary w.ay to the requii-ed size. 

The series of illustrations on pages 49 and 50, represent tlio Yarious imple- 
ments used in melting and blowing glass, and the appear.au ce it presents jn its 
successive stages. Those ■»-ere copied from samples exhibited by Messrs. 
Ilvistly and Co. of Sunderland, in addition to a great variety of specimens 
of the actual jiroduct for window-s, conserv.atories, &c. Un the left is the 
melting-pot. which st.inds nearly five feet binh (^"o. 7, on the cut). No. 1 
shows tha blow-pipe and ball of metal, as taken from the pot ; No. 2, shcet- 
gla.ss .as formed by tho blower in a wooden mould; No. 3, sheet glass when 



Bwiiiging in tlie procons of blowing ; No, 4, (Jicotj(la»M when fully swung ; 
No. 6, ulicct-gliiKs when finislicd by blowing; No. 6, ehcctglaw whca 
p-artLolly flattened. 



jeffheys mahine glue. 

TiiK marine glno ih ono of tho inventions which havo reunited 
from experlnient« mode to attain in some m«wuro tlic iramo objwt 
by dlfleront meauB. Messrs. JollVcy, Walsh, and Co. exhibit n groat 
variety of fipecinielm of their marine ghio an applied to Tariuus porta 
ofvcuselH, in order to show the strength and tenacity attainable by the 
use of thiii important Bubstance. Many ycjirs ago Mr. .Icffrcy turned 
bin attention to a proccsii, by galvanic action, of producing copper 
sheathing suitablo for ships' bottoms ; but, after numerous experiments 
and considerable expense, finding tho cost of production of the copper 
sheathing by his new process to bo equal to that of the copper-plate« for 
ordinary uso for tho same purpose, ho abandoned his scheme. Neverthe- 
less, his investigations on this important subject led to "the idea of 
employing resins insoluble in water aa an cfTcctual protection to ships' 
bottoms." Tlio result w.os tho compositlou which is known as marine 
gluo, and which is now so extensively used in the navy. It consists simply 
of three ingi'cdients, viz,, caoutchouc, coal u.aphtha, ivnd shell-lac, in pri>per 
pro]ioitions. It requires several days to dissolve the caoutchouc previously 
to tho addition of the shell-lac. The various specimens of the application 
of marine gluo may bo mentioned : — 1. A piece of the ma.st of the Cura^oa 
frigate, .after her return from South America. The glue wa.s found to bo 
in.sepnr.alile even by the ap|)lication of the wedge. 2. The piece of mast 
put together with tho marine glue, and which had been subjected to a 
pressure of 22 tiuis, by means of tho hydraulic press, before a splinter 
could be effected. In order to show the great addition.al strength of the 
main-m,a»t, the fore-mast, and the miijen, by the use of the marine glue, it 
is only necessary to observe that the number of feet of surface joined in 
tho three masts is equ.il to 2128; so that only taking three tons to tho 
foot, wo have .an adcUtioual strcng'th put into these masts of not le.«3 than 
0384 tons, a thing improcedenteil. 3. A block of elm, about 12 inches 
scjuare, which bad been put together with the marble gluo, and subjected 
to an explosion of guni)owdcr. At the conclusion of the trial, it was found 
that the seam or joint w.as perfect. 4. The piece of a deck put together 
with tho glue ■vvas taken f^'om a vessel, the interior of which wiis destroyed 
by fire, and. although the underside was found considerably charred, the 
upjicr side, including the glue, was perfect. 5. Mr. Jeffrey, at the request 
of Sir I. K. Brunei, prepared a cannon-ball of o.ik, about seven inches iu 
diameter, whicli w.xs fired at Woolwich, in 1842, at au angle of forty-five 
degrees, to a*5ecrtain the effect of concussion on the joint when rebounding 
from the earth. On an inspection of this interesting specimen, it will be 
found that the joint is still perfect. 6. A block of deal about twelve 
inche.5 square, with a surface glued of similar extent. The wood waa 
shattered at four tons. Thus, taking three tons per foot, we have additional 
strength of 25,000 tons distributed over the hull of a first-nxte. 7. Short 
length of a model mast, of about 8 inches in diamct^jr, exploded with gim- 
powder. Although the wood was rent, the splinters were confined by the 
marine glue. 8. Specimen, showing the method of converting rectangular 
into circular timber, by dividing the rectiingular piece by a segmental cut 
at the radius required, and then jilaciug the under piece above the iqiper 
piece, and connecting the two pieces together with marine glue. Tlie ribs 
of the roof of the 'Transept of the Palace of Industry were thus formed, 
not, however, having the use of m:u"ine glue at the joints. 9. A mahogany 
deck, paved with marine glue ; .and finally four s&ams, two of which have 
been subjected to the same teniperatiue under the line. The effect of the 
Sim on the seams made of pitch has been known to melt it away to the 
doptU of an inch in parts, while the gluo in tho first case remains perfect. 



Pbeservation or the Chystal Pal.\ce. — On Tuesd.iy evening, iu accord- 
ance with the resolution passed at a pre^vious meeting, declaring the 
desirability of preserving the Crystal Palace, a meeting of the inhabitants 
of Do Beauvoir Town, Kingsland, was held at the Sussex Arms Tavern ; Mr. 
John Carr in the chair. — Mr. Addiscott proposed a resolution to the eflfbct 
that the Cryst.al Palace, on account of the many glorious associations with 
the Exhibition of 1851. and being itself a work I'f art and beauty, ought to 
bo preseiTcd as a national memorial of that gi-eat and successful luider^ 
taking. — Jlr. Hughes supported the resolution, which was earned un.im- 
mously. The 'second resolution, which was proposed by Mr. Russell, 
euforcoJ tho necessity of public meetings on the subject, and also of 
petitioning Parliament with a view to pre?er\-e the palace either as a winter 
garden, or for other purposes beneficial to the public. The resolution w.as 
carried, and a petition to the House of Commons embodying the sentiments 
of the meeting was aftei-wards jn-oposed by Mr. T. Beard, the honorary 
secretary of the committee, and unanimously adopted. 



K.vrGiiTHOOD Offebid. — We learn on good authority that knighthood 
has been offered to Mr. AV. Cubitt. the commissioner superintending the 
erection of the building, to Jtr. Pa\ton, and to Mr. Fox. — Morning Paper. 



52 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



THE ARTS OF DESIGN AND DECORATION. 



THE FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT. 
"THE exclusion'of the painter's ai't from participation in the scheme of the 
Great Exliibitiou was an error of judgment on the part of the Commis- 
sioners, which it seems utterly impossible to account for. At a time when 
the application of decoration upon the true principles of design is being 
attempted, under the auspices of Government committees, not only in the 
palaces of the nation and the houses of the gi'eat, but also in the more 
humble abodes of the middle classes (through the operation of Schools of 



And if good so result from observations on sculpture obtained in this 
way, by millions who never saw a work of sculptuie before, how much 
more useful to them would bo some notion of the principles and practice 
of painting, involving both composition and colouring — an art much more 
intimately and generally applicable to the purposes and requirements of 
social life ; — and if a comparison by the more critical portion of the com- 
munity of the works, we can hai-dly venture to say the schools, of sculptui'o 
of various nations, be interesting and instructive, would not a similar 
comparison of works of painting be at least equally so ? The importance 
of such a comparison to English ai-t it w-ould be impossible to overrate, 
when we reflect upon the compai'ativelyjshort and chequered career which 
art, since its revival, has had in this country. It is scarcely more than a 




FINE ARTS COUItT. 



Design) — at a time when furniture, dress, and utensils for the table all 
come in for a share of the improved taste of an age ambitious in ai't, it 
seems an act of fatuity, when preparing a Grand Exposition of the Works 
of Industry of all Nations, to exclude from the lists that very branch of 
art which affords the highest resources for decoration, as well as the most 
abundant and varied examples both of composition and colouring. The 
assiduity and interest with which the thousands who thronged to the Exlii- 
bition in Hyde-park examined the miscellaneous contributions of sculpture 
from all nations, must a.ssure us that the masses are susceptible of enjoy- 
ment from the contemplation of works of fine art ; and although many of 
the specimens hero presented to them fall far short of the standard of 
excellence, and although the impromptu criticisms of the multitude by no 
means evince an ad\-anced taste, yet we feel so much confidence in the 
ultimate triumph of truth, which in art is beauty, that we are inclined to 
look for practical good results even fr'om tliis scrambling course of self- 
education, amid a sort of wilderness of wild flowers. 



century and a half that art has held any position amongst us ; smce Sir 
James Thornhill, st.Ta-ting in rivalry to La Guerre, the favourite decorator 
of the mansions of the nobility of that day. received a commission from the 
State to paint the interior of St. Paul's Cathedral and the hall of Greenmch 
Hospital, in which he was assisted by a German named Andre, and which 
he contracted to do at the rate of 21. per square yard ! It is not a century 
since the first attempt to establi.sh an Academy of art was m.ade, inaugu- 
rated by the learned and admirable discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; 
and in the course of that period, what have we done towards the formation 
of a school of art ? what definite purpose or niles of taste h.ave we arrived 
at ? The answer to these questions must be given by a silent and signi- 
ficant pointing to the walls of the various exhibition rooms in Trafalgar- 
square, Suffolk-street, and Pali-Mall, where all has long been caprice, and 
glitter, and wild confusion, and where now a portion of our. cxhibitants 
seem to seek for unity of purpose, by devoting their pencils to a miserable 
copyism of the poorest mediaeval models. Thus, whilst in little more than 
two centuries (Giotto died in 1336, RafFaelle in 1520), revived art in Italy 
arrived at its highest point of excellence and power imder a RafTaelle, who 
founded a school which, in the persons of a Giulio Romano, a Garofalo 



AN II.1>USTRATED CYCLOl'.EDIA OF Till': (JllEAT KXHIHITION Or 1^51. 



auJ a Piirnicginno, surviveil hoiiio tinio lifter liiiii — ill KnK'ii'"'. in iibout tli« 

eatiio ])i^i'iiiil, iil'tci- varioim uncoiicorteil oflbits, iinrl fuHtercd by much 

iiKlisciiiiiiiiatiiig iirttroiiii^,'L>. wo find iii't. ImviiiK lu'voi- oiico ftttcinpted ii 

flight ofthi) liiglicat aiiihitifni. ilogciieniting at iinco into thu stilVaiid inaui- 

Iiiiitc inannurisni of tlio twelllh and thirteuiilh ccntnrien. 

' Thoio is no hope of remedy for such a state of things, but in wholesome 

exposure in liroad 

daylight of public 

Bcrutiny. Wo must 

meet extravagaiuo 

with extravagance ; 

and native ali'ectatiou 

being confronted by 

conceits from abroad 

(where there is much 

of the same error to 

complain of), shame 

and mutual ridicule 

may e<irrect much ; 

whilst the strong arm 

of criticism and the 

loud voice of pojiular 

( oudemuutiou will do 

the rest. 

lint it is not only 
to an exhibition of 
modern art of all 
nations that we should 
have looked as the 
means of educating 
the public taste. The 
vast avenues of the 
Crystal Palace, which 
miglit, without much 
trouble, have been 
prepared for the pur- 
pose, would have af- 
forded an admirable 
opportunity for form- 
ing an exhibition o 
by-gone art, arraiigei 
ill order of schools 
an exhibition of thi 
highest interest aui. 
iitUity, which, frou 
the nature of circum 
stances, has never ye 
been carried into ef 
feet, and for whicl 
the spacious resoui-ce; 
of the World's Fair ii 
Hyde Park aftbrdec. 
the fir.^t, and perhap: 
the last, opportunity 
Of the forthcoming o 
the necessary mate 
rials for furuishinj 
forth such an eshibi 
tion, we cannot eutei 
tain a doubt, had tin 
opportunity been al 
forded, seeing thealac 
rity with which foreigi 
potentates, and ou. 
own most gracious 
Sovereign and her 
Consort, have freely 
sent in the costliest 
articles of jewellery 
and vei'lii in their pos- 
session, to enhance 
the attraction of the 
Exhibition ; and how 
their example has 
been followed by 

wealthy public companies, by noblemen and private gentlemen, each 
anxious to contribute their or his mite to the general splendour, but 
who, we are convinced, would have been far more proud to have shown 
a Eaffaelle or a Rembrandt, than a "jewelled hawk" or a necklace 
once the property of the poor King of Kaiuly ; and the public^ 
the more intellectual portion of it — would have been much more obliged 
to tliem for such contributions, and the men of art, and the men of taste 
of all Europe, would have tlianked them for helping to make up a show of 
precious worth and enduring interest, the recollection of which would have 
served to light their paths durmg a life of toil and study iu the pui-suit of 
excellence and beauty in art. 

It is useless to enlarge upon the practical advantages and the intellectual 
charm of such an Eihibition; it has been denied U3; and although a 




ORlCilN OF THE QC-VRItEL OF THE GUELPIIS .VND THE GUlBELLINS, BY F. It. PICKEKSOILL, A R.A. 



department in the CrysUd Palace has been nunied the " line Ail« Court," 
the very cxiHtenco of such a coiiipartmeut is a mockery wbou coupled with 
the announcementb that — 

" Oil piiintings and water-colour paiiitiugH, frcdcocH, drawingH, and 
cii).'iaviiigH, are not to be admitted, exce[)t as illustrations or examples of 
materials and processes employed, and portrait busts are oot to be admitted. 

"No single artist 
will be allowed to ex- 
bibit more thau thrco 
works." 

It is true that this 
regulation is not very 
cleaily worded, and 
that it might bo 
evaded, as all ill-ad- 
vised and purposeless 
laws may be ; almost 
every oil or water- 
colour pointiuf;, or 
drawing, or cngi-avinp, 
being more or less 
available in "illustra- 
tion of materials or 
processes employed." 
Indeed, we could 
name seveitd publish- 
ing houses who have 
managed to gain ad- 
mission for a variety 
of engravings, either 
published or in pro- 
gress, and water-co- 
loured pieces destined 
iu due course for the 
bauds of their en- 
gravers. And as to 
" fresco " painting ; 
why should that be 
excluded, if distemper 
and other like pro- 
cesses be admitted, iu 
which we have abun- 
dant examples of wall 
decoration .' We have 
abundant evidence ou 
every side, moreover, 
that the rule ha-> been 
relaxed as regards the 
number of works to 
which each exhibitor 
was to be restricted. 
But still the general 
object of the rule, 
whatever that object 
wa.s, has been effect- 
ed; and the " Fine 
Arts Court " has been 
crowded with veiy 
ordinary terra cotta 
cists, including brick- 
coloured and by no 
means delicately treat- 
ed nymphs of heavy 
proportions, wax mo- 
dels.wax flowers, niek- 
nackeries in colour 
printing, and fancy 
stationeiy, card mo- 
dels of houses and 
gardens, dolls di'cssed 
iu coui-t and other 
costume, egg shells 
carved and engraved 
with fancy views, mo- 
lds in willow-wood, 
models in paper, and every conceivable absurd toy which could enter into 
the conception of a boarding-school miss, and which render this department, 
as far as it goes, a positive blot upon the otherwise fair face of the Great 
Industrial Exhibition of all Nations. 

And it is really curious to see the shifts which poor Art, being excluded 
under its ordinary forms, has managed to represent itself iii the Great Con- 
gress of Industry, and what inconsistencies and waste of space this has led 
to. Although " oil painful;; and water-colour painting, fresco, cU'awing, and 
engraving" have been declared inadmissible in ] their general sense — that 
is, in their best and noblest performances — the pictorial genius of Europe 
lias manifested itself .ibuudantly on all side^ in almost every conceivable 
material but the prohibited canvas; upon porcelain, from France, from 
Vieima, from Milau, fi-om Dresden ; upon glass from Berlin aud other 



-^i^iU^ 



54 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



parts of Germany; upou tin from 'Wirtemburg ; upon plateiroQ from 
Thui-ingia. Then -n-e have mosaics fi'om Rome not a few, and beautiful of 
their kind; and from Muuioh we hare a collection of "stereochromic" 
pictures, executed upon wood covered with mortar, " a process intended as 
a substitute for (the prohibited) fresco-painting." Sh- 'William Kewton has 
been allowed wall-room for several pictures upon ivoiy. representing "The 
Homage at the Coronation," "The Marriage of her Majesty," and '■ The 
Christening of the Prince of Wales," &c. ; but tlicir reception in his case 
may perhaps be explained by the announcement that the ivory in these 
works is "joined together by a process of his own invention." Mr. Ha.slcm 
and Mr. Bone have some enamel pictures on gold — many of them Royal 
portraits, others copies from old mastei's; and Mr. Esses shows " an exten- 
sive collection of enamel paintings," copies from works in Royal and noble 
collections. In short, whilst High Art has been rigorously excluded. Little 
Ai-t has been gi'eatly favom'ed. As to the prohibition of engravings, it has 
been found impossible to carry it out ; and accordingly we find whole shop- 
loads of them in various styles in different pai-ts of the Building, some 
framed, othere loose. In addition, we have been startled here and there 
with some wonderfid imitations of engi-avings, and pen and ink drawings, 
in silk, in human hair, iu crape, &c. ; which, as soon as the first impulse of 
curiosity ;s over, only leave >ipon the mind of the spectator a feeling of 
disappointment and irritation. 

Whilst upou the sidiject of simulative processes, we may refer to some 
"poker drawings," upon wood, by the Rev. W. Calvert, and some specimens 
of the ai-t of " xulopyrography," or charred wood engraving, exhibited by 
Lieut. C. Marsh.'dl and Mr. J. T. Mitchell, imd which are entitled to rank in 
a higher category than the contrivances named at the close of the preceding 
paragraph. The latter productions are somewhat similar iu appearance to 
old sepia di'awiugs, and in theii' process of working have something in 
common with poker dramngs. The difference between charred wood 
carvings, or engra\Tngs, and the said " poker drawings," is that tlie former 
are cut from the surface of hard and white wood, which has been previou.-;ly 
completely chan-ed over, the lights and shadows being efl'eeted hy scraping 
gradually away the black surface to the necessary depth, according to the 
shade required, going below whei-e the burning extends for the absolute 
lights: whereas "poker di-awings" are burnt ou the sm-face of white wood, 
the lights being left and the shades burnt in. One of Mr. Mitchell's 
Bpecimeus is taken from a rare mezzotinto engraving by Prince Rupert, who. 
by the way, was long supposed to have been the inventor of the last-named 
process, though of this there is some doubt, it being probable that ho 
learnt the art from Colonel Louis Von Siegan. The subject is "The Execu- 
tion of St. John the Baptist." after Spagnoletti. The other specimen by 
this exhibitor is taken from Uwius " Chapeau de Brigand" (in the Veruou 
Collection), and is of more minute workmanship than the preceding one. 
Lieut. Mai-shall exhibits, we tldnk, three or more of his works iu this line, 
the most important of wliich is after Raffaelle's cartoon of "St. Paul 
Preaching." 

The engraving which accompanies the present article is taken from a small 
picture (" the Oiigin of the Quan'el of the Guelphs and the Ghibellines,") 
by F. R. Pickersgill, A.R.A., which has been admitted, not as a specimen of 
art, but of Rowney's silica colours, in which it is painted. Besides this, we 
have one or two other specimens of a like kind, and exhibited for a like 
purpose ; as, for instance, two of Concanuon's now method of aerial tinting 
by calcined colours, and some designs in the crayons and chalks of some 
other manufactm-er, whose name we have forgotten. Beneath these, ami 
Eome other g.audier displays of colovu's, rainbow or prism fiisiiion. are raugei.1 
the bru.shes, palettes, and other implements necessary fur using them ; and 
60 complete and instructive is this exposition of art requirements considered 
by Mr. Rowney, one of the exhibitors, that he places a little plaster groiip, 
entitled "Letting the Cat out of the Bag," iu the midst of his compartment, 
as much as to s,ay that the mysteries of the craft exist now no longer, and 
that amateurs may all be ai-tists if they ple:«e to lay in a stock of the 
necessary materials. In Mr. Ackerman's department we were agreeably 
struck with a very elegant colom'-box, made of papier niachc. 

The above flying notes, though imimportant iu themselves, mav bo 
interesting some future day, as affording a notion of the position held by 
the Fine Arts iu the Great Exliihition of Industry of All Nations of 1851. 



THE QUEEX'S WITHDRAWING-EOOM AT THE 
CRYSTAL PALACE. 
The Engraving in page 60 represents the waiting-room erected for the 
reception of her Majesty near the Korth entrance of the Building, having 
particular reference to the suiTonntling grovip of anxious spcctatoi's, on the 
occa.sion of the inauguration of the Crystal Palace, on the 1st of May. This 
elegant little apartment was chiefly composed of rich tapestiy, the interior 
being lined witli pale light blue and white silk, flutech The furaitnre was 
of a very costly character, combining lightness of appearance with splendour 
of effect. The sofa and chairs were carved and gilt, and covered with light 
blue silk damask. The carpet, of rich Bru.ssels, was a flowered pattern. 
Flowers, tjistefully disposed, lent their aid to give a pleasing and lively 
effect to the picture. Iu tlie rear of the pruicipal room was a smaller apart- 
ment, separated from it merely by a draped partition, iu which was a 
handsome cheval glass, in a gilt frame and stand. Crowds of persons daily 
thronged to view this little lijou of a boudoir, at a respectful distance 
however — a cordon being drawn around it, guarded by a policeman. 



IHARDWARE. 

BUTTONS. 
T^HE oldest of the Birmingham buttons seem to have been a plain fiat 
button, of the waistcoat size, which, a hundred years ago, was sold at 
is. Gd. a gro.?s, and which is still manufactured at Is, 64. a gi'oss. Then 
came a very Large button, of the size of half a-crown, with ornamental 
devices ou it ; but this was dear. It was the gilt aud plated button, intro- 
duced between 1797 and 1800, which made the gre.it "hit" iu the trade. 
This button became immediately fashionable, and continued so for a quarter 
of a century. Everybody must remember the days when the blue coat, 
with its seemly array of glittering brass buttons, was the not imbecoming 
garb of a gentleman. At the end of twenty-five years, it was pu.shed from 
its popularity by the covered, or Florentine button ; but some years ago 
a d.asljing attempt was made to revive its gloi-ies by means of a deputation 
which the trade despatched to London. We do not learn that they com- 
mitted a similar inadventure to that of the poor wig-makers, who went up 
to petition the throne, some years previously, against the practice of 
wearing one's o\vii hair, but, going in their own natural hair, so scandalised 
the mob by their inconsistency, that they had it all cut off for them bj' 
the rabble. Armed with sets of beautiful bright buttons, the discomfited 
makers forced their way to the foot of the Throne, and, tendering their 
article, besought Royalty to pity their misfortunes. They represented 
t'aat the old button was very handsome, and that thousands were reduced 
to poverty by the introduction of the new one; aud they therefore 
entreated the King (George IT.) to encourage the metal button ,madi- 
by wearing that article. The same appeal was made to other influential 
persons ; and not only the King, but the Duke of Clarence, several of the 
Miui-sters, many members of the nobility, the Lord Mayor, and other 
notables, accepted the proffered buttons, and promised to wear them. 
The expf-riment was successful, a reaction took place, and the dark button, 
as we well remember, went a&ide for a few seasons. Again we all came 
out glittering — 

To midnight dauces aud the public show. 

But the triumph was not long, and that it was not longer, 'was the fiiult of 
the Birmingham people themselves. Some manufactm-er invented or 
introduced a cheap method of gilding the button.s. The trade c.illcd it 
French gilding, the workmen named it "slap dash." It made the buttons 
look remarkabl)' \jrilliant f:ir a very little while, but they tarnished almost 
immediately, even before the retailers could sell them ; and if placed in all 
theii- brightness on a new coat, they looked shabby in a fortnight. This 
discoveiy — perhaps it is refining too much to suppose that it was intro- 
dmced by a friend to the Florentine button — fatally and finally damaged 
the metallic cau.3e, by ctistiug discredit upon the whole manufacture : 
people left off ordering brass button.% aud by ISiO the trade was again 
rmneA A second attempt at obtaining illustrious intervention was made : 
Prince Albert was assailed by a deputauon, and the sympathies of the press 
were invoked by the metal-buttoniit. But the charm would not work 
twice, and yon never see a gilt button now except upon the terribly high- 
collared coat of some terribly devoted adherent to old iashions, who maj' 
be observed nestling in the corner of the stage box ou first nights, and 
who, if ho speaks to you, is sure to growl out the unreasonable mtimation, 
that " You ought to have seen Joe Munden, sir, in a character like this. 
Muuden, sir, icas an actor." 

Except the buttons required for the military .and naval services, aud for 
" Jeames," the met.al .oi'ticle is out of date, aud covered buttons have it all 
their own way. Tlie Florentine or covered button was first introduced 
into Birmingham in 18'20, and it derives its name from the Florentine 
cloth with which it is covered. It is composed of five pieces : first, the 
cover of Florentine or silk ; second, a disc of metal which gives the shapo 
to the button ; third, a somewhat smaller disc of brown pasteboard or 
waddmg ; fourth, a disc of coarse black linen or calico ; and fifth, a disc of 
metal from which an inner cu'clo has been pimched out, so that the cloth 
or calico above may slightly protrude, and form a shank of the button. 
Young girls cut the various discs mth a punching machine, and the last 
operation is to place the five pieces in regidar order in a small machine 
constructed to hold them — an arrangement cai-ried out by a number of 
little children under a woman's superintendence : and then this macliine, 
i which has been compai'cd to a dice-box, is brought under a press, which 
I with a touch fiistens the whole bottom together with a neatness aud a 
completeness to which any one who mil examine his coat-button eau be 
witness. 

Horn buttons are made from the hoofs of horned cattle : tho.se of horses 
are not available for the purpose. The hoofs are boiled until soft, aud cut 
into halves; then " blanks " are pimched out. The blanks arc placed in 



J 



M^^, 



(""^C* ife yi-Z^^vv- 



^/^j\£G<i<yi>- 




THE ROYAL PKOCESSION AT THE OPENINQ OF THE OREAT EXHIBITION.— MAY I. 






53 



THE CRYSTAL P.-a.VCE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



Throiighowt tho day the parks and tho Hues of thoroughftirc presented 
a scene of iudcscribablc animation ; crowds of people rushing liithcr and 
Uiitlier; carnRgos. cabs, carts, and omnibuses crammed inside and out, 
formmg a difficult passage thi-ougb tbc dense uncounted and uncounUiblc 
tbroug. In short, the oiKjnin? of tho " World's Gieat Fail- " appwu-ed to 
be kept bv all, with one consent, ni a national holiday— all the shops m 
KuightsbriJgc. and a great proportion of those in Piccadilly and other 
neighbouring sti-cets, being closed. , , n e 

The hour fixed for the opening of the various doors to tho holdei-s ol 
season tickota was niac o'clock ; but long before that time every possible 
pomt of access to the building was thronged with well-dressed pei-sous— a 
great pi-oportion of thoiu ladies— eagerly waiting for admission. Con- 
eideriu" the immense number who eventually were admitted— some twenty- 
five thous.iud or thirtv thousand at lexst— the proceeding was conducted 
with woudtfrfiil oixlt-r'aud regulai-ity, and with much less pci-sonal mcon- 
venience than generally attends the congiegatrng of lar-c assemblies, 

I'ite ccntl-e urea of the intersection of the naves and transept was that 
set" apart for the ix-ception of her Jhyesty and her Court, and tho other 
distinguished persons who were to tike part in the interesting ceremonies 
of the day. At the uoitbcrn portion of lliis area a dais was erected, covered 
with a splendid carpet, worked by loOl.idies for her Majesty, and graciously 
accepted by her ; and upon this was placed n magnificent Chair uf State, 
covered with a velvet robe, or mantle of crimson and gold. High over head 
was suspended an ocUigon canopy, trimmed with blue satin and drditcrios 
of blue and wliite. Before the chair rose the beautiful glass fountam, 
glilt-^i-ing as a precious stone in the morning beams. Behind rose the steni.^ 
of tiie Oriental phints and the 'itately elm, one of the most agreeable and 
refi-eshing parts of the whole view. Along the galleries of the main western 
aveaue, the depai-tment for British goods, a succession of the most beautiful 
carpetiy was suspended, like bauuoi-rts, only more sideudid, in a knightly 
hall of old. Along the forei;;ji avenue evei-jthing stood revealed in its 
best : and the vista al^ng the whole Hue was perhaps the most splendid 
and extensive, as a piece of ai't and humau contrivance, ever pre^^nted to 
humau view. 

Uv 11 o'clock the honourable cnrpa of Geutlcmen-atrArms, in then- gay 
uniforms, had taken up their station at the rear of the da'is, whilst the tiine- 
houourcd body of Beef-eaters were ranged along the outer line of proccs-^ion. 
The trumpeters and heralds stood ready to proclaim the arrival of the 
Queen of these isles, and the heralds to marshal the order of her coming. 
At half-past eleveu the Duke of Cambridge arrived at the north door, 
but did nut enter the area, awaiting the arrival of the DuchcsS of Kent, 
who, accom}'anied by the princess Mary of Cambridge, followed shortly 
after him. Their Royal Highnesses now entered the retiring room, which 
had been prepared for her Majesty's reception, an elegant little apartment, 
covered with tapestry, and lined with silk, pale blue and white, fluted with 
a crown overhead in the centre. The Commissioners and foreign ministers 
now made their way down to the entrance-hall, ready to pay their i-espects 
to her Slajesty on her an-ival (see Kngi-avin-^). Kxactly at ten minutes to 
twelve, the Queen and her Royal Con.^ort. accmpanied by tlie Prince of 
■\Va.es and the Priucei'* Royal. a!ighte<l from thtir carriage; and after rc- 
pair.ng to the rctiriug room, procee led to enter tiie magnificent edifice of 
the production of which his Royal Highness had been the chiuf prunioter. 
The 'iucen wore a drcis of pink satin, brocaded in gold ; Prince Albert, a 
Field Marishal's uniform; the Prince of Wales, a Highland dve*s; and the 
Princi S3 Royal, a white lace dress, with a wreath of tiowers round her liead. 
The R jyal party, especially tlje young Prince and Princess, appeared mucli 
struck and delighted v.ith the stately grandeur .of the scene which burst 
upon t. leir view. 

As h T Majesty and Prince Albert entered under the cryjital arched roof, 
througl. the handsome bronzed and gilded northei-n gate* erected by the 
Coalbro ikdaic Company, through the adjacent Spaces decorated by gorgeous 
exotics, sparkling fountains, and choice statuary, and as the tlouriflli of 
trumpet and clai*ion procliumed this their State entry, a most deafening 
burst of applause came from the cimcourse of loyal bubjects around her, 
who rose to welcome the Hoval pair. The siglit was overwhelmingly gi-and. 
"When her Majesty had taken her seat in the chair of state — to which t^he 
wa? conducted through the Pioyal Commi.si.'ii oners. Foreign Milristcr.^, and 
members of the Cabinet, who in their bright Comii dres?e« and splendid 
uniforms were ranged aroimd her chair — the national anthem, "God save 
the Queen," wa^ performed by a choir of nearly a thousand voices, occom- 
pani^d on the organ {built by Messrs. Cray and Davison) by Mr Ooas and 
Mr. Turle. 

His Royal Highness Piince Albert having descended from tho daw, and 
taken his place with the other Commissionei-s, read the following address : — 

" May it p!c*sc yonr Mujcslj" — We, the C'ommiasionera np)>oiDl«d by your Slujtflty's 
Royal warrant »f t'lie 3nl <ir Jannary, 1850, for the promotion of the Exliibitimi of tlie 
wjrkKof lii'liutry of nil Nations, and subsfinenlly lufxirpomtcd by your MuJciJty'K Koynl 
clinrter of the 15tli "f Aiigiist in tbe same year, humbly bey leuve, on the occnijioi) of y.mr 
Majesty's ausptcioiiH visit at the opening of the Exhibition, to luy before you s. Iirief 
Blatement of our pr<Kr«HiiiiCB to tiie present time. 

" By virtoe of tlic authority graciously committed to us by your MuJ^Aty, we have 
made dilii^nt lu(|Uiry iuto th^ metiers which yoitr 31ajenly wus plciiscd to refer to us — 
namely, into the best mode of introducing tlic productions of your .Majusly'a colonics and 
of foix-i^ counlries inlf) thiH kin^doin — tlio t>elcciion of Ihc most di'MirJildu site for llie 
Exhibition, tijfi general conduL-t ofihi; iindcruking, and tlw; propi r miilmd of dftcrminiog 
the nature of tlit: prizea, and of securing the- most impartial dietiibmiiiu of tliem. 

'■ In tbi- pfiflB.culion of thcs'j inqnirii's. and iu llie discharge of tho duli(.i assi;riicd to 
us by your Maji>ity'» lE'.ynl cliarter of Im-orp'iration, we have held eoiiHlant meetings of 
onr whole body, and have, moreover, referred numerous ()UCStious connected with a great 
Tariety of snbjetla to commiltces composed partly of our own members, and partly of 



individuals distintruislied in the scverul depirtmints or science and tho artSj who liavo 
cordially responded to our applications for (heir assiatanoo at agrvut saunheo of their 
valuablti time. 

".\mong tho carliosf <iuestIons brought Iwfore us. was the important one as lo tho 
terms upon which aiticlea offered for exhibition should be admitted inlo the ItniMlng. 
We considered thut it wiis a maia charuclerietic of Ihu national umleit^iking tn which 
we were engaged, that it should depend wliolly upon the vohintary conn ilmnmis ut tlie 
people of this c.nmlrv for il-t success; and we, therefore, decided, without lie--.it:ui>>ii, thut 
no elmrgo whatever should he mado for the admlB3lon of such goods. We if-nhiiLiod, 
also, that the olHco of selecting the aviieles to bo sent should be cntj'usled, in the lirst 
instance, to local committees, to be estJiblishud in overy f<ji\,'ign country, and, in varlotn 
districts of your Miyesty's dominions, n general power of controul being rescfvud to tho 
commission. 

" Wo have now tho gratification of stating that our anticipations of mippMrt In thU 
course have in .-ill respects been fully rualiseil. Vonr Majosly's most nr.xi.ms ili.nrtli.m 
to the funds of the Kxhlhliion was the signal for voluntary contrihiitluiis Inni jill. even 
the humblest, classes of vonr subjt^cia ; and tho funds which have thus been plaied at mir 
disposal omnunt at pivsent to about (W.twtrf. I^cal committees, fr-ini which we have 
unifurmly rereived the most zealous co-opernUon, Were formed iu all jinrts of llie I oiled 

Kingdom, in many of yonr Jfajesty's cilonica, and in tlie terrilorlos of the Il'm nblo 

East India Company. The most cner;.'ecic support has also been j-cceived frutn tlio 
Gi.verumcnts of nearly all the countries in tlio world, In most of which ctimmissions have 
been appointed for the special purpose of promoting the objects of an Kxhibitiou Justly 
characterised, iu your Miuesty's Royal warrant, as bu Exhibition of tho Worlcs of IndUBtry 
of all Nations. 

" We have also to acknowleilge the great readinesa with whicli porsnns of all clashes 
have conio forward as exhibitors; and here again it becomes our duty to return our 
humble thanks to vour Majesty, for the most gpaclooa mannef in which yonr Mujesty has 
condescended to associate yourself with yonr snyecls, by yourself cuntrihnting some 
vahtable and int«restin« articles to tho Eslilbitioft. 

"The nnmbor of exhibitors whose prod'.iMions it lian been found possible to noconimo- 
date is abi.ut 15,000, of whom nearly oHt-h ilf am Itritlih. Tlie remainder repvc^^ent tho 
prodiictioii* of more than forty foreign .-onntrlcs, comprising .alnio>t the whole uf the 
civilised nations of tho globe. l» -irr-iiiyiiig tho spM.ce t" be nlloltid t.i eiieli. we have 
taken into coiiaidemtion hoth the nature of i« piodmtinns ami the fiulli:ie^ of neccsa to 
this country alforded by it* gcographital iiositlon. Yoiu- M O-^-'v" "'"iiiid the luoduttiona 
of your Majcitv's domini'iiJ arran,^-iii in tlio western ]".Ltii.ii •■{ tin' lluililiii;,', and those 
of foreign cmntries in the easicm. Tlie KxliihKion is diviri..il into tlu: (niir ^-ivfit elussoji 
of— 1. Haw Matcrial-i; •-'. Machinery; 8. SlulUlffleturc;; :iii.l -l. Si.-iil|.tiiLv and tho l-'lne 
Arts. A fnrlhcr division hfts been made ivcording t'l tin' tjiogivplii.-al p^siiiim «t the 
countries represented, those which lie within (he warmor latitudes being pla:cd near tnb 
centre of the Birllding, nnil the colder eonulrii-.') at the uxtremities, 

"Your Mftjeslv having boon gracijusly jileased (o grant a site in this, your Royal 
Park, for the purpoRus of the £.<chibition, tlm first cnlumn ol" the stiuctnre, now tionoiired 
by your Majesty's preseucp, was fixed on the 20lh of September lost. Within the short 
period, therefore, of seven mtmths, owing to tlie eneruy of the contractor-), and tlic activo 
industry of the workmen employed by thent, n building has betui creeted, entirely novcd 
ill its con^truclloR, covering a apace of mur.- than ly tines, measuring Ibjl feet in length, 
and -ISG feet in extreme breadth, and CApaMe of containing 40,WjO visitors, and affording 
a frontage for the exhihition of goods to tlio extent of more than ten miles. Foi- 
the origiuiil gn«gcstion of the ]>r!ncipl« of thta stntcturo, the Commissioners are indebted 
to Mr. Joseph Paxton. lo whom they feci (htir acknowlcdgmenls to be justly due for tliis 
iutcro-sting featnre of their nndcrtuking. 

"With regard to the distribution ofrcwai'ds to deserving exhibitors, we have decided 
that they should bo given in the form of medals, not with reference to raoroly indivnlnal 
competition, but M rewards for excellenco in wliatcver shape it may prtsent itself. The 
selfiption of the persons to be rewarded has Ijeen enunisted to juries composed (.»|uahy of 
British snbjeels and of foreigners, the former hiiving been seliicted by tho commission 
from the recommendations made by the loeal committees, and the latter by the (lovcrn- 
ments of tho foreign nations, the proiliiction* of which arc exhibited. The names of Iheso 
jnrors, comprislBg US they do many of European celebrity, afford the best guarantee of tbe 
impartiality with which the rewaiila will be ussigned. 

"It atfords 11!^ ranch gratification, that, notwithstanding the magnitude of this under- 
taking, and the preat distances from which many of tbe articles now exhibited Imve hnd 
to be collected, the day on which your Majesty has been graciously jdeiiaeU lo be present 
at the inauguration of the Exhibition is the same day that was originnlly named for ita 
opening ; thus aifonling a proof of wliat may, under QadtB blessing, be nc^Miinplished by 
good-will and cordial co-operation amongst nations, Sided by the means that modern 
science has placed at our command. 

" Having thus briefly laid before your Majesty tliB results of our labours, it now only 
remains for ns to convey lo your Jlnjesiy our dutiful and loyal Acknowle(]guienl.s of tho 
snpport and enconragenientwWcli we luive derived throughout thiri extensive and hihorious 
task from the graciuus favour and eiiunii-iatice of your M'jjesty. It is our liearlfcli 
prayer IhattbiLi undertaking, whie]i li;i; fur its cud tho promoti'in of all branelies of 
human industry, and the sfrengthenin;; <.r ihi! bonds of prncsand friendship among all 
the nationi of the earth, may, by tin' lili-ssing of IJtifine Providence, ecindiice to tfio 
welfare of your .M tjesty's people, and hi: liin;^ rememliercd among the brightest circnta- 
stances of your .Majosly's p';aceful and happy reign." 

To which her Maje-^ty read tlie following gracious reply, which wa:^ put 
iuto her hands by Sir U. Grey : — 

I receive with the groatest ef^alatl\>>n the address wmeh yon have predicated to me 
un the o,)i'ning of this Exhibition. 

" I have observed, with a warm and increasing interest, tlie ptogres-, of yonr proceed- 
ings in the execution of the duties entrn&tcil to yui by the Royal Commission; nnd it 
affords me sincere gratification to witness the sneeessful reniilt of yoitr Judicious and unrc- 
mitdng cxortionS 3n the splendid spectacle by whicii I am this day snn'omrdcd. 

" I cordially concur wltli you in the prayer, that, by Grid's blessing, this undertiiking 
maycondiico to the welfare, of my people, and to the common interfsli* of (he hiitnan raCt*, 
by enconraging the arts of pcftce and indnn-.ry, strcngtliening fhe bonds of union among 
the irntion* of the earth, and promoting a friendly and honoirrirhlc rivalry in the iiaefnl 
exercise of those facuhics which have been conferred by a beneficent Providence fo^ Ihc 
good and the happinena of mankind." 

Prince Albert then returned to Itia place beside her Majesty on the ddia, 
and the Archbishop of Canterbury n-ad the following prayer, or benedic- 
tion, a breathless etiUneas peiTading the vast assemblage : — 

PRAYER. 

" Almiglity and everlasting God, governor of nil things, without whom nothing is 
Bti-ong, nothing holy, accept, we hcseecliThev, the sacrifice of our praise and thanksgiving, 
receive our jirayers wbicli we offer up to Tliuc this day, in behalf of this kingdom and 
land. We acknowledge, O Lord, that Thou hast mnltiplied the blessiugs which Thou 
miglitest most justly have withheld ; we acknowledge that it is not because of the works 
of righteousness which we have done, but of Thy great mercy, that wc are permitted to 
come before Thee thiw day with the voice of thanksgiving, instead of humbling us for 
our offences. Thou ha«t given us just cjiuse to praise Thee for Thine ubundaut goodness. 
And now, () Lord, we beseech Thee to bless the work which Thou hast enabled ns to begin, 
nnd to regard wUh Thy favour our prcticut purpoau of uniting together la the bond of 



AN ILI-USTRATED CYCLOPiEUIA OP THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



vats containing a strong dye, red, green, or black, and the shank is next 
fixed in. The button is then placed in a mould, where the under surface 
is stamped with tho maker's name. A dozen moulds arc put into an iron 
box, and heated over an oven until tlio horn is aa soft as wax, and tlien an 
upper mould with the pattern for the top of the button is pressed down, 
fitthig close to the hiwer mould. Tho moulds having been placed in the 
press, and Hubmitted to its action, tho buttons are complete, except that 
the rough edges rcipuro paring. Brushes, worked by steam, then run over 
aud poiirtli the buttons, and they arc ready for the sorter. There are 
numerous beautiful specimens of these buttons iu the cases to which we 
shall presently refei-. 

There are still many other kindd of buttons to be noted. Tho pearl 
button gives employment to two tliousand people in Birmingham alone. 

Wo muat not forget glass buttons, with which it was lately the pleasure 
of admiring mothers to sprinklo their little boys very profusicly, and which 
are also much in demand for ex£iortation to tlie African chiefs, who have 
the truo barbarian love of glitter. There are two sorts, the roimd and tho 
knob-shaped. Tho firmer aro made of sheet-glass, of various colours, and 
coated with lead, which is cut by hand into small squares, the cornoi*.-i of 
Tyhich aro rounded with scissors, aud the edges aic ground on a wheel. 
The shank i.s then fastened; it is joined to a round piece of zinc, the size 
of the button, and soldered to it. The tuob buttous arc made in a mould : 
a long rod of glass boing softened in a furnace and clasped in the mould, 
in whicli tho shank haa previously boeu fitted. The black gla^s buttons, 
for coat links, arc made at a lathe. Agate, cornelian, and stone buttons aro 
imported from Bohefnia, and shanked and finished in Eirmiiighatn. 

There are several other kind.^ of buttons, as tlic iron and bras^^ buttons 
with four holes, userl for trow.ser8, steel buttons for ladies' dresses, wooden 
buttons and bono buttons for under clothing. The furmer are punched 
by one press, rendered concave by another, and pierced by a third, ami 
then a hand-piercer is introduced from the opposite side to that wliii.h 
receives tho blow, in ordtir to smooth the edges of the holes. Having 
been cleaned, tho buttons receive ft white coating, by moans of a chciuicul 
process. The steel buttons arc niaJe by tho steel toy manufactureis. The 
wood buttons are inado by wood-turners ; and the bone buttons arc chielly 
madct by the horn button maker.^. 

^avltig tlius enumerated the principal forms of button, we will ynsn iu 
review some of the specimens etiiibited. Messrs. Twigg (279. Ijeneral 
Hardware! have some very handsottie specimens of the ".leftines" button, 
and 8omo boldly embossed riavnl buttons, with appropriate ornament. 
3ome of their cut-glass buttons in metal aro effective. Messrs. Pigott's 
(281) bronzed buttons, with sporting subjects, are among the best we 
have ever seen : and Messrs. Hammond (28*2) hare some particularly 
bold and well-executed device buttons— a set which we noticed, as made 
for a "Curling Club," being vei-y chaiactcristic. Messrs. Aston (253) not 
only show a haudaome assortment of all kinds, e.specially of the Flurcutine 
class, but they introduce a series designed to illuitrate their manufacture — 
a course which is very much iu conformity with the spirit of the Exhi- 
bition, and one whicli we could wish had been adopted wherever it was 
convoniontly practicable. Messrs. Inmau (281), ha\'e also some bold and 
well-executed buttons, some of them honoured with the episcopal insignia, 
an'd others for the servants of the Loudon Docks. Some of the prettiest 
Cu(>glas3 buttous in the Exhibition are those of Messr.^. Neal aud Tonks 
(235) ; aud Messrs. Chatwiu's case (266) contains as highly-finished speci- 
mens as any assortment around them. In counoxion with Mr. Biinks's 
buttons (287), we nbscrvcd snmo large and fine specimens of the shells 
used in the manufacture of pearl buttons, above described, which are 
brought from tho Culf of Persia, and from the Sooloo Isles. A very small 
but pretty contribution is tftade by Mr. Knowles (2S9). consisting of gold- 
plated aud enamelled buttons — there arc, We think, about a dozen only. 
Mr. Wells (290) exhibits some horn button.% of considerable morit. The 
case (295) contributed by Messrs. Smith, Kemp, and Wright shows us a 
very brilliant assortment. Tho sporting buttons, representing tho ncck- 
nnd-neck end of a race, the banter clearing a hedge, the sportsman bringing 
down his p.irtri<lge. witli other varieties of amusement, aro very cleverly 
designed. There is a gnod St. Qoorgo an<l the t^ragon, ;tnd indeed fl very 
rich multiplicity of devices, onainels, crests, buildings, military and liaval 
buttous, a capitid lion, and other designs for ornamental buttons. Messrs. 
Allen and Moore (300), among many choice and beautiful articles in hard- 
ware, exhibit metal bnttoijs of fine finish ; and Mr. Aston (:»0) shows velvet 
buttons, which wc marked as V*ry rich iu their effect. Wo have spoken of 
the manufacture of pearl buttons, and Messrs. Elliott (3C.2) exhibit some 
with tnetallic rims — an armngemcnt which conveys tho desirable idea of 
exceeding care in tho finish. Messrs. Inj^ram (36-1) illustrate very fully 
the horn button iu its history and varieties. Slessrs. Hooley also (3051 
have some metal articles auiiil tlicir beautiful htirdwaro. Mr, Nii.'5h (310), 
a die sinker, shows the dies by which the metal buttons aro stamped. In 
a case (36-1), exhibiteil by Mr. Bri.'iar.il)b, aro specimens of the mothor-o"- 
pearl button, and among them of tlio black pearl. 

The general characteri-^tics of tho specimens of button manufacture 
must, of course, be, to a great extent, similar, tho contributions being 
chielly sent by first-rate producers, who, in rnnning an honourable race 
with tlieir rivals, all attain the point of excellonce which loaves little room 
for diversity. In some of the casoa there is more artistic taste, as regards 
tho designs of ornamcut, than in others : but the mechanical fiuish of the 
whole array defies censure. Tlie button maiiufiKturc of England is 
obviously and decidedly creditable to the country. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION, 

V. — Opening op the GaEAT Exoibitios on the Isr of Hat. 
QK" Thursday, the 1st of Jlay — the day fixed upon from tho very outaet 
for the piurpose — the Crystal Palace of Industry, in Hyde-park, was 
inaugurated by the Queen, accompanied by Prince Albert, the Prince of 
Wale;?, the Princess Royal, and many other branches of tho Royal fam ily, 
besides several foreign Princes, who had come over eipreasly to asaiiit in 
tbe imposing ceremony. Farther, in order to give increased importance 
to the occasion, to stamp it with the solemn adheaion of her Majesty'a 
political advisers, tho officers of State, both of tho Government and of the 
household, attended upon her Majesty, forming a magnificent and glittering 
coHeyc. 

Never dawned a brighter morn than on thia ever-memorable "May^y f 
tho sky clear aud blue, the suu coining forth in undimmcd splendour, the 
air crisp, cool, yet genial, oa a poet's spring mora sho ild be. London, 
with her countless thousand-i, was early afoot ; by six o'clock, the hour 
fixed for opening the park -gates, Mtrcams of carriages, all filled with gaily- 
attired company, came pouring in from all parts of tho metropolis and the 
stirrouudiug districts, while whole masses of pedestrians marched in mighty 
phfJatLX towards the scene of actlmi. Ail St. James's Park, all the way up 
Constitution Hill, all the way along Kuightdbridge and Rotten-row, was 
one sea of heads, whose owncTS wore all intent upon one object — to catch 
a glimfjoO of her Majesty and splendid suite on her way to the Palace of 
Industry. Tho hne of route was fcofit by the Horse Guards and the police, 
who, we ore glad to add, appeared to have experienced little difficulty in 
preserving order, whilst they interfered as little as possible with the plea- 
surable enjoyment and freedom of action of the mtiltitude — so fully ihd all 
appear animated with the one desire to signalise this truly popular cere- 
monial with generous and kindly feeling, and a respect for the rights and 
duties of one another. 

Tho only houses from which a siglit could be got of the procession were 
those in Grosveiiur- place and at Hyde Park Corner ; and these were crowded 
with well-dressed persons, chiefly ladles, even to the very roofs. The roof 
of Apslcy House was fully tenanted after this fashion, so was also that of 
tho park-keeper's lodge ; and ut this point, when the procession emeiged 
from the triumphal arch at the top of Constitution -hill, the cheering, which 
had been enthusiastic all along the line, rose into a shout which almost rent 
the air ; whilst hats and handkerchiefs were waved from every hantL 

The windows of the new front of Bucluugham Palace were also filled 
with eager spectators of this portion of the day's proceedings, consisting 
chiefly of persons attached to the Royal household ; the centre balcony 
being occupied by the younger Princes and Princesses, attended by several 
ladies. 

Pt-ocisely at cloven o'clock the Hor.5Q Guards commenced widening the 
path for the procession ; and at half-past eleven, the Uuid of the regiment 
playing '' God save the Queen," the Royal covlhje set forcli, iu presence of 
a vast multitude, who cheered with uumistakeable he.ortiness — a greeting 
whicli her Miijesty and her Royal consort acknowledged by repeatedly 
bowing, smiling all the while with \mdisguised satis^liction. 

Tho Royal procession consisted of eight cvrnogcs, the coachmen and 
footmon all in their slate liveries. It was, however, in its oixler. in maoy 
respects diffcrout from the state processions with which we are all fauiiliu: 
on the occasions of opening or proroguing a session of Pm'liament. ^^e 
saw none of tho Ocutlemen Ushers, none of the Exous and Yeomen of iho 
Guaitl. And, as the most important <lLstioction, the carriages, even that 
of her M.ijesty, were drawn by a pair uf horses each. Her M:ijesty'3 
carriage wa? not the large nncomfortablcdooking "glass coach," but a 
•' dress carriage ;" sufBciently open, huwuver, to eiiable most of her subjects 
to see her to advautjige. The occupants of the pthor caiTiagei were the 
Lord;? and Ladies in Waiting, the Lords of the Household, the Maiils of 
Honour, with some of the ladies of the suite of tho Princess of Prussia. 

The cmniages were driven at a i-ather sumrt trot along the i>juie, an! 
thils curiosity was not so perfectly satisfied as at other times, when Royalty 
in state presents it,sclf in public. 

At a ijuartcr to twelve o'clock thO Royal procession reached the northern 
entrance of the Crystal Palaee, the band stationed 6heie striking up " Uod 
save the Queen," whilst a solute was flrcil from a battery prepared on tha 
uorth or further side of the SerpeuHne, the martial noise of which, however. 
w;u? drowned in tho morre heart-Inspiring acclamations of thousands o' 
Queen Victoria's pcacofal and peace-loving subjects. 

At tho moment her Majesty entered the building of tho Exhibition, tlio 
Royal standard was cUsplayed from a staff erected at the top of the extniwc 
end of the northern transept, which floated proudly above the hiindivd and 
one fliigs, of all nations, with which the exterior of the buildiug had b^^ 
an early hour in Che raornmg been dressed. 

Before closing our account of tho ont-ofdoors proceedings of the day. 
we should state that at eight o'clock most of the metropolitan churches 
sent forth a merry peal ; the uuion-jack bt-iug at the same time hoiatcduvm 
thcii' steeples. 



AN TLLTJSTRATKD CYCLOryEBIA OP THE CMIEAT EXHIIUTfON OP IR."!. 



]., 1,0 1111(1 rmicuivl thoiUauiTul imil.ms of llic uiirlh ; (mi- c,l' Tlirr, 1 1 I,"r.l, uii.l iMl <,l llio 
linimrutlipM or mini, It ivmii'lh tliut vlnU'nco ia not licnrd In onr lnn,l, nor i-.,iitinll',ii«, nor 
vluloliro iTlMllli 0111- llorilora. II Is of Tll(-r, O I,or.l. llint imtlou doos not lift ii|i HirorJ 
iDjiilint mitlon, nor loiirn wnr any mon,. It In of Tlioo that rn'W 'x «'i'lil" ""f "'kH", 
nloiiluoosiiuss Mlthiii oui' imhii-oii, anil mon K" f"i'li '" K""'')'. "nd Hint kiiinv|p<li;(! I» 
U„n',M»od lliroMKliout the \v„ilil. Tlioroforo, l> I,,ir,l, not unto ii«, but unto TliT nanii', lio 
all iirnlso. Whilst wii Bui'viy the Worku of nrl ami Indiislry whh-h Bnrmnnd ini, let not 
our h,,ai-l.i lio llft.'.I ii|i that we foi-Rot tlio Lord onr Cod, or that It In not of our men jioirpr, 
or of the niiHht of our hands, lliat wo have piKon in tliin woaltli. Toaoli in( to roninmluT 
(hat thin stmc whioli wo liavo iuo|miod Is all Thliu' own, In 'I'hiiu' liamla It Ih to mak,> 
((roat and ulve ulronxtli and lionoiir. Wo thank 'I'hoo, wo [iriiiso 'I'hco, wo crilroal 'I lioo 
to -iviTruh- (hln assoiiildy of many nations, that It may tond to tho advanroinent of 'I'hy 
Kl,,rv. to thoiilorcaHO of our luvtrtlu-ritv, ami to the promotion of poaro and Koo'1-wltl anions 
tlui tii'lforoiit raros t,f nmilkliut. I.ct tli,; many mcrelos we have received dUpose onr hearts 
t" Hi'rvi- 'I'h,,o inoro ami move, who art tho au'thor and River of all pood thlnRS, Teaeh us 
t,, iia,' 111,,;;,' earlhlv hlonsiuKS that Thou hast Riven us bo richly to enjoy, that they may 
11, ,1 witlulraw our alToclions from lliose heavenly tliiiiRs which Thou hnst prepared tor 
th,-tii Hint l,,ve Thee llir,iiij,'Il the merits and mediation of Tliy Son .lesus Christ, to whom, 
M illi Thee ami tlie Holy Ciliost, he all honour ami glory, world without end. Aincii." 

The "Hallelujali Chorus" then followed, by tho choir, iimlor the direc- 
tliiii of Sir H. K. Bishop, acoompauiod on the organ by Drs. Elvey and 
W.vKlo. 

Tlic lloyal procession was then foriuod in tho fdlowing ordar : — 

neraljs. 

Arcliilect, .Josepli Paslon, Ksq. Conlrnctor, Mr. Fox. 

Supcrinteiulenta of tho Works— C. H. Wild, Ksq. ; Owen Joucs, Kaq. 

rinanctal OlHcer, F. II. Carpenter, Esq. 

Mcmber.s of the Duilding Committee— I. K. Uruuel, E.sq. ; Charles Cockerell, E3i|.; 

Professor Donaldson. 

M,'inlicv3of the Finanee Committee— Samuel Pelo, Esq.; Sir Alexander Spearman, Hart. 

Treasurers — Baron Lionel de Rothseliild, William Cotton, Esq.; Sir John William 

Lulihock, Hart.; Arthur Kett llarclay, Esq. 

Secretary to the E.xecutive Committee, Matthew Div'hy Wyatt, Esq. 

Excculivo Committee— George Drew, Esq.; Francis Fuller, Esq.; Charles Wentworlh, 

Uilke.jun., Esq.; Ileniy Cole, Esq.; Lt.-Col. William lieid, Kl. Engineers, C.Ii. 

FOREION' ACTIKG COMMI!>SIOSF,BS. 

Auslvia— M. C. Duscliek, Chevalier do Home— Signor Carlo Trihbi 

Iliir(j. liussi.a — >L Gabriel Kamensky. 



Or'.iufii in WoitiuiC to tiui (^iicen. 



Havaria— I'rofes^iov Dr. Sdiafhault, M. 

Theobald Hoelim. it. Ilainrtl. 
HelRiiim — rd. Charles Caylits, JM. dc 

Hroucken. 
llcnmark — Ite^'nar Westenholz. 
France— .M. Siillandronze do Lamornaix. 
Craiid Duchy of Hesse- M. Kosslcr. 
(ircoco— .M. Kalli. 
llnnse Towns — M. Figlheim. 
Holland— M. Goothcns, SI. J. P. Dudok 

van Hal. 
Northern Germany — M. Noback. 
Portugal— M. F. J. Vauzellcr, M. Antonio 

Valdoz. 
Prussia— Haron Hebeler. 



Sardinia — Chevalier Loncisa, 

Sa.xony- Dr. Seymirth, LL.D.; M. Gusta- 

viis Diirstling. 
Spain — M. .Manuel dc Ysasi, M. Itamon dc 

la Sagra, M. Hamon de Ecliovarria. 
Sweden .and Norway — M. ('has. Tottio. 
SwitEorland-:-Dr. liolley, .M. Eichliolzer. 
Tunis — Signor Hamda Elmkaddem, M. 

Santillana (interpreter and secretary). 
Turkey— ai. Edward Zobrab. 
Tu.scany — Dr. Corridi. 
United States— Mr. Edward Riddle, Mr. 

N. 3. Dodge (seeretai'y). 
AVurtemburg — Mr. C. Hrand. 
Zollvercin— M. Hauiatli Stein. 



Secretaries to the Royal Commission— Edgar A. Bowriiifi, Esq.; Sir Stafford H. 

Nurtbcote, Bart.; J. Scott Kussell, Esq. 

Special Commissioners — Dr. Lyon riayfair, Lietit.-Coloncl Lloyd. 



IICR MAJESTY 5 OMJIISSI0XEU3. 
.lohu Gott, Esq. 
Wm. Cubitt, Esq. 
Thomas Bazlcy, Esq. 
Thomas Baring, Esq. 
Sir Charles Lyell. 
Sir R. Westmacott. 
Rt. Hon. H. Laboucliere. 
Lord Overstone. 



Earl Grnnvillc. 
Earl of Ros«e. 
mrC. L. E.istl.ik5. 
HI. Hon. W. E.fJlad.stoue. 
Lord .^ohn Ititssell. 
Lord Stanley. 
Earl of Ettesmei'e. 
Duke of Bnceleuch. 



Mr. Ahlerman Thompson. 
K. Steidieiison, Esq. 
Wni. Hopkins, Esti. 
T. F. (Jibson, Esq. 
Itichard Cobden, Esq. 
(.'harles Barry, K;-.q. 
John Shepherd, Esq. 
Pliilip Pusey, Esq. 

Her Majesty's Master of the Ceremonies. 

Foreign Ambassador and Ministers. 

r.M. the Duke of Wellington, K.G., F. M. the Marquis of Analesey, K.G. 

C'onimandcr-iu-Cbie?. Master-General of the Ordnance. 

Her M.ajesty's Ministers. 

Ills Grace the Archbishop of Canterhur;-. 

White Wands; viz., Comptroller of the^Househol.^. 

Treasurer of the Household. 

Vice-Chanabcrlain. 

Lord Steward. Lord Chamberlain. 

Garter Principal King of Arms. 

His Royal Highness Prinee Albert, leading her R,,yal Iliglmess the Princess Royal. 

The Queen, leading his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 

His Roviil nighuess the Prince of Pnissia. 

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent. 

His Royal Highness Prince Henry of .the Netherlands. 

Her Royal Hi.irhness the Princess of Prussia. 

His K,)yal Highness Prince Frederick William of Prussia. 

Her Roy.al Highness Princess Mary of Cambridge. 

His Serene Highness Prince Edward of Saxe-"\Teimar. 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge. 

Mistress of the R^hes. 

Lady of the Bedchamber, Marchioness of Dom'o. 

Lady of the B^dcliamber in W'aiting. 

Maid of Honour in Waiting. Maid of Houoiir in Waiting. 

B.',Icliainlier AV,>mau in. Waiting. Lad)' Superintendent. Lady Caroline Harrington. 

Foreign Ladies, and Lady in attendance on H.R.H. the Duchess of Kent. 

Gold Stick in Waiting. Jfaster of tliG Horse. 

Groom of the Stole to H.R.H. Prince Albert. 

Captain of the Yeoman of the Guard. Captain of the Gentlemen at .Vnns. 

Master of the CucEliounds. 

Lord of tlie Bedchamber to H.K.H. Princs r „„, .„ ^ir i»- ,« i »7 n 

Albert in Waiting. ^"'^ '" Waiting to tlie Queen, 



Groom of thu Itchhamher Itt II.U.II. I'riiicQ 
Albert 111 WaltinK. 

Clerk Karilitl. 

lUpicrry to H.R.H. Prince Albert in Wiillini,'. Eiioerry to the Queen In WaltinK. 

Gontleman fuller. ficntlenmn L'alier U) the HwiiTtl of SUtc. GeiitliTjian L-'ither 

Silver Stick in Waiting. ll.l.l Oftleer of llriga.le In Walling. 

Tho Gentlemen In attendnnee ujion llieir IJoynl Ilitflinewwii the DiichMH of Kent, tlio 

Duke of Cttuibridge, and llui I'rliuai and Princvfts of Prussia. 

ll,-nu,lH, A;c. 

The Iloyal )>roco.ssion wont iij) in tho west end of the nave by iti north 
Bide, returning to the cit/st end of the imve by im Houth nidc, includin;; tho 
south end of tho trnnr-ept ; and coming back to the centre along tho nurth 
hide of the nave, all ))icscnt were thus excellently well enabled to Bcc her 

Majesty and tho proccBsion. 

Uui'inti tlio proees.sion, and at tho Queen's approacli, the organs in tho 
British division, built by lIes.irH. Willi.s, Walker, and Hill, of London, and 
those by foreign iinportera, Du Croquet (Paris) and Sehidze (Erfurt), were 

successively iihiycl. 

On her Majesty's return to tlie platform, the Queen declared "the Exhi- 
bition opened !" which was announce<l to the public by a Hourish of 
trumpets and the firing of a Royal sitlute on the north of the .Serjientine. 
'I'lie barriers which had kept the nave clear, were then thiowTi open, and 
tlio public were allowed to circulate, 'n-hich they by no means appeared 
disposed to do, as they were all crowding towards the glories of tho 
transept. 

Her Majesty then returned to Ihiekingham Palace by the route by which 
she came, and all tlic doors, which had been closed at half-pa-st eleven 
o'clock, were again opened. 

Throughout tlic whole of the Queen's traverse of the building, her faco 
was wreathed with smiles and jileiisant looks, and her Majesty evidently 
took a more than common interest in the brilliant spectacle which evcrj-- 
where attracted her notice. 

The ceremonial was one. it may be said, without precedent or rival. The 
hom.igc pai.l by the Sovereign of the widest empire in tho world to tlio 
industry and genius of both hemispheres, will not fill a page in hi.^tory 
a-s a mean and unsubstantial pageant. While the race of man exist.?, thi.? 
solemn and magnificent occasion will not reailily fade away from his 
memory like the " ba.seless fabric of a vision ;" it comineneed an era in 
which the sonj of toil shall receive honour and reward ; and, in accord- 
ance with the spirit of the day, it stimulates the energies of man to conquer 
" fresh domains," and discover now faculties of natui-e and her products, 
for the well-being and use of his fellow-creatures. 

AVe append tho Programme of the Musical Performances : — 

At the entrance of her Majesty a flourish of trumpets. 

When her Majesty had taken her seat in the Chan- of State, the National 
Anthem, " God save the Queen," was performed, under the direction of 
Sir George T. Smart, organist and composer to her Majesty's Chapel Royal, 
by tho chou-s of her Majesty's Cii.apel Royal, St. Paul's Cathedral, West- 
minster Abbey, St. George's Chapel, Windsor, some of the pupils of the 
Royal Academy of Music, 'nith the chorus and part of the band of the 
.Sacred Harmonic Society, and many other performci-s, both foreign and 
English. Accompanied on the organ (built by Messrs. Gray and Davison) 
by Goss, organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, and Mr. Turle, organist of West- 
minster Abbey. 

After the Prayer by his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, the " Halle- 
lujah Chorus" (Handel) was performed, under the direction of Sir Henry 
R. Bishop, the Professor of Music at Oxford ; accompanied on the oi-gau 
by Dr. G. Elvey, organist of St. George's Chapel, Wmdsor, and Dr. Wylde, 
Professor at the Royal Academy of Music. 

During the Royal process-ion the organs (in tho following order), built 
by Messrs. "Willis, Walker, Hill— all of London ; and the organs built by 
Messrs. Du Croquet (Paris) and Shulze (Erfurt), were played under the 
superintendence of Mr. W. Sterndale Bennett, by Dr. Wesley, organist of 
Winchester Cathedral ; iilv. Hopkins, organist of the Temple Church ; Mr. 
G. Cooper, organist of St. Sepulchre's Church; M. Danjou, organist of 
Notre Dame, Pai-is ; and Mr. H. Smart, organist of St. Luke's Church Old- 
street. 

When her Majesty had returned to the platform, and declared the Ex- 
hibition opened, a flourish of trumpets, and iho national Anthem, " God 
save the Queen," was repeated. 



VL— Close of the Exhibition-, IIth Oct. — Reeom on the Awards of 
Juries, 15th Oct. 

The Great Exhibition having been open to the public Ifl days, was 
finally closed on the 11th October. The only incident which marked the 
event, was tho [striking up, at five o'clock, of the National Anthem by ajl 
the organs, accompanied by many voices in all parts of the crowded avenues. 
On Monday and Tuesday,'the 13th and 14th, the Crystal Palac« wastliro'mi 
open to exhibitors and their friends, who were admitted by tickets without 
charge ; and on Wednesday tho 15th, the history of the Great Exhibition 
1S51 was brought to a final close, with a slight business-like ceremony, 
in which Prince Albert, as the President, received the reports of the juries, 
and addressed a speech in reply. This ceremony took place upon a 
tcmporaiy dais in the middle of the transept, (the Crystal Fountain haymg 



60 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



been previously removed), and the whole building was crowded with 
eshibitoi-s and others admitted by tickets. We shall confine ourselves in 
this sketch to the principal points practically beai'ing upon the results of 
the Exhibition. 

Viscount Canning, President of the Council and Chairman of Juries, read 
a report, in the course of which he described the constitution t>f the Juries, 
and the priuciples by which they had been guided in the distribution 

of prizes and awards : — 

" The various subjects included in the Exhibition were divided, in the first instance, 
into thirty classes. Of these, two were subseciuently found to embrace fields of actiou too 



each group consisting of such juries as had to deal with subjects in some degree of kindred 
nature ; and before any decision of a jury could be considered as final, it was required that 
it should be brought before the assembled group of which that jury formed a part, and that 
it should be approved by them. 

"The chief object of this provision was that none of the many foreign nations taking 
part in the Exhibition should incur the risk of seeing its interests overlooked or neg- J 
lected from the accident {an unavoidable one in many instances) of its being unrepresented | 
in any particular jury. I 

" Each groTip of juries received the assistance of a deputy-commissioner, and of a special J 
commissioner, appointed by her Majesty's Commissioners to record its proceedings, to | 
furnish information respecting the arrangements of the Exhibition, and otherwise to facili- 
tate the labours of the juries composing the group. 

" It was farther determined by her Majesty's Commissioners that the chairmen of the 1 
Juries, consisting of British subjects and of foreigners in equal numbers, should be fonued ' 



^■^' ^^\ 




TUE vUEEn'S WITHDE VWING-BOOM.— llIiB MAJESTY'S ARUIVAL AT TIIH NO;iTll ICNTUA.NMIC. 



arge for single juries, and were therefore divided into sub-juries. This increased the 
number of acting juries to thirty-four. 

" Each of these thirty-four juries consisted of an etiual number of British subjects and 
of foreigners. The British jurors were selected by her Majesty's Commissioners from lists 
fumislied by the local committees of the various towns, nicli town being invited to recom- 
mend persona of skill and information in the manufactures or produce for which it is 
remarkable. Tlie foreign jurors were appointed by authorities in their own countries, in 
Rucli relative pntportion amongst themselves as was agreed upon by the foreign coramis- 
sioners sent here to represent their respective Governments. 

"In the event of a jury finding themselves dehcient in technical knowledge of any 
article submitted to them, they were empowered to call in the aid of associates. These 
associates, who acted as advisers only, without a vote, but whose services were of tlie 
greatest value, were selected either from the jurymen of other classes, or from the lists of 
persona who Imdbeen i-ecommendcd as jurors, but who had not been permanently appointed 
to any jury. 

" Each jury was superintended by a chairman, chosen from its number by her Majesty's 
Commissioners, The deputy-chairman and the reporter were elected by the jurors 
themselves. 

•' Such was the constitution of the thirty-four juries taken singly. They did not, how- 
ever, act iudcpendeutly of each other, inasmuch as they were associated into sii groups, 



into a council; and that the duties of the council should be to determine the conditions 
upon wliich, in accordance with certain general principles previously laid down by lu-r 
Majesty's Commissiuners, the difl'erent prizes should be awarded; to frame rules to gniilc 
tlie working of the juries ; and to secure, as far as possible, uniformity in the result of their 
proceedings. 

"These are the most important features of the system upon which the jurors found them- 
selves organised. I will now refer briefly to their course of action. 

"The council of chairmen, in proceeding to the discharge of their duties, were met :it 
the outset by a serious difficulty. Her Majesty's Commissioners had expressed thcm- 
selves desirous that merit should be rewarded wlierever it presented itself, but anxious at 
the same time to avoid the recognition of competition between individual exhibitors. They 
had also decided that the prizes should consist of three medals of different sizes ; and that 
these should be awarded, not as first, second, and third in degree for the same class of 
subjects and merit, but as marking merit of different kinds and character. 

" The council of chairmen found, to their regret, that it would be impossible to lay down 
any rules for the awarding of the three medals by which the appearance at least of denot- 
ing ditTerent degrees of success amongst exhibitors in the same branch uf production could 
be avoided. Acct)rdiuglv, after fullv explaining their difficulty to her Majesty's Commis- 
sioners, thi'v requested, as a course by whicll it might be materially diminishecl, that one 
of the mtdais might be withdrawn. 



AN ILLTTSTHATED CYCLOIMIDTA OF TTIE GREAT FA'TITBTTTON OF l«m. 



r,i 



" Of till) remMnliiK two, tlioy 
whcrovcr a ciTtiiin stiiiulnrd ofi? 
— ulMltv. Iii'iliily, ilic'iipni'HH, mill 
lii'lliK tJiki'ii iiilii r.iiisidvmtii'ii 
ini'iiilvil tliHl thiM iii.'.l;il sh.'liia 
griiii)iH. 

"Ill ri'Kixrtl to tlio otlirr find 
award wliould Iio somi* imiiortmit 
UrorcHKi'H (if iiinii'irnctiirf, or oi ik' 
nliiiuld not, lio r..iif.in'd for ox 
oiniiioiit; mid tliry tiirtlioi- wii^'K 
clmiriiii'ii, npon tin* n-ooiniiirinlii 

" 'riio prinoliilo thus dosoriliod 
Hiiliwi'i|iiiMitlv fnrtlier dovolopi'd 
couiuil of c'lminiioii. ll» niildif 
rc^jiirdod llio forriKii JiiniTS. Mi 
I'ltiiico iitid (loniuiny ; and to tl 
avoidance of all iTroKnition of 



BilHRHMtcd that ono, till) |iriwi modal, »lioiild lio roiif.Trod 
xoiilli'lico In iirodiirtloii or worklnaiwlilii liiid lii'cn atliiliiod 
ptnllon to partlrnlar iiiarkotH, anil ollior iliiiicntii of merit 
accordliiK to tlio iiatniTof tins .d.jicl ; and llioy rccom- 
liu awaidod by tlic jniloB, anlijcit to conlinnatlon by tlm 

larRor modal, they aiiKKoatod that tlio condlllonB of its 
novolly of iiivcMitlon, or B]iplirallon, oitliir hi nialorlal, or 
■Inalllv nimblnod with ^roat hoaiily of iloHiun; but that It 

i.ilh'ii'i f prodmlion or workniaiiKlilii alono, liowcvor 

o«lod that thin modal «li..iild bo awaidod by the council of 
itionofa "piry, aiippoi-ti'd by its (fi-oiip. 
mot tlio viowH of hor Maj. •sty's (!omnil»»ionorfl, and was 
by tliom in a miiiiilo which tliov commiiiiiratod to the 
•ation, however, was not williont dilllcnltios, especially as 
iiiv of Ihoso had taken part in llie national exhibitions of 
lem lllo dislinctlve elianirler of Iho two medals, and the 
degrees of inei-lt between the reeipicnts of prizes, were 



prejudices and Jcaloiislea Ui hiivii la'on e>|icct>»l V, Intcrfiro with tlio ilc<l«i..nH, but thi! 
nature of the coHo presenttjil many dlfllciiltleii of n fonnldablo cliaracli^r Vi tlie formation 
of a Jndpmimt which slionld appear sBllafaclary to all. The names of Ilic Jurors, liidwd, 
when once made known, were of tliemselvcH a sufllclcnt Kiiarantoo for that imiiartlnlUy 
wblcb was essential to tin; fulfilment of tlielr task; and fn^ni all that liaa c/iino t/t thu 
knowledKo of till; Hoynl Commissioners durInK tha pronrcal of their lalwors, Ihcy arp 
fully satisfied that every award has been niadi- with the moat careful wnalderatlon, after 
the most ample and laborious Investigation, and upon grounds most strictly honourable, 

Just, and candid. 

" Hut although the liigh character of the jurors would have fully Justified the f'ommls- 
sloners in entrnsling them with the award of the prizes wlllioiil felterliig their iliscretion 
witli any Inatrnctions wha^;ver, had nothing more than an impartial decision Nren 
required, there were difficulties of a very peculiar nature inherent to the L8sk,'whlcli sei-med 
to render necessary tlio adoption of some regulations that might, at lirst sight, appear to 
have been somewhat arliitrary in their character. 'I'lie differences in llie wants of various 
nations having necessarily impressed their several manufactures with dllTerent clmrac- 




I, iv. I principles, and at variance witiv their experience ; inasmuch as one of the chief 
vmposes of the national exliibitions of the continent had been to distinguish the various 
i! ■Tecs of success attained bv rival cxliibitors. 

■ It was to be e.-ipected, therefore, tliat cases would arise in which the council medal, as 
III' ln"her reward, would be asked for exhibitors whose claims were only somewhat 

II. II "r in degree, witliont differing in kind from tliose of others to whom tiie prize medal 
liii.l l.r, II awarded. In such cases it became the duty of the council of chairmen lo refii.'ie 
111. ii ~:ini'iionto the award of the council medal; without, however, necessarily impnsniiig 
ill., alleged superiority of tlie article for which it was demanded. On the other hand, 

me instances have occurred in which they have felt themselves called upon to oonfirai 
111., claim to a council medal where the object for which it was claimed showed in itself less 
merit of execution or manufacture than others of its class. It follows, therefore, that the 
award of a council medal does not necessarily stamp its recipient as a better manufacturer 
or producer tiian others who have received tlie prize medal. It is rather a mark of such 
invention, ingenuity, or originality as may be expected to exercise an influence upon 
industry more extended, and more important, than could be produced by mere excellence 
of manufacture." 

Prince Albert in his reply, after thanking the Jurors for their services. 
Baid ; — 

" In no department of the vast undertaking, wliich has just been brought to a happy 
close, were greater difficulties to have been appreliendcd than in that in which your 
lordship and your eminent colleagues have given your assistance. On this, the fil'st 
occasion on which the productions of the different nations of the globe have ever been 
brought together for the purpose of comparing their several merits, not only were 



tcristies, it would seem to be almost impossible for those who have been in the habit o[ 
judging the productions of tlieir own country by one standard, to enter fully into 
merits which can only be properly apiireciated by another standard, since the very points 
which ill tlie one case appear to be excellencies, may in the other, not unnaturally, be 
taken as defects. This consideration, and a knowledge of the evils which were to tie 
apjn ehendcd from any accidentally erroneous decision, in a matter so intimately connected 
witli the commercial interests of every nation, induced the Royal Commissioners to lay 
down, for the guidance of the juries, those principles to which your lordship lias referred. 

■• It would perhaps have been more interesting to the public had the Commissioners in- 
structed tlie juries to follow the practice which has nsu.illy prevailed in the exiiibitions of 
individual natiou.s, and to grant medals of difTereiit licKiees, to mark the gradations of 
excellence among the exhibitors; but they feel that they have adopted the s.afer course, 
and that which was upon the whole most in accordance witii tlie feelings of the majont>- 
of the exhibitors, in directing that no distinction should he made between their ments 
if their productions came up to the standard requisite to cntille them to a prize, but that 
all should without exception take the .same rank and receive the same medal. 

"The Commissioners, however, considered it right to place at the disposalof the council 
of chail-men a peculiar or ' council' medal in the crises to which your lordship has refen-ed. 
Important discoveries in many brandies of science and of manufactures have in this 
Exhibition been brought under the notice of the public ; and it seems just that those who 
have rendered services of this kind to the world should receive a special mark of 
acknowledgment on an occasion which has rendered so conspicuous the advantages which 
the many have derived from the discoveries of the few. .... _i 

" The grant of the council medal for beauty of design, and for excellence in the fine arts, 
as applied to manufactures, though made upon a somewhat different principle, is also 
compatible witli the views of the Commissioners, since in the cases m which it has been 
given it does not mark any greater comparative excellence of manufacture, or assign to 



63 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTE'NTS; 



one producer a liiglier place than is accorded to others, but U to be I'e.^nrded as a testiiuony 
to the genius which. cnn cli^the the articles refinirod for tbc use of daily lilu with beauty 
that can please the eye and instruct and elevate the mind. Valuable as this Exhibition 
has proved in many respects, it appeal's to the Coinmissi-^ners tlmt there is no direction 
in which its effects will be more sensibly and immediately perceived tlinn in tlie 
improvement which it may be expected to i)rodui'e in taste, and the impulse it has ;^iveu 
ti the arts of desi^: nnd a special acfcnovi-ledgroent is justly due to tliosc who have 
aflforded the best ex^niph-s of art, whether pure or applied, and led the way in this 
interesting career of iinprorement." 

His Royal Highness tlieu, again, on behalf of the Commissioners thanked 
the Jui'oi'a a.s a body, the Foreign Commissioners, and the Sectional and 
Local Committees, adding; — 

"And fiually, we cannot forget that all the labours of tliosc thus ofUcially conneotrd 
with the EshiI)ition would have been in vain, had it not been fijr the hearty frood will 
and assistance of the v.-hole body of exhibitors, both rorcign and British. Tlie zeal 
ivhich they have displayed in affording a worthy illustration of the state of the industry 
of the nations to which they belong, can only bu efpiullcd by the successful efforts of their 
judustiial skill. The Commission have always had support and encouragement from 
them during the progress uf the undertaking, and they cannot forget how cheerfully they 
submitted to regulations essential for their general good, although sometimes producing 
personal inconvenience to thejnselves. If tho Exhibition be successful in aiding the 
healthy progress uf manufactures, we trust their ofRirts will meet with a due reward." 

Tlie National Anthepa waa then sung ; after T^hich tho Biphop of London 
read ajirayerof thaiiksgivUi?. This was fullowed l-y the Hallelujah Chorus, 
at the close of wJiich tho I'liuce and Commiasiouers left the platform, and 
the business of tho day teruuuafcedf 



ANALYSIS OF THE AAVARDS. 
A:i examination of the aggregate result of the labours of the jurors 
j;ho\vs that tlie number of awui'da of all classes — council and prize medals, 
and " honounible mentions" — is 5084 ; of this number 2039 have been 
awarded to the United Kingdom, and 3045 to the foreign exhibitors. Upon 
analyzing these lists, we find that the proportion of prizes awarded in the 
six great groups whicli included the \iholo of the jui'ors h as follows : — 



HAW MATE1!I.VI.S. — CLASSES 


I. TO IV. 








ISlUiili. 


Fnrcijju. 


Total. 


Council medals . , , , . 


a 


IG 


22 


Prize medals 


12.3 


4S7 


532 


Honourable meutious .... 


l:..i 


535 


(JGfl 


Total .... 


2e2 


988 


1250 


M.iCmXEl:T.^C!.AS31S V 


TO X. 






Council medals 


52 


36 


S8 


Prize medals 


301 


191 


492 


Ilouourablo (ueutions .... 


fil 


114 


laj 



Total 



iOi 



3-11 



ii5 



TEXTIIE r.\3itIC.-i.— CLASSES XI. TO 

Council medals 1 

Prize medals "7 

Houourablo uieutioi'.a . . , , 1 o5 



Total 



528 



liETALLIC, TnnEOl'S, AKIl CEE.'.IUC SIA.M lACTOEES.- 

Couucil medals . . . . . 14 
Fri^e medals . . , . . . 312 
IIoDovu'ablp mentions .... 203 



2 




3 


•19S 




83.3 


277 




4f;2 


777 




1300 


CIASSE.S 


SXl 


. TO x^:v 


21 




35 


211 




626 


1!I9 




407 



Total .... 

MISCELLANEOUS MASUPACTURES.- 
Council medals .... 
Prize medals .... 
ilonouraUe mciilioiis 

Total .... 

ri>'E AUT 
Council medals 

Prize medals 

Uonourablo iiientioii.i 

Total 



634 



434 



963 



XXVI. TO XXIX. 

•J 10 14 

112 232 374 

100 154 2.34 



2!;i 



-7 
41 



70 



390 



60 
47 

lU'J 



612 

4 

87 
88 

179 



We shall make some observations upon the award.'', and the nature of the 
ohjeet.s tliey have reference to, in future articles. Besides the medals tlie' 
Juries have, iu .•> few special eases, granted money award.s, of wiiich the 
following is a list ; — 

MONEY AWAllD-S. 

— Alex. Biriiie, United Kingdom — for having exhibited a compltte S"t of 

fi.shing nets, lines, .and hojk-, for deep sea fisliin;; — 501. 

— .Jcseph Bothway, United Kingdom — for havin;; cxibitod models of hi.9 

improveniciits iu the construction of blocks, combining strength 
and other advauta^eg with much Iciis v.cight — 50i. 

159 Daniel Harvey, Ujiited Kingdom — for having exhibiteil a model of the 
'■ Victoria and .\lbcrt" yacht, cxeeuJcd by him — being a fine .speci- 
men of ■.vorku)ai»;hip — 40/. 

174 — Demp.ster, United Kingdom — for an ingenious sv.stcm of signals for 
merchant ship.s — 20/. 



463 G. F. Greiner, United Kingdom — for his new and useful method of 
bringing into unison the strings of each choir of the pianofoi-to, 
also for hi.? invention of a new and mechanical contrivance fur 
iv.anos, combining the advantage of Erard's machine, with greater 
construction and durability — 607. 

— ■ J. iS. AVood, United States— for tho oxpensea incurred in constructing 
his piano violin — 50/. 

101 F. Eotor, Switzerland — to enable him to carry on further exp»rinic!it=> 
to test the isochrouism of spirals, his invention of a now and 
ingenious free i-pring esc.ipcmeut being particularly adapted for 
tliat purpose — 50?. 
KoTE. — T/ic Jury (iwanl the sum of 107. eacJi to the foUuic'rug sidij^cts. 

106 Ann Harv(>y (Belfast), United Kingdom — hand-spun flax-yam. 

546 Hempen Spinning School (for a little girl 10 years of age), Prussia- 
spun fl:ix-yarn. 

— Jane Moijill (Belfast), United Kingdom — hand-spun flax-yarn. 

237 J Bamford, United itingdom — fine light gauze flannels. 

97 E. Budden. United Kingdom — the workman anIio bound an album, very 
elaborately ornamented, in which ta«te and good work are di.?playe'l. 
Niel, United Kingdom — for the care, industry, and perseverancu 
ilisplayed iu binding an imperial 4to. Bible iu cream Morocco, 
under great disadvantages; the work was executed at his own home 
after his daily occupation, by gaslight in tho winter; and notwith- 
standing these difficulties, a oousidorable degree of excellence is 
attained. 



E. 



STATLSTICS OF THE K.XUICITION. 
xruBKii or visiTdiis. 
In tlio month of May the mimljor of ^ isitoi-s uiis 

In Juno 

In July 

In August 

In Soplcmbcr ... 

la Octuher, up to the lull instant 

Grant! total . . .... 

: totftl receipts ireiT aa follows, up to the close of 11:0 ICxtilhltiou :■ 

Piiblio sub.-eriptlona 

Privilege of X^rintlng 

I'rivikigc of supplying rofi'cshnicnts 

Ami>nnt roccivi'd for season tickots up to 1st of May , 
Koyally of id. per copy oji catalogues 

Total funds In hnml on the 1st of M:it . 
Amount rocoived at the (ioovs n]) to August oO . 

Ditto up to till" cud of .'^tiptemhcr 

llitto up to Saturday, October 11 



i.i.n.iic. 

l,;Ul,17(i 

1.023, l;-.j 

l,lo5,aiu 

SJ1,1(17 

0,201,6"iG 



£04.311 n 

«,200 I) 

D.BOO I) 

40.000 ' i 



.£113,011 

. 252,141 S> i; 

. (a.O)7 12 

. 41,'J--'2 11 « 



Grand tot.al 



, .£«0,113 IS 



CURIOL'S FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE EXHIBITION. 
Oe the money received at tlio doors, 275,000/. vva^ in silver, and 81,000?. 
in gold. Tho weight of tho .'silver coin so taken (at tho rate of 28!) i. 
per 100/.) would be 35 tons, and its bulk 900 cubic feet ! The rapid flow 
of the coin into the hands of the money-takers prevented all examination 
<if each piece a'i it was received, and 90/. of bad silver was taken, but only 
one piece of bad gold, and that was a half-.sovereigii. Tlio half- 
crown was the most usual bad coin, but a much more noticeable fatt 
i=, that nearly all tho bad money was taken on the h.alf-crown anil five 
shilling days. The cash was received by eighteen money-takei's : on the 
very heavy days .six extra ones being employed during the busiest hour?. 
I'roni thom it was gathered L.y three or four money-portcra, who carried it 
to four collectors, charged with the task of counting it. From tliem it 
went to two tclUrs, who verified tho sums, and handi'tl it to tho final j 
custody of the chief fiuanci.al olficer, Mr. Carpenter, who locked each day's 
amount in hi^ peculiar iron chests iu the building till next morning, when 
iu boxes, each holding 600/., it was bc-irne oil' in a hackney cab iu charge of 
a Bank of England clerk and a Bimk porter. The money wa% received in all 
forms, ranging between farthiugs and ten-pound notes. Contrai'y to the 
notice.s exhibited, change was given. Occasionally foreigners gave 
Napoleons, and these coins being mistaken for sovereigns, they received 
nineteen shillings out, and liberty of admission into the bargain. The 
monies of America, Hamburg, Germany, and France, were often teudercd 
and taken. Tiie total number of visitors from the 1st of Jlay to the 11th 
of October was 0,063,980. 



Collection of Specuiexs fob FonEiGU KATIO^Js. — The following 
circular lias just been issued to the British Exhibitors: — "Many of the 
foreign Acting Commissioners having represented that international ad- 
vantages would be likely to arise if their countries possessed a collection 
of specimens °of raw materials and produce, and patterns of some clas.scs 
of manufactures shown by British exhibitors, together with the wholesale 
prices of them; and having expressed a desire that such collection should 
bo formed, her Majesty's Commissioners have authorised the Executive 
(,'oinmittee to assist iu forming them. British exhibitor.s, who may bo 
willing to present specimens and patterns for this purpose, are requested 
to communicate immediately with Lieutenant Tyler, R.E. ; but in those 
cases where they may not consider such presentations to be a sufficient 
commercial advantage to themselves, the Executive Committee are autho- 
rised to treat for the purchase of the necessary qualities ; and cxhibitoirs 
aro requested to forward their terms for the purchase to Lieutenant Tyler 
before removing their articles from the building, — 51. iJigby Wyatt, secre- 
tary, Exliibiti'ui-building, Oct. 14th." 



AN TLLTTSTRATET) CYCLOP.'EDTA OF TITE dREAT EXTTIBITION OF 1«.-,1. 



03 



LITERATURE OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 



TlIK GREAT EXriIBITION' AND ITS RESUIjT.S. 

(ffllOM TlIK II.LD8TUVTUD LOXDON NEWS, OCT. 11.) 

'I'lTE Oi'o.vt Kxhibition of tho Industry of all Nntiona closes toilaj-. In 
tlio couvso of a few wooka tlio most extensive assemblayo of valuable 
jimdiict!) in all brauclios of inannfiictm'o pvor bi'ouglit togotlior under onii 
roof will bo wattoroJ unil dispor-icd, and tbo Oi-oat Industrial Congress of 
IS-ll will bo uumboi;od witli tlio rnomorablc events of the past. 

lUit it-i influoiieewill not co.aso here ; it is but the first act of an importapt 
social iiiovoniont, up'in whioli tho curtain is about to fall ; and who shall 

ly thiit what is to follow may not go far toreallso tho profound andphilan- 
ilu'opio aspirations of tho Prince Consort, tho projector aud'riiling genius 

f tho whole srhcme, in the raeniorablo words uttered by liini at a banijuo| 
given by tlio Lord Jlayov in 1819 > 

" 1 eoncoivo it to bo tho (Uity of every educated person closely to watch 
(iiiil study the time in which he lives; .and, ,^h far as in him lies, to add liis 
huinble mite of individual exertion to fiu'thcr tho aecomplishnient of what 
he liolisvoa I'rovidenco to have ordained. Nobody, however, who bus paid 
any attention to tho )iarticular features of our present or.>, will doubt for a 
inonicnt that we are living at a porioil of must womlerful transition, wliich 
ti'uds rapidly to tlio accouiplishmeut of that great end to whicli, indeed, 
all history points — the realisation of the unity of mankin(J. Ki>t an unity 
wliieh brcalis down tho limits, and levels the jieculiar ehai'actoristica of the 
diilurent nations of tho earth, but rather a unity the rcsiilt nud product of 
thosQ very national varieties and antagpui.stic cpialitips. Tho distanc.'S 
wliioh seinirated the different nations ,and parts of the globe are gracjH^lly 
vanishing before the achiovenients of niodeni invention, and we can traverse 
theiu with ineredii)le ease : tho languages pf aU (lations are known, and 
their aeipiironients placed witiiin the reach of eve)'ybocly ; thought is com- 
nmuiealud with the rapidity and even by tho powoi' of lightning. On the 
otlior hand, tlio great principle of divi.^ion of labour, which may be called 
tho moving power of oivilisition, is being extended to all branches of 
s^cience, industiy, and art. Wliilst forinoriy tlio greatest mental energies 
strove at univciYal knowledge, and that knowledfrc was confined to the 
few, now they are directed to specialities, and in these ,ngain even to the 
iiiiuutest points : but tho knowledge acquired becomes at once the property 
of tho oomuiuuity at large. Whilst formerly discovery ^^■,as wrapt iu 
secr^'sy, tlio publicity of the present day causes, that no sooner is a dis- 
covery or invention made, than it is already improved upon .and surpassed 
by competing efforts ; the products of all quarters of tho globe .are placed 
at our disposal, and we have only to choose which is the best and cheapest 
for our purposes, and the powers of production are intrusted to the 
stimuhis of competition and capital. So man is approaching a more 
complete fulfdmeut of that great and sacred mission wdiich ho h<a=? to 
perform in this world. His reason being created after the image of God, 
lie has to use it to discover tho laws by which the Almighty governs his 
ci'eatiou, and, by making these laws his standard of action, to conquer 
nature to his use — himself a divine instrument. Science discovers these 
laws of power, motion, and transformation ; industry applies them to the 
raw matter, -which t!ie earth yields us in alnmilance ; but which becomes 
valuable only by knowledge ; art teaches us tho immutable laws of 
beauty .and symmetiy. and gives to our p'roductions forms in accordance 
with them. Gentlemen, the Exhibition of ISol is to give us a true test 
and a living picture of the point of development at which the whole of 
mankind have arriveil iu this great task, and a new stirting point from 
which all n.atious will be able to direct their further exertions." 

Looking back upon the cxporieaoe of the two years since these views 
were propounded ; looking back inoro particularly xipou the six months 
which h.ave elajised since the Great Exhibition w.as completed and thrown 
open, we .are inclined to think there is littlo if any exaggeration in the 
hopeful picture of the world's future which is thus shadowed forth, as 
capable of accomplislimcnt by tho right direction of the natural gifts and 
means .at the disposal of the great human family. If no more h,as been 
accomplished as yet, the very crowding iu of goods from all quarters of the 
globe, and the thronging iu of millions of speetatoi'.s, interested more or 
less in the production or uses of those commodities, afford a striking proof 
of tho unanimity which prevails amongst men upon any comprehensive 
scheme of true usefulness, and their power to carry it into accom- 
plishment. 

This great feature also distinguishes the Peace Congress of IS.'ll from nil 
known political congresses or movements of nations — that whereas, in tho 
one case the gain of one is under almost all circumstances obtained by a 
couoo.ssion or sacrifice of interests on the jiart of some other, and tiiat 
generally the weaker one ; iu the other, gain is gain to all, tlie superiority 
of means or appliance evidenced by each competitor being at once available 
to the advantage of .all the rest, Tlie achievements of human intoUect are 
common propevty, and only require to be known to be at once applied, iu 
combination with other.?, to the attainment of still greater acliioveiucnts. 



It cannot bo doubted that tlio kucccm of tbo Qrcnt Kxliibitioo liiw Ur 
exceeded tho mont Hanguino cxpectntionR of it« projectors ; ami, but tlutt 
it wa.i a gathering together for good, they iiiii;lit alinohl, lik« niiother 
Eraiikonstcin, |iavo been terrified at tho vaat army of obnorvation. of 
various raoea itnil habits, which they have been llio means of conointnaiiiK 
around tho woalthiost and leant defendeil cipiUil in the world. Jt in 
curious, i|i({ood. to look back at a few <,f tbo piwt ciriumatancei in lliin 
great drainOi '^'"' '" "'-'° ''""' "'° aiiticipati'nfl «f the directoiu of it Imvo 
been di.ii>ppuiut'il ; but two will nudic-, and wo inciitiou them merely lui 
curiositipg of history. When, after niaiiy stru^'glcs. nud much eoiivawiing 
for 8ul(»criptioii» throughout tho country, the itoyal t'oiuniiaiion wiwt 
foriuoij, niid incorponited by charter, its first net w.-w to rescind <» contract 
optionally open to them, with Messrs. Muiidny, by which all risk or liability 
uium pecuniary grounds would have been avoided, tliun " OMitiiig tiio * 
(lucecbs of the propo.scd experiment entirely upon public sympathy." Thin 
step proliubly alarmed the Executive Comniittoo ; it ."ceracd at le:u)t to 
them to render the i.^suo problematical, and they immediately, iu a Ijoily, 
toiidorod their resignations. " These resignations," ilr. Colo F.iyo, ju bin 
Introduction to the Official Catalogue, "were not neccptcd, and bomic time 
elapsed before the exooutive an'angcmcnts wcro conclusively mudifie<l to 
meet tho altered circumstances of the case." Again, when the guarantee 
fund h.ad been subscribed, and tho Crystal Palace was on tho eve of 
completion, Jlr. Pnxton, doubtless with the assent of othcr.s eiignncd in the 
anxious undertaking (for the step was iKjt disavowed by them), publi<lied a 
letter to tlio Prinio Minister, urging him to arlopt the work on behalf of 
th' public ; that is, to pay the expenses out of the Consolidated Fund, and 
tlirow the doors open gratuitously, .as at tho JIuscum and other jiublic 
institutions. This proposition was fortuii.itcly not acceded to ; and nearly 
half a million of money iu voluntary contributions at tho doors— tho 
greater part iu shillings — has justified the refusal, and given convincing 
proof of tl)e abundant efficacy of "public sympathy " in a good and useful 
cause. 

The pxpevimont of a g,athoriug of the industiy of all nations was a 
novelty, not only as regards England, but the world generally ; for. 
although there lu(vo been many expositions of works and manufactures in 
Franco, P.elgium, and other countries, ami also, iu particular districts of 
England, they have been wholly restricted to the products of the ccur.try 
iu which they were held; .and when, in 184a, the French Minister of 
Cornmei'ce endeavoured to promote an exposition in France upon a wider 
basis, comprehending the productions of other nations, the prejudices of 
commercial bodies to whom he commumcated l.'is views dissuaded him from 
carrying out the scheme. 

Nor can it be denied, that when the proposal was made in England, and, 
indeed, long after that proposal Wiis adopted as a fact, the manufacturing 
and nionied interests of the country looked but coldly upon it, .and gtive 
it for a long time an unwilling couiiteuiince. Our men of Manchester, and 
Leeds, and Birmingham, may h.ave thought — and thought with some 
shadow of truth ou their side — that, in an intercommunioation of industrial 
experiences, and a comparison of manufacturing processes with all the 
world combined, they had less to gain than to give; they may even have 
feared that their best inaehiuery miglit be copied — theii- best hands 
lured from them ; they may have thought, besides, that their business was 
already enough to occupy all their time and attention .at home, witli'-ut 
m.aking a show of it abroad ; and as men of business, and Britons to boot, 
with somethiug at st.ake in the laud, they may just have shared ever so 
little in the numerous predictions of trouble aud danger w-hich were 
muttered forth, from time to time, as inevifcibly attending a large ineui-sion 
of " disatfected foreigners " from all parts of Europe. As for the .agricul- 
tural body, tliey held aloof, because of their politiral religion they have 
little sympathy for the restless spirit of industry, which, in their view, has dis- 
turbed the harmony and order of our domesticpolity, wliilst improved methods 
of tillage, even supposing them to be possible, could oniy be luade the 
pretence for reducing rents already much too low, aud throwing upon the 
parish agricJiUural labourers, already much too numerous for the I'equirc- 
meuts of their respective districts. So iittle faith bad the men of busine:;s 
aud the men of laud, .as yet, in the realis,ation of "the unity of man- 
kind," in the enlightened and genoi-ous spirit propounded by the Prince 
Consort. 

Ou the other hand, there were enthusiasts — travelled men, doubtless. — 
who took a very different view of the question, and advocated that view 
veiy authoritatively iu the columns of an iuflueuti.al d.aily print. They 
disabused the artificers of England of their supposed .superiority ; they 
took the .shine out of them " a few," as the Americans would say: they 
told them very plainly that they had much, had everything, to le.ara from 
foreign taste ; that, although they could make things veiy strong, they 
could not make them neat, much less eleg:int, according to the neatness ' 
and elegance of the Coutineutal standard :^that their calicoes were stout, 
but tawdry ; that their chairs would last for ages, but th.at they were 
fashioneil upon barbarous models of ages long goue by ; th.at their dooi-s 
aud locks were effectual for tho purpose of exclusion, but repulsive in 
aspect ; — that, in fact, iu all that related to appearance we were ccntm-ies 
behind civilised Europe. 

There were those again who took leave to doubt and hesitate as to the 
authenticity of these uncomfortable assertions. OUl .Tohn Bull threw 
himself back in his easy chair, with his feet ou his double piled Axminster 
carpet, twiddled his thumbs through his snowy-whito lawn shirt-friH, gazed 
viicautly upon the comfortable crimson flock paper-haugings of his sanchiiii 



64 



THE CRYSTxV-L PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 



sanctortmi, and wondered what 
people could want more. 
Young John Bull, who had 
been his six weeks tour abroad, 
and had travei-sed the sandy 
plains of a Belgian salon; had 
tried his weight upon the un- 
comfortably shaped rush chair 
of the French hotel ; had ad- 
mired the mysteries of a Ger- 
man door-handle, all primitive 
iron, and constructed upon the 
primitive principle of the first 
lever ; — boldly denied it all and 
wondered " what they should be 
told next." And certainly the 
result of the Great Exhibition 
has been to disabuse the mind 
of much of this stupid prejudice, 
handed don-n from father to son, 
and repeated by traveller after 
traveller, of the infinite superi- 
ority in point of taste of the 
foreign producer. In furniture 
we certainly have made a very 
good stand, in respect of appear- 
ance alone, to say nothing of 
solidity; .and if in every point 
we have not equalled the quieter 
classicism of the French (the 
classicism of the Louis Quatorzc 
periods, we certainly have not 
ijeen guilty of the excessive and 
misplaced decoration of the 
Austrian, nor descended to the 
ci-ude conceits of the northern 
German artificers. As to our 
hardware and our machinerj-, 
we need hardly say, that we 




have shown ourselves, as we 
were always esteemed to be, 
without a rival. But we will 
not be led into making compa- 
risons on other points, as this 
will be better timed when we 
have to review the awards of 
the juries in the several depart- 
ments. 

To return to the point from 
which we set out. What are 
the great social advantages which 
we expect to result from the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, and 
in what manner will they con- 
duce to that unity of purpose 
and interests among men which 
is so desirable? The advan- 
tages which we anticipate are, 
first, increased knowledge of our 
own resources, and of the re- 
sources,of our neighbours, which, 
whilst it inspires a just confi- 
dence in ourselves, will also 
create a feeUng of respect for 
othera ; secondly, recognition of 
the importance of the principles 
of reciprocal dealing, by which 
the pecuhar advantages of one 
comuiimity maybe interchanged 
for those of another ; fin.ally, 
an enlarged field for commerce 
and the infusion of a more libe- 
ral spirit into commercial trans- 
a,ctions, by which commerce will 
grow, and with it cirilisation 
and peace be extended as the 
connecting bond of the whole 
human family. 



ViaLF.n SL.iVF. IN Tin', ^t,\RKrT, BY r. MOXTI. 



SCULPTURE. 
The Austrian Sculptm-c Room contained, amongst other remarkable 
productions, a marble figure of a " Veiled Vestal," and a " Slave in 
the Market Place," also veiled, by RaffacUe Monti. In both of these 




IN-XncnXCE PROTECTED TIT FIDKI.ITT, BY Br.V70N-T. 



faces at once, one 
under the other, 
in a hard and im- 
penetrable mate- 
rial ; a trick, how- 
ever, in which 
Truth, as relates 
to both surfaces, 
had been disre- 
garded. We shall 
enter upon this 
subject at more 
length when treat- 
ing of Sculpture as 
a department ; in 
the meantime, we 
give an engraving 
of the Slave in the 
Market. 

Beneath arc two 
very pleasing spe- 
cimens in the 
t/cnre style, by 
Benzoni, of Rome. 
In the one ("Inno- 
cence pi'otectcd 
by Fidelity)," wo 
observe a little 
lass asleep, and 
her canine com- 
panion treading 
upon the head of 
a viper, which 
would otherwise 
have stimg her. In 
the other, entitled 
" Gratitude," we 
find tlie girl care- 
fully abstracting a 
thorn from the 
foot of her pi-e- 
.servcr. 



works the illu.sion was carried so far as to be completely deceptive 
until the spectator came almost within arm's length of the statue. He 
then, upon examining the marble, discovered that he had been made the 
victim of a very ingenious trick, which pretended to represent two sur- 




l| [ j| f 1 1 .i.li \^22Aia sm!tiu»'^ 



nn.^TiTrDK, by be%'?oxi. 




AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 




No. 5, November 1, 1861 CARVED IVORY THRONE, &c., FROM INDIA, EXHIBITED BV HER MAJESTY. 



Pr.icE OxE Pexxt. 



G6 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



FOREIGN AND COLONI'AL DEPARTMENTS. 

THE EAST INDIAN DEPARTMENT. 
"THE contributions from the East Indies were considerable in amount and 

variety, ;md occupied four or five distinct compartments in the Great 
Exhibition Building. They were in great measure sent in by the East 
India Corap.-my, but some were exliibited by her Majesty, and not a few 
came direct from native princes and others of the East. These objects 
comprisa natural products, native manufactures for domestic use, models, 
and a rich display of articles of jewellery and luxury. We shall devote 
Boyeral articles to the description of this collection so varied and interesting ; 
restricting ourselves, on the present occasion, to some of the most splendid 
objects which caught the attention of all visitors to the Crystal Palace. 
1V0HY THRONE. 

The Engraving on the preceding page represents the magnificent throne 
of carved ivory, which was one of the chief objects of admiration and wonder 
in the East India Company's room or tent. The carving, both back and 
front, is most elaborate, and of exquisite fmish ; the seat and lower part of 
the back being covered with rich gi-een velvet embroidered in gold. The 
footstool is of like materials and workmanship. This splendid seat is 
a present to her Majesty, from the Rajah of Travancore, and was 
used by Prince Albert as President of the Royal Commission, at the closing 
ceremony, on the 15th October. The chairs on either side of the throne are 
beautifid specimens of Bombay carving, in black-wood, the boldness and 
lightness of which are equally remarkable. We shall speak of this branch 
of industry in a future article. 

POYAL DRESS OF STATE AND JEWELS. 

Our second Engraving page 68, shows that portion of the East Indian 
collection which was contained in a glass case, enclosed wdthin an iron 
railing, on the north side of the nave and near the transept. It at first 
attracted attention by the gorgeous coat of a Sikh chief placed at the top. 
This coat is of kirikkob (cloth of gold), with epaulettes in pearls, and on 
each two very large valuable emerald drops, and a deep border of rich gold 
embroidery, beautifully overlaid with peai-ls, rubies, and emeralds ; it was 
made at Delhi. Each epaulette is valued at 5000/. In front of this dress 
of state are seen the trousers, also of cloth of gold, and the cap of an Indian 
chief' and on a crimson velvet saddle-cloth a board and set of chessmen 
in bloodstone and cornelinn. In front of these, in embossed or lilagree 
gold with a sort of fan of bird of paradise feathers, are a pair of raoorchals, 
the insinnia in India of the highest offices, and which not more than half-a- 
dozen persons are by native custom entitled to bear in the preseiioe of the 
Govenor-General. 

There is also a princely girdle of gold, studded with not less thflfl nineteen 
emeralds, each about an inch and a half square. They are all cut thin and 
flat, and .some of them have inscriptions from the Koran engraved on them^ 
which, though it depreciates their value in this coimtry, renders them almost 
inestimable in the eyes of the Mohammedan chiefs. The girdle has, besides, 
a row of diamonds at the top and bottom, and the value of the whole must 
be enoiTOOus. 

Whatever the worth of the foregoing may be, they are altogether sur- 
passed by a pair of armlets with three large rubies uncut, but sufficiently 
polished to show their extreme brilliancy and depth of colour. Tliesc rubies 
were formerly the property of the Emperors of Delhi, and. independently 
of their enormous value, have a traditional importance attached to their 
possession. The largest rubies in the collection of Hunt and Roskell, or of 
the Russian jeweller, are pigmies compared with the.se unique gems. 

In the centre front of the case lie.s, set round with ten largo diamonds, 
the famous Lahore Diamond, known as the " Dmria-i-NodT," or sea of light 
— ill cut, ill get, but of great size, purity, and value. Near it is a necklace, 
containing 240 very large and fine Oriental pearls, and which, with a similar 
string on the right hand side of the case, are valued at not less tlian 7000/. 
One of the curiosities of Indian mamifacturo here displayed is a cannon 
of white coi-nclian; the giui-wheels, carriage, and mounting.*, lieaHtifutly 
worked and put together. The barrel is of a solid piecs, boted, and tbe 
limberer of blood stone. 

More beautiful and elaborate still are some vases, cups, and bowls of^ 
rock-crystal, bcautifidly transparent, and mounted iu gold ; they might be 
taken by many for mere glass vessels of indifferent (juality, and yet their 
value is from lou/. to 200/. each ; there is ono little jewel box in shape of a 
swan, cut in this crystal, which is as brilliant as a diamond; and there are 
caskets in a vai-iety of shapes in jade stone, a semi-opaque milfcy crystal, 
something resembling opal. The forms of these are very elegant, the 
aiTangement of colour is beautiful, and they are set and inlaid with flowers, 




HEART-SHAPED DISH OF .7ASPEE, .TEWELLED. — EAST INDIA 
COMPAKY. 



emeralds, rabies, topazes, and other precious stones. One of these little 
boxes, heart shaped, might well serve our jewellers and workers in enamel, 

and tho newly 
discovered glass 
mosaic, for a study, 
so beautifully are 
the colours and tho 
setting contrasted 
and harmonised. 

Close to it lies 
another lesson for 
jewellers, in a neck- 
lace of exquisitely 
wrought gold, set 
with several rows 
of rubies, and iu 
which the very pat- 
tern of tho gold, 
somewhat like the 
edges of point lace, 
seems to harmonise 
with the stones. 

The gold and sil- 
ver filagree chains 
in this compart- 
ment are also won- 
derful specimens as 
to minute and deli- 
cate workmanship. 
Among them are 
two massive neck- 
laces, which might 
be termed lacework 
of solid gold, and although these are made of gold wire, they have all the 
appearance of being chased or chiselled from the solid mass. Some of 
these specimens are from Agra, Delhi, and Trichinopoly, the latter of 
which places sends ono of its peculiar manufactures, a silver chain, so 
' closely knit and wrought together, that it resembles a solid rod of silver, 
and yet the joints are so minute and perfect that it bends with all the flexi- 
1 bility of the softest cord (if silk. 

INDIAN PRESENTS TO HER MAJESTY. 

In a compartment on the south side of the nave were arranged a gorgeous 
and varied collection of articles of Oriental luxury, which were sent as a 
present to hor Majesty by the Nawab Nizam of Bengal, with a view of 
their being displayed at the Exhibition, should such be her Majesty's 
pleasure. The various commodities, which were his own property, were 
forwarded entirely at the suggestion of his Highnes.s — made only some ten 
or twelve days before they actually left India — with tho concurrence of 
the Oovernor-General. 

The principal article is a splendid reception seat, a kind of throne ; the 
" shamiana," or canopy, is supported by four silver poles, resting upon a 
1 platform raised one foot from the ground, and aboiit twelve feet square. 
! Th© body, or groundwork of the canopy, c(msists of purjile velvet, with a 
deep border upon each of its four sides. The corners, as well as the centre 
piece, are formed of the most exquisite gold and siver embroidery. Tho 
ceiitre of the seat eonsists of rich scarlet velvet, of about eight feet square, 
surrounded by a splendid border of embroidered gold and silver, of about 
18 or 20 inches in width. At the head of the seat is a large scarlet velvet 
pillow, for the body chiefly to rest upon, with a pair of small pillows, 
reqviired for the support of other portions of the body, when reclining in 
the eastern fashion. Behind the larger pillow is a massive frame-work of 
silver, to prevent its slipping away, and which also serves to support a pair 
of the most elegant and costly " looorchals," or emblems of diguity, used 
only by a few of the Indian potentates when in the presence of the 
Oovernor-General. The princes of India privileged to use them are the 
Emperor of Delhi, the King of Luckilow. the Nabob of the Carnatic, 
Scindia, and ono or two others. These emblems consist of hollow cases, 
of about ii feet in length, and abotit six inches in diameter at the upper 
end, tapering down to a handle of two inches in diameter. The whole is 
formed of pieces of piire gold most curiously fitrtened together by gold 
thread, and are intended for the reception of the feathers of the beautiful 
birds of paradise. Of the beauty of the i'lut ensemble which this specimen 
of Eastern magnificence presents, it would be difficult to eotivey any 
adequate idea. 

The second article consists of a state palanquin, the body of which is 
formed of ivcrry ;• the canopy, of rich gold embroidery and cjeep fringe, 
being supported tipon four ivory poles. This jralanquin was exclusively 
employed for tho purpose of conveying his Highness the Nawab to the 
houses of his particular and most intimate relations upon grand levee days. 
It is provided with poles, covered with crimson velvet, for tlie benrcrs to 
convey it. In tho front of the palanciuin is a " purdah," a kind of canopy, 
supported by two projecting and .sloping ivory pillars, and which is only 
allowed to be asod by persoas of the rank of his Highness. Tliis dcscrijition 
of projecting canopy applies not merely to state purposes, but extends to 
every inferior conveyance the property of hia Highness, even down to the 
smallest cart or vehicle belonging to him. 



AN ILLT'STIIATED CVCL01M:rMA OF T!FE CHKAT EXIIIBITIOX 01' |^.-,| 



Tlio tliinl articlo consi.stH of a " iiiilki'o," or ]>aliiiiijiiin, uhccI only wljim 
tho suii in below tlio liorizoii. It in f'c)nMC(J of ivory, niicl ruHcinblea tlio 
dtato imlim<[Miii in every respect, witli tho oxe«|itioii of tlio cjuiopy. Tliii 
" nalkee " was first used by tlio aiioostor of hi» Higlmos-t on tlio occiwiion of 
ft visit of Loril C'livo. 

Tlio " liowilah " resembles to a great extent the slate palanquin ; it hna 
a Kort of (loubU) ilomo canopy, wliieli, like the others, i-; formed of rieh 
Rolil anil silver embroidery, and, instead of being carried by beiirerx, it i-i 
intontled to bo borne by .an elephant. Tho "jhool" is a nia^ificent 
covorinj; of scarlet velvet richly embroidered, intended to bo pla<vd on llie 
back of the elejihant, and n[>on which the " howdah " rests. The other 
trappings of the elephant consist of n gorijeous bead piece and two oide- 
pieuos. 'I'lierc are also a variety of horse aod camel «tnte tiajipings, which 
wo need not particulnri.se in dotnil. 

It is not PMy to form anythin>c lilio an estimate of tho value of thene 
presents. We believe that the amount of duty paid in re-;pect of tlietu in 
tlicii' transit throngli tho Deseit was loviod upon tlieni as of the valuo of 
10,000/. -but thi-s sum ii aaij to bo eon.siderably under their value. Too 
much jiraiso cannot bo aecorded to Dr. Vonn?, for the energy and care 
which ho liiva displayed in the perl'onnanee of tlio critical duty Kith which 
he was ontrnstcd by hi.5 Highness tho Nawab, (to whom lio is phvsician) of 
superintendinc their conreyance, and for tho activity which he must have 
shown in makliiK all tho noccssai'y arranKoinents for leaving India with 
bis v.iluablo consignment at so short psriotl m ten days' ncrtice. 

SOME ACCOUNT OP THE NiWAB KIZAM Of BKtOAU 
In connexion with these m.agni "icent preseuta, wo giro .s.>me account of the 
Xawab Nizam of Bengal, and his ancestors, and tho territory from which 
they derive their i-oyal title, and over whicll they ruled uutil tho establish- 
ment of tho British authority in India. 

The present Nawab's ancestors ruled for .several ccuturies as iudepcudi nt 
"vcrcigns over the districts of Bengal, Eehar, and Oris.sn, and thtir resi" 
.Icuce— at least for a cousidei-able time previous to the British oouque.st of 
liidia— was the city of Moorsheilabad, which is situated on the banks of the 
Uoeglily, about 150 miles north of Calcutta. It occupies a perfectly level 
site, and is destitute of fortifications, its streets ai-e narrow, irregular, and 
dirty, and the houses, for the most part, are only one st'jry high, and of 
mean appearance. Of these the nmjority are built of earth mixed with 
chopped straw, and thatched with dried grass, and are called iurcha ; others 
are constructed of mud and bricks— a kind of masonry which is styled 
piiH-a J-H/r/w— while some, called puhia, are built entirely of brick. The 
dty contains many curious old mosques, but the only public edifices of any 
magnitude and architectural bcanty, arc the Emaumhara, or House of God 
—to the construction of which the British Government contributed 
15,000/.,— and tho new jial.aco built for the late Nawab. The latter is a 
spacious edifice in the Doric style, and was erected from the plans and 
under the superintendence of General Duncan Macleod, at the cost of 
66,000/. There is a large model of it in Hampton Court Palace, which 
occupies a pretty large room. The population may be estimated at about 
150.000, tho bulk of whom are employed in the cultivation of rico and 
indigo, and the various processes of silk manufacture. Of the numerous 
factorie.^ and filatures, those of Messrs. Lyall and Messrs. Watson are the 
most extensive, mauy thousands being daily employed by those houses in 
spinning and hand loom weaving. Moorshedabad is also .an important 
mart for cotton, an.l mauy of its native merchants have acquired great wealth. 
The late Nawab, who died in 1837 or 1833, was the last person 
on whom the Guelphio order of knighthoo<l was conferred. His 
successor, the present Nawab, attained his majority four or five years 
ago, and is now about twenty-three. He has a son by each of his three 
■wives, with whom he lives in his harem, about a quarter of a mile from tho 
new palace, which is only used on durbar, or levee days. Of these there 
aro six or eight yearly. On such occasions he ia generally borne by 
eight men in a palkee, or howdah, with poles, like that presented to hei' 
Ma.)esty, and is escorted by the principal officers of his hou-ehold on foot 
while ho IS followed by a numerous train, mounted on elephants, camels' 
and horses, all gorgeously c.apai-isoned. Those who have seen the rich 
elephant-trappings at the Exhibition, will be enabled to form some idea of 
the miignificent spectacle presented by fifty elephants in full .state equip- 
ment, followed by about a score of camels, and a similar number of horses 
with housmg? of correspondmg splendour. The sumptuous canopied coueii 
m whach his Highness reclines on reception davs, was accurate^ represented 
by tliat at the Exhibition, of which we have already given a detailed 
descrq.tion. The natives who attend the durbar leave their shoes at the 
raitrance of the reception-hall, and, with head covered, according to the 
Eastern custom, advance with a series of salaams to his Highness" who is 
surrounded by his attendants and guai-ds, and on whose left, the place of 
honour m the East, sits the agent for tho Governor-General. They then 
present him with a mohur-a gold coin 1/. 12s. in valuo— and if the person 
OBenng it enjoys his favom-, he accepts the coin, and pours a few drops of 
attar of roses on his handkerchief. After-this ceremony it is the custom 
to retire backwards with a repetition of the salaams. Besides the respect 
and affection with which tho present Nizam is regarded on account of his 
personal qualities, he is also held in great consideration as the head of the 
sect 01 bheahs, who are much looked up to in Lower Bengal 



TUE CUYSTAL PALACE BY MOONLIGHT. 
(rnoM TnK tiues.) 
I'O thoM who have scon the interior during tho daytime, 61]ed with 
thou'ands of spectators, and agitatol by all tho bustle of sight-seeing, it 
is dilBouIt to realise the a.<iiect which th" mime scene presents when tho 
crowds liavo doparte<l, when tho gates arc closed, and the police liavc taken 
nn kr their entire control that Tast collection of tbo trophies of liuuau 
iiiiliistiy. One can scarcely comprehend the strength of tliat confidence 
ill the law and in the security of property which reconciles 1 5,000 cxhibitorp, 
gathered from every civili.scd country in the world, speaking different 
languages, and brought up under different forin.s of government, to trust 
tho uiu t valued evidences of tlieir skill, their wealth, their enterprise, 
night after niglit, to a body of about fifty policemen, paid little above tiio 
ordinary wages of labour, and armed against dangers from without with no 
weapon more formidable than a baton. A liusJian jeweller is the only 
person Wo have heard of as showing any uiie.xsinesa in Die exorci-so of this 
confidcuco. Ho wanted to be convinced that his diamonds were cafe, and 
atcordingly ho applio<l for an order to visit them liy niglit His request 
was giaiitod, and ho soon h.-vl a practical test of the watchful care t.aken of 
his property. Standing in front of his gla.s3 case and satisfying himself that 
all was safe, lio happened to turn round, and there to his a-stonishment he 
found that ho had a const.ablo at either elbow aup<-rintending his move- 
ments, and tiy no raeiins disposed from their looks to take his honesty for 
granted. Wo visited the Crystal Palace two nig.'ts ago, but in a less scep- 
tical sfiirit than the Russian jew-llcr, and for a different purpose. We 
wished to sec tho aspect of the interior under the influence of a fine clear 
moonlight, to observe how each object of interest varied in expression 
when looked at through a new medium, to contrast witii the bustle and 
thronging excitement of the day the effects of silence, solitude and darkness. 
Let the reader accompany us in our survey and share in the impressions 
which it produced. In the centre everything was plainly revealed ; 
the pinnacles of the crystal fountain appeared tipped with silver, and in 
the basin below the ribs and sash-bars overhead and the sky beyond them, 
and portions of the adjacent galleries, and the occa.sioiial glimmer of gas- 
lights, were all reflected with marvellous distinctness. An air of solemn 
repiise pervaded the vast area; the very statues seemed to re.-t from the 
excitement of tho day, and to slumber peaceably on their pedestals. Some 
were enveloped in white coverings, which in the doubtful light gave them 
a ghostly appearance; others remained unprotected from the night air, 
and brnvcd exposure to cold as they have already done to criticism. 

At one point of intersection between the nave and transept Virginins, 
under the fliu-e of a ga-s-lamp from the China compartment, brandished the 
knife with which he had sacrificed iiis daughter. At another corner, and 
under a similar dispensation of light from Persia, a cavalier leaned upon 
his s.Toid, and appeared to be calculating the number of people that had 
passed him during the day. Of Turkey and Egypt we could see f^nly at 
the entrance the faint glitter of Daina.seus blades and of brocaded mu'Iins 
and trappings. All beyond was buried in darkness and mystery. The 
shades of night, too, fell heavily upon Greece. Spain, aud Italy, though 
behind them, through the open gdrders, gleams of unexplained light- were 
seen rising. The zinc statue of the Quem rested in grateful obscurity, 
and Lemonniere's jewel-ca.se had cautiously been stripped of its attractions. 
On the metal pipes of Ducroquet's organ some stniggling moonbeams 
played, though without evoking any sound. The colos.sal gi-oup of Cain 
and his Family looked well in a gloom which seemed suited to his expres- 
sion of guilt qualified by the traces of human affection. So it was all down 
the eastern nave. The shadows of night, which fell heavily on some points, 
were strangely relieved at intervals by gas. which carried the eve forward 
over intervening objects to those immediately around it. Instead of looking 
at those things whicli lay nearest, attention was directed to distant and out 
of the way spots, brought into prominence by the light streaming upon 
them. Policemen in list slippers might occasionally be seen flitting 
noiselessly to a point whence the strangers might be reconnoitred, or 
suddenly emerging from behind some d.ark object where they had remained 
for a time cautiously stowed away. If a court was entered, or a divergence 
made to the right or to the left, the quick eye.s and the scarcely di-scem- 
ible footfall of some member of " the force' followed. Over the 



whole 

interior a profound silence reigned, broken only at intervals as the clocks 
of the building nxug out slowly the advancing hour. Turning towards the 
western half of the interior, huge envelopes of calico concealed most of the 
objects facing the navo. hut the large trophies in the centre remained un- 
covered, and looked solemn and grand in the dim neutral light which 
prevailed. The Indian shirta of mail and the model pralius of the East 
were favoured bj' the beams of the moon. The chandeliers of Apslcy 
Pellat and Co. caught the eye in passing, and glistened .as if anxious to have 
their illuminating properties tested. Glimpses were again caught of remote 
galleries brougiit into prominence by gas-lamps. In some places light shone, 
though whence it came appeared a mystery. In others there was almost 
a Cimmerian darkness. The contributions to the carnage department were 
swathed in calico, while the gigantic locomotives disdained any covering, 
and reste<l in grim repose. The activity of mules, spinning-frames, and 
looms was hushed, the whirl of driving-wheels was silent, and .amidst the 
whole of that usually noisy department dedicated to machineiy in motion 
the only sound we heard was that of a cricket chirruping away merrily 
amiilst Whitworth's tool?. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




rOLLF.CTION OF,;iNDIAN JEWELS, &c. EXHIBITED BY Till: ZX^l INDIA LUMI'ANY. 



AN ILLUSTllATKD CYCL01M;DIA OP THE OUKAT EXHIBITION OF 18.-.1. 



GO 




THE KOII-l-;,-OOB, Ol! MOUXTAIX OF LIGHT, IN" ITS ORIGINAL SETTING. (For History, s« No. I. pajo 8. 




STATE IIOWDAH, &c. FKOM INDIA, LXmBITi:D CY IILK MAJEoTY. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS: 



TEXTILE MANUFACTURES. 



COTTON. 



'THE manufacture of cottou, now the most important of all our Ijranclies 
of industry, is of comparatively recent growth in thia country ; not 
dating earlier than the 17th century. For a long period after its fir.st 
introduction, it was carried on upon a very limited .scale ; the weaver.?, for 
the most part, working at their own homes, purchasing from time to time 
the materials upon wiiich they worked, and then selling the produce to the 
dealers in the newest market. The material employed, also, at this time 
was only one-half cotton, the warp being of linen. About the middle of 
the ISth century — scarcely one Inmdred years ago — the merchants of 
Manchester began to employ the weavers, furnishing them with the materials, 
and paying a fixed price for their work. 

This movement, which laid the foundation of the "Factory System," was 
greatly favoured, indeed made inevitable, by the iaveution of complicated 
machinery for aocomplishing various processes of the manufacture, which 
could not be used in the email dwellings of the weavers, and reijuired the 
co-operation of many hands. First in order of these were the carding- 
maohine, for straightening the fibres of the raw cotton, and the spinning- 
jenay for spinning a number of threads at once, and after some little 
jealousy and opposition, displacing the old spinning-wheel. These were 
both the invention of James Hargreaves, a common weaver. Then followed, 
in 17d9, the spinning-frame of Arkwright, by which cotton-yai'u could be 
woven strong enough for warp threads, thus displacing the linen-yarn; and 
from this time our manufacture of calicoes and twills went ou daily thriving. 
Still, however, there was something wanting to enable our machinery to 
compete with the foreign hand-producer in the finer muslins ; until, in 
178tj, Samuel Crooipton brought oat his mule-jenny, by whose delicate and 
ingenious mechanism yarn was produced of a fineness and softness never 
before attained in this country. 

This invention Arkwright followed up by many others, either of new or 
improved processes ; whilst others, stimulated by his example and his 
splendid success, added their quota to the general stock of practical 
achievement. In 1785, Dr. Cartwright made the first successful attempt to 
weave by machinery ; which was subsequently improved, upon a lai'ger 
scale, by Monteith of Glasgow. 

These brief statements comprise the bare facts of the first stage in the 
great industrial movement which has since brought about such mighty 
changes, not only in our social and commercial relations, but in our inter- 
national policy. 

Some reminiscences of the individuals connected with this moTement are 
given by a writer in the Illustrated L'mdon News, Oct. 18, ou the occasion of 
her Majesty's Progress in the manufacturing districts of Manchester. These 
reminiscences, though they introduce other names and other branches of 
the subject than those intended to be comprehended within our first article 
upon "Cotton Manufactiu-es," are so graphically illustrative of the whole 
subject, that we cannot do better than insert them here. 

LOCAL REMINISCENCES OF THE COTTON HANnPACTPEES. 

Lancashire is less famous for its fields of cliivalry than some other 
counties. When war came in the way of its people they fought, but, 
except to keep the Scotcli at a distance — ^judging it was better to meet them 
in Cumberland or Northumberland than in Lancashire — they were not 
accustomed to go in search of strife by free consent. The infertility, 
coldness, and excessive moisture of their soil and climate, were not favour- 
able to then- country being selected as the camp-ground of contending armies. 
But its excessive moisture gave birth to streams, which, running from the 
hills, offered water-ix»wer in great abundance ; while its treasures of coal, 
and proximity to the sea, with the habits of fi-ugality and energy which 
came by nature to a people inhabiting an infertile soil, led to results, 
on both the Lancashire and Yrjrkshiro side of the hills, which no other 
space of ground of equal extent has yet been marked with — the triumphs 
of industry ! — is not Lancashire covered with their fame! 

To the left of the railway, coming out of Preston, there is a place called 
Bamber-bridge. There, about 1763, some perisons named Clayton first 
attempted calico printing in Lancashu-e. Near a place called Knuydon- 
brook. about two miles east of Blackburn, a tall, robust man, wearing a 
woollen cloth apron, a calf-skin waistcoat, wooden-soLed clogs, whose hair 
was a grizzly reddish colour, who owned forty acres of poor grass land, bearing 
eight or ten head of stock, and whose three eldest sons worked eacli at a 
loom in the dwelling-house, was seen by the father of a person still living 
(the informant of the present writer), standing hehind a stone wall, watching 
the country weavers' return from Blackburn market, to ask them the news 
on market days, when he had not been there himself. That man, about 
1765, went to Bamber-bridge to the Claytons, with a piece of cloth made 
of cotton and linen thread, by one of his sons, which w;is spoiled in the 
weaving, aud, therefore, unsaleable. He asked to have it printed in apatltrn, 
for kerch'wfs, which was doTK, and the articlet worn by the family. The high 
price charged for the printing of that piece caused him tu attempt the art 



himself, which lie did in a concealed apartment of his house, now used as 
a daily room, at Peel Fold, by the present tenant of those forty acres of 
laud. TJiat man was Robert Peel, father of the fii-st Sir Robert Peel, the 
great-calico printer of Bury, in Lancashire, and of Fazely, in Staffordshire. 
Such was the beginning of calico-printing and the fortunes of the Peels. 
The females of the family ironed the pieces of cloth in the same secret 
room, to prevent any prymg person— like James Hargreaves, of Stanhill- 
moor (their nearest neighbour) — from seeing what they did. But that 
Robert Peel did more. He was the first to supersede the hand-carding of 
cotton wool, by using cards, one fixed in a block of wood, the other slung 
from hooks fixed in a beam. These remained in the beams over the kitchen 
at Peel Fold in 1850, as the present writer witues.sed. His carding-machines 
were broken by a mob of persons from Blackburn, at Peel Fold, aud after- 
wards at Altham. He was at last driven out of the county by the violence 
of his neighbours, aud took refuge at Burton-on-Trent, iu Staffordshire. 

James Hai-greavos, of Stanhill-moor, just named, was a weaver. He 
saw a hand-wheel -n-ith a single spmdle, then used for spinning cotton wool, 
overturned. Wlien it fell ou its side, the spindle, which was before hori- 
zontal, was vertical : and, coutinuing to revolve, he drew the roving of 
wool towards him into a thread. The thought seemed at once plausible, 
that, if something could be applied to hold the rovings as the finger and 
thumb did, and that something to travel backwards on wheels, six or eight, 
or even twelve threads, from as many spindles, might be spun at once. 
This was done. The machine was called the spinningjenny, and, combined 
with the roller spinning machine claimed by Arkwright as his invention, has 
been brought to that perfection seen at the Exhibition in Hyde-Park. 
Hargreaves, like the first Robert Peel, was expelled from Lancashire partly 
by the mobs, but also by the magistrates and local gentry, who, fearing 
that the machines would throw the workpeople ou the poor-rates, en- 
couraged the mobs to violence. He went to Nottingham, and, giving the 
Strutts a property in his jenny, laid the foundation of the opulence of that 
eminent family of manufacturers. 

At Leigh, about half way between Manchester and Liverpool, north of 
the railway a few miles, lived a mau named Thomas Highs. He claimed to 
be the inventor of spinning by a pair of rollers revolving fast, drawing the 
rovings through a pair which revolved slowly. Preston was the birthplace 
of Richar<l Arkwright : and Bolton (in a house still standing) the place where 
he carried on the business of hair-dyer and peruke-maker. In travelling 
the country to collect hair, he found a wife at Leigh, aud, visiting 
•tliat place frequently, he, it has been alleged, wormed the secret of the 
roller spinning out of Thomas Highs. This might be so ; but, if not, the 
inventor, Arkwright, was still the practical improver of those machines; 
aud the places w-liere he contended with poverty, difficulty, and the com- 
bined opposition of every class of men in Lancashire, even of those who 
used his machines, cannot be looked upon without present interest. 
Coming by the railway from Preston, a branch is seen leading to Chorley 
and Bolton. Chorley was the scene of Arkwright's contention with Ids 
unkind neighbours, and Birkacre the name of the place where his first mill 
was attacked, sacked, and burned to the gi'ound. A tall, thin building, too 
narrow for the machinery now in use, and now used as a store for cotton 
waste, is seen on the left hand, passing over the inky river Irk, at Manchester, 
by Ducie Bridge : this was Arkwright's next mill. But his fortune was 
chiefly made in Derbyshire, about twenty miles from Manchester, wdiere the 
workpeople hailed him as a benefactor, not as an enemy, and where water- 
power without limit was found to drive his wheels. 

At Bury, where the first Sir Robert Peel established his print-works, and 
where the late statesman, his son, was born, the fly -shuttle was invented 
by two brothers named Kay, At Stockport the power-loom was first used. 
Between Bury and Bolton, a farmer named Samuel Crompton, resident at 
Hall-i'-tlie-\Vood, was mowing hay with others one day, and suddenly 
throwing down his scythe, went home aud left them. He shut himself in 
an upper aiiartmeut, and was not seen out of the house for some days. 
The neishbours took a ladder, and ascending to the window, .saw him making 
a machine for spinning. This, when completed, was the "mule," which 
combined the roller principle of Arkwrigl it and the "jenny" of Hai-greave.s. 

At a place called Mosney. near Preston, one Alexander Bell, employed 
by the firm of Liyesy, Hargreaves. Hall, and Co., was the first, about 1783, 
to introduce calico-printing by rollers. The effect of this invention and its 
improvements has been incalculable. 

Coming through Kendal from the north, the Royal visitors to Lanca.shiro 
passed the place where a humble schoolmaster, named John Dalton, lived 
about the year 1780. In the grand procession through Manchester, they 
passed the end of a new street cut through a thicket of old lanes, which 
has been named "John Daltou-street," in honour of that man, and it is but 
a small homage paid to his memory in comijarison with the commercial 
benefits derived from his scientific researches. He discovered and taught 
the theory, now amply verified, that all matter exists in atoms, which in 
weight bear an exact mathematical proportion to each other ; that in 
chemical combinations these proportions are absolutely obsei-ved ; and that, 
consequently, the dyer and calico-printer can only make "fast colours" by 
using the mathematical proportions ruled by tliis law of atoms. This much 
in brief; but it is an imperfect outline of that discovery of Dalton, so 
momentous to all chemists, and pai'ticularly to the bleachers, dyers, and 
pi'inters. The economy iu labour, material, and time, the extension of 
their trade, and the liigher excellence in their productions, are such, that 
the v,alue of this truth in chemistry, expressed in millions sterling, if known, 
would startle us alike iu ^^•riting and reading its sum. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; AN ILLUSTRATED, CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION 01? 1851. 




COTTON MACHINEKY OF MESSES. HIBBETT, TLATT, AND £03(S..' 



7-i 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



LITERATURE OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 



THE EXHIBITION AND ITS MANAGEMENT. 

(I-ROK TOK ILLUSTRATED LONDON KEWS, OCT. 18.) 
IF the novelty of the undertaking occasioned tho promoters of it to be 
altogether impreparod for the vaat success, iu a pecuniary point of view, 
which has attended it, so It m:iy excuse them for many erroi-a of omission 
and commission, by which the opportunitioa which euch an undertaking 
might have afforded, have not been turned to the very best account ; and 
if we now pi-ODced to review the monageoicnt of the Executive of the Great 
Exhibition, it is simply bj way of providing a lesson of experience for the 
regulation of future undertakings of the kind which may occur in this 
country or elsewhere. JMiuiy of the sins of the Executive may be trap:ed to 
the simple fact of then' want of means iu the outset, and their doubt as to 
amount of means which the sympathy of tho public might place at their 
disposal. The project had to work its way into the favour aud into the 
pockets of the public, and that against a strong tide of prejudice aud oppo- 
sition. And in this they had still a double task : they had to promise an 
allai'ing Exhibition to the sight-seeing public, and they had, at the same 
time, to canvass the mauufacturerB and producere for contributions in aid 
of the geiieral display ; and we know that in very many instances it was not 
till the very laat moment that the local committees succeeded io inducing 
proprietors of goods to send them in, and then it was very often done as a 
pereonal favour to the energetic agent. In the mid=t of all this doubt and 
struggle it was that Mr. Paxtons letter cauie out, which to all the world 
ooemed very Idie a tender of resiguation of busines.*} on behalf of the whole 
body; and by many of the Mrs. Caudour aud Backbiter families was ex- 
aggerated into an actual declai-ation of bankruptcy. Added to this was the 
rumour that the Building itself was not water-tight, and could not possibly 
outlive the heavy rains at that time prevailing. 

In this critical position of atfiirs, the Pi-esa, whose agents had been 
admitted to the inside of the Building, and who reported its actual con- 
dition, aud its gradual furuiahing forth with goods of all sorts, from all 
parts of the world— the Press, we say, came to the rescue of the apparently 
devoted enterprise ; and many British producers, who had hitherto held 
aloof, found themselves forced or shamed into sending in contributions to 
compete with those so abundantly transmitted by foreign rivals. One little 
mouth of tolerably fine weather, oua little month of newspaper bi)(jon- 
feedmg, changed the whole aspect of affau's. Season tickets were eagerly 
bought ; aud when it was announced that her Majesty would give her 
solemn sanction to the great prmciple iuvolvoJ at bottom m the project, 
and honour tbe World's Industrial Congress by inaugurating its proceed- 
mgs m person, the public, as publics will, became worked up to the wildest 
pitch or excitcment^and filled with anxiety to obtain iiigces* within the 
walls uf the Crystal Palace, which now prbmiBed to bo fashionable. And 
here the Commissioners committed, or meditated the commisHJon of, two 
grave en-ors. oue upon the other; though tiicy were fortunately prevented 
tirom cai-ryiug either into execution by tho iuud and uuammous voioe of 
public opmion, and the good sense and good feelmg of the Queen and the 
Prince Consort. Tho one wa* the proposal tUat her Majesty should 
inaugurate the greatest public institution of modern history in private 
attended only by the Commisaiouers and a retinue of beef eatur.^ and police- 
men in pnvate ! Let those who reeoUect the va.t and animated usaembln^e 
which cheered and roared with ecetacy when the Queen of " Merry Euglaud ' 
walked along the main aveuues of the Cry«tal Palace on that glorious 1st of 
May. and then the shout of exultation when she deulared the Exiiibiti.»n 
open contemplate the amount of leae majaU and tho depth of ignonunv 
wluch would have been involved m denying her Majesty and her luyal 
subjects and foreign guests the heartfelt pndo «ud satislaction of that UaVs 
ceremomal ! ih« otucr error of the E^ocutive at this tunc, when it was 
deternunedt^at the public should be admitt^-d. was the attempt to make 
a show ot Koyalty, by raising the pnce of aeasun tickeU-au attempt which 
a« .oon as xt came to the knowledge of the Prioc* Piwident of the Com- 
mi^ion, he very promptly reprobated and prohibited. 
The exclusiou of exiubitor* was an error- 



.„„^„.^.^^ „»^^.„^,^,, ^ae an error— a serious error, as regarded 
the enjoyment of the public, the result, of the Exhibition, aud the iu tercets 
of the exhibitors. And this injustice, this stupid blu.ide;, was peipetTate^ 
and pei;s.sted m, m the same p.^ltry spirit which devised the id^ ofsett m- 



a premium upon the gracious .luiles of our Queen ; which fanned out the 
responsihdity audpriydegesconneeted with the publication of the CataWe 
as a property, m.tead of working upon it as a labour of love tendh^^to fhe 
whXf Tr'iTfh^^' °' '\' ''}''''' undertaking ; the same spirit^penury 
which farmed the monopoly of retailing tea, coflee, ices, and " other lilt 

Tt^ST^^ 'f ^"^1 '^^' "' ^V--^^' ^"^^ '^ eaterei. who insisted S 
fi^fe f^". ^ ®'^ °^ "'^ ^^■^^^'- " ^^ ^-^^ down a thimblefutl of 



rous industrious classes, aa policemen, omntbxis drirers, public schools, Ac, 
who had but few opportunities of participating in the intellectual enjoy- 
ments of their fellow-citizens ; the same spirit of penury and peuce gathering 
which originated many a little job, to the dispai-agemcut of the pubUc 
interests, the lessening of then* enjoyment of theirown Exhibition — for waa 
not the Exhibition tho public's outi. when it was made up of voluntary 
contributions from the manufacturing comuiunity, stored in a house built 
upon public property, and rescued from all risk of failure by the shillings 
of tho multitude? All that the Commissionei-s can lay claim to is tho 
glass-houae. and that they only had through a happy accidf-ut: aud that 
they wanted to got oft' their hands before the tiino arrived for openiug its 
doors. The bare walls were thrown open to the pubUc, and the public 
provided the eutertainmcut, and found the company and the moupy. How 
little the Comminsiouer.-* have done to reciprooata the liberal spirit of the 
public— to promote the uiterests of exhibitoi-s, which was a secondary 
inducement — aud the interests of scienoe aud knowledge, which was tho 
par.imount uiducement to the undertaking — arc quostions which are'vcry 
fairly debatable by public journalists. 

In aaseinbluig together the richest a«fiortmout of natural products and 
manufactured wares, of machine^ and philosophical instruments, from all 
quarters of the globe, which the world ever saw collected together, tho 
first step was taken to the acquirement of a full knowledge of the state of 
human science and industry over the whole face of the globe ; and tho 
materials so obtained, if properly made use of, would have formed a com- 
plete store of practical knowledge, a perfect encylopa;dia of human intelli- 
gence, which would have been invaluable as au authority — a starting-point 
for the future. But how if half these productions wore promiscuously 
thrown together, badly classified, and therefore unattainable without guides 
or direction-posts ' how if many of them were bo inclosed under glass casea 
that it became impossible to oxamtuo their properties! and how if the 
peculiarities of nine-tenths of them were uu intelligible tn the general 
observer, Mithout explauation from tho owuer or producer 1 aud how if 
the owner or producer was exclutled from the privilege of presiding over 
the portion of the intellectual banquet which he h,id provided ! Why, in 
all suoh cases, the Exhibition became on unprofitiJjle and jirovokmg blank 
and a delusion— unless, indeed the Executive, who had driven away the 
legitimate aud natural guardians of tho various objects had takon the tudk 
of expounding their properties upon themselves. But they did no such 
thing. They sold their birthright in the Catalogu* for a mess of pottage 
(3200/., and "a Royalty" of twopence upon every copy sold in the Building), 
as a Commercial speculation. And when, in the oicitement of catering for 
ftdvortisements, the coutiuctors forgot to take the necessary steps aud 
engage tho necessary assistance to collect and ari-ange the contents of the 
Catalogue ; when the Catalogue was discovered to bo a heavy humbug, 
from which no information could be obtained; aud when the "second 
edition," and the "eecoud corrected cditioo," and each succeeding "cor- 
rected edition," was found to be as uuiutelligibU as the original Simon 
Pure; when, in despair, the public — having speut successive shillings in 
successive visits and successive purchases of catalogues aud guides and 
hand-books — still rushed wildly and hopelessly about, inquiring for 
Class A 096. or the Naval Architecture depaitmeut, or the Haw Produce 
departmont, what did the Cominissioners do ( They issued a hand-bill, ia 
which the^ announced that they had found out another job, involving 
another ahilling's worth at their disposal, and had idready farmed it to an 
enterprising commercial company. This document, which deserves to be 
kept as u matter of history, ran as follows :— 

' Cbvbtal r a i,acb.— Approved and qualified pereoiis to act as giiidei), sliovrlng visitors 
Ihrough the Uiiilding by the hour. Particulara :— Parties aot exceedins three— Firat 
hour, 2s.; every other hour, 1».; Purticii not exceeding aix— first liour, (U.facli person; 
every other liuiir, id. each peraon. N.B.— The jieraoii acting as guide will show all the 
principal ohjucts in the Building. Apply (o the Suiiedntendent at thu south entrance. 
Otfice, Btreel, Cily." 

After this, to ask your way, to ask tho simplest question of a policeman 
or any functionary in the Building, was constructively an infringement of 
the rights and privileges of the Guide Compaiiy, and such application.^ wero 
very properly met with the reply—" There aie guides appoiuted, and if you 
want information you must pay for it." 

The foreign exhibitors, particularly the French, with their older experi- 
ence m expositions and bazaars, perceived the importance of having some 
one on the spot to disjilay and explain the merits of their wares, and have 
generally done so at the cost of a season ticket; and, as a consequence, a 
very stnkmg contract has been presented between tho aspect and atmoBphero 
of the loreign and the British departments. In the former you were greeted 
with the bhindest of -■smiles, welcome to examine, invited to touch— we will 
not say urged to purchase, the varioa* beautiful sbjects, which, without 
such means of scrutinising, might have lain as dead lumber in an outhouse, 
tor all the spectator care I : iu the latter, with few exceptions, all lias been 
still life— a huge toHn of shops without a shopman amongst them ; and if 
you did but look a little closely, and pull uu'. your pocket-book to 
make a note, one of the thousand extra policemen anpointed for Jixhibition 
purposes interrupted you with an auth.jritative " Vou must not copy any- 
thmg;" and if you did but lay a finger upon pot cr plough-handle— good 
gracious ! Scotland-yard forbid ! We do not exaggerate one iota in tliw 
statement, for annoying incidents of this kind have occurred frequently to 
us in the course of our critical vocations. And witi respect to the locking 
up of goods , we will only instance one branch of mattufacturcj that of Locks 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



Though these be some of the more prominent incidents which mark the 
memorable spots in Lancashire, they are but few, a verj' few of the whole, 
which have reared up that matchless prnductive power of machinery, which, 
ftt the date of aix centuries after the Norman Conquest, found Lancashire, 
though not A wildernesB, still a comparative waste, thinly peopled, which 
has since covered the surface with humiui life and wealth ; which, gathering 
together the rude products of that olime, diffuses them as comforts and 
elegancies to every race— the material for a printed calico worn by the 
ploughmnn'a wife at 4d. a yard being cotton from America, iudigo from 
Asia, madder from Europe, and gum from Africa ; a power of production 
which attracts, by the abundance of the merchandise it creates, the luxuries 
of all tho world in exchange, which in Lancashire and elsewhere in the 
kingdom gives an ability to bear taxation that in turn confers on Britain a 
military and naval strength tiiat ^vithstood tlie most successful commander 
that ever led armies to battle, his armies su-tained by the plunder of all 
Europe ; a power of production and financial strength which endorsed the 
bills of nearly every European uatiou opposed to France, aud gave them 
Bvibsidies in addition, from British taxes, to induce them to rise ngainat their 
invader, when prostrate at his feet ; a power which, more recently, when 
tho nations were shaken by revolution, gave firmness to Britain, as it this 
day enables our Queon to move among a free people with a sense of safety 
and joyousness of welcome unknown to any other Sovereign. Such are 
the triumplis of industry, the conquests of scieuce, whose fields of succe=s 
aro found through all Britain, but in greater number in Lancashire than 
elsewhere -such the high t;erviccs to civilisation wliich industry and science 
have rendered. 

The quantity of cotton imported into this country in 17G4 was about 
4,000,000 lb. ; in 1780, about 7,000,000 lb. ; in 1790, about 30.000,000 lb. ; 
and in 1800, about 50.000,000 lb. There was little increase during the 
period of the wai-; but since the restoration of peace, the consumption of 
raw cotton, and with it the employment of our factory labour, ha? increased 
witli ft rapidity almost beyond the power of conception. 

In 1815 the imports were .... 99.000,0001b. 

,> 182.^ „ 229.000.000 „ 

t, 1835 „ .... 364,000.000 ., 

» 1846 „ 722,000,000 „ 

The value of cotton manufivctures produced In Great Britain in 1841, was 
estimated by Mr. Porter at 49,000,000^; and of tlieae about one-half were 
exported. 

The number of luinds employed in tho cotton factories of Great Britain 
may be roundly sot down at half-ainillion but upon this aud other 
statistical details we shall enter more at large in a separate paper. 

COTTON-S FIN NINO MACniSEHY DESCRICED. 

"We now proceed to give a doflcriptinu of some of the works in cotton 
monufiicture, aa illustrated in tU« Oreat Exhihitjon ; and towards this end we 
we think we cannot do better than ask the realer to accompany us in an 
imngiuary reminiscence of theoitremo west end of the Crystal Palace, where 
& very complete series of this olasa of mac'iinery was extiibited by Messrs. 
Hibbert, Piatt, and Sons, of Oldham, showing the processes of manufacture, 
from the cotton as it is taken out of tho bale on its arrival in this country, 
to the time of its completion in tho form of woven calico, twills, &c. (See 
large Eugraviug, pages 72 aud 73.) 

First in the Korics is an opentug -mochino, ou Calvert's principle. It is 
fed by au en.llesa cloth ; on which tho cotton is -pread, aud is drawn into 
tho machine by a continuous moveraent of the cloth towai'ds two rollers, 
anned with coarse but not very sharp teeth. These seize the cotton, and 
draw the entangled locks apart, and tne-i pass them on to other aud finer- 
toothed rollers, which still further open and straighten the fibres ; aud the 
clean cotton is thrown out at the other end of the machine, while the seed 
and dirt fall out below. 

The cotton is then taken io a second opening and.Bcutcliing-machine ; 
here it is again put on a moving, endless apron, aud Introduced into the 
machine by being drawn between a pair of rollers, and delivered slowly 
out to meet the blows of the " beater." which rcvulros with great rapitlity, 
and drives all the heavy particles of dirt, sand, Ac, down through a grating 
— which, however, is too fine to allow the flakes ol' cotton to pass through. 
These are carried through to an iron roller, rouud which they are led. and 
as the roller is kept r«volviug, they ai-e wound ou it so sa to form a con- 
tinuous sheet of loose, fleecy textwe, called a " lap." This hip is then 
transferred to the fii-st, or breaker oarding-machino, and tho end of the lap 
last wound on tlie roller is led iu between two feoding-rolloi-a, and carried 
by them into contact with the cai-ds of the machine which draw out aad 
straighten the fibres of the cotton. 

The large cylinder on which tho cards are fixed is mode of iron, and is 
turned perfectly true. The eai-da are fastened to it by nails driven into 
amall wooden plugs inserted at intervals iu the circuuiferouce of tho iron 
cylindem, and tho patent braukot-slidea for carrying the smaller rollers are 
remarkable for the simplicity and solidity of their construction. After 
passing over th« surfaces of tha oard-rolloi*s, the cotton is stripped off the 
last roller, called a "doffer," by means of a steel comb, or doffing plate, 
mounted on an irou stock instead of wood, the whole width of the d'^ffer, 
which rises and fulls with a sort of chopping motion, and at each fall catches 
a number of the fibres, and, disengaging them from the wires of the cards, 
forms them into a looso, open, broad film of cotton, called a "sliver." The 
end of this is narrowed, and led into a conical npcrtm-e, about an inch in 
diameter, in the top of the coiler. Inside the coiler is placed a paii- of 



n 

rollers, which take the end of the sliver first presented, and continue 
draw it through the conical hole, and deliver it into a deep can, pkced J' ^ 
the roUera. until it is full, when the end is broken off". ' 

The can is then taken to the next machine, called a "lap machine" 
is there placed alongside numerous similar cans; and the ends laat bn-k 
aro led one out of each can, and introduced between a pair of roUtm *; "^ 
draw all tho several slivers at one time into the machine, and coil tl 
side by side on a small iron roller, so as to make them into a lap— that*^ 
a long sheet formed of the slivera, which adhere to one another m J "• 
degree. **'^ 

This lap is now transferred to the second or finishing-carder, and U wn 
fui-tiier carded, doffed, and coiled in the cans, as previously descnhe'I Tl 
lap, which, when it entei-s the machine, is formed of 30 or 40 8uigle->Iive ' 
is carded dovm in substance so much that, when taken off at tin.- lirjg ",' 
roller, it only forms one sliver out of the whole number that enieiyj ^, 
thus the effect of any irregularity that may exh^t in any one fcliver im cuLn:! 
lost in that which is composed of so many various ones. The cans i^l 
the finisliiug carding-engiue are now taken to the drawing-frame, and tht 
slivers are first passed tlirough a pair of rollers travelling at a ^low ^^l 
and ai-e then seized by the next pair which run faster, and therefuro 'w 
away the cotton at a greater rate than it is furnished to them by the firt* 
pair. This lias the effect of making the sliver longer and thinaW. ami ^ 
tho same time straightens the fibres ; and it is still more drawn by a txH 
and even a fourth or fifth pair of rollers ti-avelling faster than the mnidlij 
pair, so that the slivers are very much attenuated by this procesd. Tlr^ 
of these slivei-3 are led into one coaical hole in the coiler, and the cam 
revolving as before described, coil the sliver inside them. ' 

The cans containing these last sUvers from the drawing-frame are taken 
to the slubbing-fi-ame, where the slivera are to receive a slight JeTee i,f 
twist. Previously to this, however, they are led out of the cans, and'pmisi 
through three lines of dni.wingrollei-s, to reduce the size of the shvev and to 
straighten the fibres still more. After passing these drawing-rollers th^iT 
pass down to the " flyers," which, in these machines, are of au impro\Vl 
construction, the spindles having two inches' more bearing, and the flyer 
having a one-inch shorter le^ — an advantage that enables the manufacturer 
to run tlie spindles one-fifth faster tlian by the usual construction. 

The flyers give a certain amount of twist to the " slubbing," aud it 15 bj 
them wouud ou bobbins, which are tiien transferred to the stcoad jr 
Intermediate slubbing- frame. Here the cottou undergoes a proctss 
similar to, but finer than, that of the firet slubbing-frame. The roving. 
frame comes next, and the bobbins from the second sluhbing-fmme are 
placed in it ; the slubbiiigs are here reduced by the drawing-rollers ssll 
finer; they are then twisted still more by the flyers, and, lastly, they are 
wound on bobbins. 

The " mule" is the machine next in order. Hero the bobbms, taken from 
the roving-fi-ame, are again passed through three Imes of smaller drawinj. 
rollers, aud then delivered on to the poiuts of the spiudles. which. bvtW 
rapid revolution at the time the carriage is di'awn out, twist the roving iiiw 
yarn. Ou the return of the caiTiage the twisting operation ceases for 1 
time, and the newly-spun yaru is wound on to the spindles in the wtH- 
known form of " cops." 

One of the mules shown is a weft-mule, with tin rollers. The other iai 
warp or twist-mule, but with di-ums iustead of the rollers, to showtht 
variety of mechauism. 

The twist-mule h;is also a back shaft tho whole length of the mxUm, 
instead of squaring- bands, as iu the weft-mule, for the same reasoa TiiJ 
head-stock is based on the principlo of Sharp and Roberts' expired patcut 
All the bearings are constructed with uuusual solidity ou the (laMtrl 
principle of Messi-s. Hibbert and Piatt, and are bushed so as to be eaalj 
repaired ; as also tlie adjustable spring " camm " for " backing off," and tk 
adjustable catch-bos ou the fiont roller for preventing " suaris." 

The throstle for spinning warp yarn is an excellent specimeu of workmiD' 
ship, the holes being ail tunchiao-djilled atoneopei-ation. The roller-beiiiu 
aro all planed true, and the heart-wheel aud rack are in the centre m(ol 
of at the end. This de.^criptiou of machiue is much used for tho coir«r 
description of yarn, but for the finer numbers it does not compete snccts- 
fully with the mule. 

The doubling- frame ia the next machine, and is used to twist two yare' 
together into one thre;ul for strong warps, iis stocking-yarns, and also f« 
scAing-cotton. 

The hinding-macliiue follows, and ia shown with two sorts of arraagf 
meut — that for wituling twist-mule eoi>s ou one side, and that for tbrosw 
bobbins ou the other; both these are wouud on to large bobbins, ready wf 
the next raacliinc, which is called the beamiug or warping-machine. It j* 
fitted up iu the same superior style as the others, and has KotuvortbTi 
patent rods. Here the warp is transferred from the large bobbins co *'* 
warp-beama, or rollers, ready for the dressing- machine, which, hoivovcr. 
not shown iu this aeries, as it is a macliiue requiring a room to iti;«;l'i" 
prevent the steam employed from being a detrmieut to the otiH' 
mechanism. . 

The dressing process consists in dressing or coating the wai'p *"'^, 
with a paste made from flour, to stiffen the threads for the loom- r 
first invention for this purpose was that of Radcliffe, in IS04.) » 

The looms are the machines which follow, where the yam?, ^'^^ .'^ 
and warp, are woven iuto cloth. But we shall here take leave of tho siil'J 
for the present, with the intention of i-esumiug it, with fitting iUushay*^"* 
on au early occasion. j 



! 



AN ILLUSTIIATEI) CYCLOP.KDIA OP TIIK OIIKAT EKlIIlUTION OF l«r,]. 



uicl Koy.i, upon wliicli wo wuro anxiouH to olitiiin all tlio iiifonuatioii wo 
:i)ul(l for piililicatioii in tliis Journal ; yot, ftltliough wo liave maila a dozen 
ournoya to tho Imi-ilware (Vitartniont, uikI liover-ed anxiously al)out tho 
,'las.< ca-iea, filleil witli some Civo liuniiroil illircrcnt kimls of infallililo locltH, 
^•o liavo not to tlii.s day licon al>lo to inspect, or obtain any iuforniatioii 
oiircrinnj^ any ono of tluMii. 

Tlio regul.ition ]>ro[iil)itinf; the afflxiiij; of prices to nrticlos exliil>ite<l, 
night iiave luid HonicthiuK to recomniond it in the eyes of the CoinniisHionerM ; 
)nt, upon tho whole, it ajii)e,Trs bo elearly to bo at variance witli the gi-and 
ihject of tlie Kxhibition — that of obtaining and promulgating information 
ipoii all points relating to the manufacturing inferestn and processes, botli 
f oiirsclvi'.s and ()f otlier nationn — that it ought not to ha\'e been pernisted 
u aCti'r its imjfolicy had been pointotl out. And Hurely tiie price at which 
:n}' article may bo produced in an imi>ortaut elouient of tlie value of tiie 
trocci-s by which it iti produced ; and to ileny the nianufactvu-er the privilege 
f announcing this particular, was as absurcl as it w;is unjust. The exliibi- 
ors, however, soon got over this dillieidty by resorting to tlio distribution 
f pro.^pectuses, witli priced lists of all tlicir ware.s (we liava one by us 
.■herein an Irish Karl recouuueuds his tile bricks), and steam pre.s.ses in ono 
art of the Uuilding, were kept hard at work, throwing off reams of puffs 
or cxliibitors in other departments ; and tiie Kxecutivc Committee liavc 
■een so amused and gratified with this contravention of tiieir orders, tliat 
liey have set about collecting, in the Building itself, fifty copies of all the 
utfuiongery of the Great Exhibition, for the purpose of being bound up 
ud deposited in tho Bodleian and otlier public libraries ! In aidition to 
his, tlie agents for the Foreign departments very early resorted to the 
xpeJient of printing "priced catalogues" of their goods ; the ZoUvereiii, 
tussia, Saxony. Austria, have each their handbook, completed witli tlieir 
etails of £ s. d. ; and very interesting they will be as materials for a new 
dition of tho " History of Prices ; " but when it came to the turn of tlio 
Iritisli exliibitor, ho was referred to Messrs. Spicer and Clowes, "the 
ontractors," who demanded a shilling a line for the insertion of tlie de- 
criptions and prices of their goods. In short, the Great Exhibition has 
een converted into a great job, and all its minutest details have resolved 
ito jobs smaller and beautifully less. 

We have uot left ourselves space in this article to review the general 
onteiits of the Exhibition, and to see how far they filled up the 
-■liemc which tlie mind's eye miglit have framed for it. We cannot help ob- 
rving. however, tliat they have been wanting m many essential particulars, 
ad were too generally not disposed to advantage. The manufacturing 
[ipliances of this country, which ought to have been the principal features 
f tho whole affair, have been very inadequately represente i ; many branches 
f manufacture wliolly absent : and the macliinery which was sent in, con- 
igued to a sort of back-.shop, wliere they were crowded together, without 
rder of arrangement, without space between them to inspect them in 
peratiou ; and many of them, Nasmyth's sieam hammer, to wit, uot in 
peration at all. owing to the want of .steam. The collections of raw 
laterials, instead of being classed in groups comprising the various contri- 
utions from all parts, and those groups in convenient proximity to the 
lachinery which respectively related to their manufacture, have been 
;attered about in all directions, generally in thebaokways, in such a manner 
5 to be utterly useless for the purposes of scientific research. Our vast 
avy and commercial marine ; our shipbuilding has been wholly unrepre- 
jnted, with the exception of a toy model of the Qtucn iu tlie transept, and 
few models of lifeboats stowed very carefully out of sight, in the rear of 
le western gallery — a seclusion in which we only discovered them after 
lany a fruitless voyage of discovery. The exclu,sion of works of painting 
•om the scheme of the Exhibition we have already, in a previous article, 
ammented upon, as most ill-judged. If it did notning else, it converted 
le so-called Fine Art Court into a mere toy-.shop — an objei;t of ridicule to 
11 observers of mature age. 

In short, money-getting being the object, overytliing was sacrificed to 
low and sound; the most gaudy inutilities and commonplaces were thrust 
ito the foreground, and plain usefulness was ordered to tlie rear, to shift 
ir itself where it couid. Trophies of silk and tropliies of glass, trophies 
f tapestry, trophies of timber, trophies of feathers, astonished open- 
louthed gapei-s at every point along the main avenues, who, perhaps, forgot 
lat all these trophies were only made up of very common ingredients, 
hich might be examined in detad in the shops of Bund-street and Oxford- 
ireet. Koh-i-noor diamonds, jewelled hawks, court jewels from Spain and 
ussia, and gold and precious stones, the spoil of Eastern dynasties now 
itmct, were added by the liberality of their respective owners " to make 
p ashow," and to divert the daziiled multitude from the more utilitarian 
id instructive purposes of the Exhibition. The foreign departments again 
)ok the lead of us in an important element of stage effect ; the national 
)lours were suspended over tho various departments, and the "efl'ect" 
I delighted the Executive Committee, being an inexpensive addition to 
leii- suilling show, tliat they gravely penned a circular to all the principal 
mtributing towns iu Great Britain, begging them to send up Hags embla- 
nied with their respective arms, wherewith to decorate the British Nave ! 

Is it to be wondered at, that, conducted after this principle, the Great 

xhibition of Industry became, to a great portion of the multitudes who 
ironged its avenues, an idle lounge— a huge bazaar— a covered Regent- 
Ireet— a promenade concert monstre l Those dread organs— north, south, 
^st, aud west, and tliat di-eadest of all in the Foreign Nave, all thundering 
perpetual competition; those jingling pianos, iu every highway and 

way, and nook and corner of the Building ; here musical bells, with a 



mob of idle listeners ; and still prevailing through tho general din tli.it 
llerr Timnerre, wlio, Kccurdjng to doily lulvui-tiieoiuotM, daily, for four long 
lioiirs, played popular opera airs and polkoH upon hiH T(mncm/[ilirme, on 
instrument which (iiuoth the Dailij Ncioi), "although of comparatively 
Ruiall sizo, is of tremeixloua power anrl conipaKS — the tones coiiipletoly 
lilUiig thu vaxt cdilico." None but tlioau who have been Kubjected to tho 
iniluciieu of thin col otual Babel can iiuujjiuu the buwilticrxiig elluct; nono 
vvlio liavo, will over forgot it. 

Amidst this state of things the Press again camo to tho rescue; — its 
various agents prying and scnitinising in all fiuartcrs, and in spite of many 
dilllcullies, proceeding to unravel tho web of coiifu.jon in which things left 
to shift for themselves had resolved themselves, to drag from concealment 
and expound to tho reading public objects of real importance, which ottior- 
wiso have Ijcen in a great measure overlooked ; and by their labours they 
have preserved materials which will prove of value in airl of the history of 
art aud of the progress of society. On the occasion of any future Exhibition 
of tlio kind, however, those who have the man:igement of it will do well to 
avoid some of the errors of judgment on which we have felt it our duty to 
animadvert in the foregoing columns. [Tho above observations, though 
severe, we think are just. They are echoed, in all their details, in the 
Observer of the following week, aud have obviously given the cue to several 
other "organs" for their parting notices of the Great Eihitition.] 

THE VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF SCOTLAXD. 
Among the many miles of count'--rs and cases in the World's Fair, tbero 
were few more interesting than the collection of tho vegetable productionj 
of Scotland, contributed by Messr.s. Lawson of Edinburj^h. The collection 
was divided into six classes, arranged in extensive cabinets of mahogany 
and glass, thus ; — class 1, plants cultivated for their secd.s aud sti'a.v ; 
2, for herbage and forage ; 3, for the roots ; 4, for use in the arts aud 
manufactures ; 5, for their medical properties ; aud 0, those cultivated 
for their timber. There were drawings of the several plants, specimens 
of tho dried, the flowers, the seeds, the various roots — either natural 
or facsimiles in wa.x — aud longitudinal and vertical sections of timber 
and other trees, showing the same sections both in the rou"h and iu 
the polished state, joined in most examples by a hinge, and in some few 
similar sections of appendant branches. Not only have Messrs. Lawson 
been at the expense of fitting up this portion of the Exhibition, 
but they have been minded and desirous to make it as understandable 
as possible to all. They are themselves the authors of a Synopsis, 
which is divided into sik divisions as above, each of which forms a 
distinct quarto volume, or the whole may be had in one. The Svnopsis 
includes a short and interesting history of Scottish agriculture. In it we 
are occasionally reminded of some curious facts respecting the effects of 
culture on some plants. For instance, how tho poisonous Solaiuim tuber- 
osum becomes the wholesome jiotato ; the Brassicje, or cabb,i,'e tribe, 
attains its remarkable changes ; how, " from the common or wild cabbao'e 
(Brassica olcracea), a poor weed-like plaut of the sea-cojiit, it is brougUt up 
to be, at will, either the gigantic tree or cow-cabbage, the compact drum- 
head, the Brussels sprouts, red-cabbage, caiiUdower, or kholrabi ; " how 
the poisonous old peach of India becomes the luscious fruit iu our gardens ; 
how, " in short, the parts of even ornamental j.lants extend, those of 
flowers multiply aud reduplicate, and colours change, and vary, and 
improve under the magic touch of culture." We understand that since 
the close of the Exhibition, the interesting collection above described has 
been purchased for 70lW. (not much more than a tithe of what it cost), to 
form the nucleus of a Museum of Economic Botany about to be established 
at Kew. 

Products of Peat. — Sir K, Kane has presented a report on the chemical 
products of Irish peat. As to the products obtainable, he confirms, in a 
great measure, the statements put forth by the patentee, Mr. Reece, as will 
be seen from the subjoined table :^ 

From 1000 parts of Pe.it. Reece. Kane. 

Sulphate ammonia 1.000 1.110 

Acetate of lime 7oO .305 

Wood naphtha 185 .liO 

Paraffine . . . loi .125 

Fixed oils 7141 , ..q -• i 

Volatile oils 37o/ '-^'■'^ 

With the exception of the acetate of lime, the statements of Mr. Reece 
are evidently uot exaggerated, as to quantity. As regards the cost of 
production. Sir R. Kane considers that any absolute opinion would be 
premature. 

Fox's Magnetised Eal.\nce. One of the most interesting objects in the 
department of Philosophical Instruments, was Fox's magnetised balauce, 
capable, as is stated, of weighing to the y^j^oirtli "^ a grain : what is tho 
extreme weight which it will bear is uot mentioned. The most delicate 
balance previously in existence, that of the Institute of France, turns, we 
believe, with the ^,-5^th of a grain. Various other chemical balances, as by 
De Grave and Co., and especially one by Oertliug (performing to the yo'ooth 
of a grain, when loaded with 1000 grains, or Yoo'oijaat'i »'' tlie entire weight), 
are also worthy of notice. Several balances of foreign make (Luhme of 
Berlin) seem very carefully executed. It is to be regretted that these and 
various other articles for scientific purposes of foreign make could not 
have had their prices affixed for the information of the apparatus-buying 
public_ia England. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



THE ARTS OF DESIGN AND DECORATION. 



SCULPTURE. 
'"pHE works in sculpture exhibited in the Crystal Palace, although they 
contributed in no .small degree to the beautiful effect of the whole 
display, were not individually such as to exalt our opinion of the present 
state of thiit art, and we would fain hope did not pourtray existing art in 
its highest development. The contributions, both British and foreign, 
were miscellaneous, and 
to a gi'eat extent acci- 
dental ; and we must be- 
Ueve that, the announce- 
ment of the purely 
utilitarian character of 
the Exhibition, deterred 
many labourers in the 
higher fields of art from 
sending in works, which, 
though individually 
they would have done 
honour to themselves 
and the ai'ts of the 
coimtries to which they 
belonged, they fancied, 
might be overlooked or 
ill appreciated in the 
general gathering. 

Commencing our 
observations in this 
department with the 
British School, we ai'e 
bound to say, that a 
careful survey of the 
works in sculpture sent 
in for exhibition here, 
has by no means ele- 
vated our pre\'iou6ly 
entertained notions of 
the status of the plastic 
art in this country. 
The cause of this short- 
coming is a want of ap- 
preciation on the part of 
artists of the true ob- 
j ectsand destinies of art. 
Want of patronage is 
the common cr^^ with 
artists, as with actors 
and men of all pro- 
fessions who happen 
to fail of success com- 
meusui"ate with their 
own estimate of their 
merits. Like Dauae, 
the coy genius of sculp- 
tui"e is only to be 
won by a shower of 
gold ; forgetful that 
the shower of gold 
did not make Danae 
what she was when 
she attracted the dis- 
crimiiiatiiig gaze of tho 
Thunderer. Let our 
patronage-hunters iu 
the plastic art bear that 
in mind of the frail 
Danae, and let them 
also Consider whether 
the allegory might not 

with truth be carried a littie further, and the inducement of gold be 
shown to lead to the ruin of art, as it did of Dauae. But, indeed, 
as to the complaint of want of money-patronage, we consider it peculiarly 
uncalled-for as regards sculpture, which, having reference to the number of 
hands employed in it, is more lavishly lewarded than any other branch of 
art, to say nothing of the miserable crumbs which fall to the share of many 
more intellectual pursuits. St. Paul's and \\ e.>tinin.ster Abbey, in both of 
which whole mines of wealth have been distnbuted amongst the hewers of 
stone and the moulders of clay, are witnesses to what we assert. The 
squares, too, each has its costly bronze or marble occupant. The Nelson 
monument was no mean job after its kind — wliilst the Triumphal Arch 
comes like the rod of Aaron to swallow up all the jobs of the preceding 
half century. In short, is there a site of ground throughout the country 
where a testimony to departed worth can possibly be put up, which will 
not one of these dajs be bo occupied ! Is there a single issue of the Times 




TilE UUEIiK HUNTSMAN. — J, GIUSON. 



without a testimonial subscription list 1 The ancient Greeks, it is time, had 
their testimonial-mania; but their tributes were to gods, and heroes almost 
deified ; and the men employed in producing the.ie still unequalled works, 
brought to bear all the resources of their art in typifying, rather than 
embodying, the principal subject in the most perfect and appropriate forms 
a deep study of the human figure could suggest, with only such an amount 
of accessorial decoration as might be absolutely necessai-y to indicate the 
character and state of the personage represented. We, having no plurality 
of gods to worship, no old historic heroes to engross our wonder and 
exhaust the resources of our art, too generally content ourselves with mere 

imitations of gross hu- 
manity, individualising 
nature in her thousand 
imperfect manifesta- 
tions, and completing 
each new portraiture 
ivith the addition of 
details which high art 
would disdain to notice. 
Upon this point we 
find some appropriate 
observations, so judi- 
ciously aud so ably 
stated by Sir C. L. 
Eastlake, P.R.A., in ai 
paper inserted in the 
appendix to the Third 
Report of the Commis- 
sioners on the Fine Arts 
(1844), tliat we readily 
quote them, in pre- 
ference to enlarging, 
upon the subject iui 
weaker language of our 
ovra : — 

" The colour of white 
marble, which, it ap- 
peal's, m.ay sometimes 
increase the illusion of 
drapery, is not the only 
quality by means of 
which some substances 
may resemble nature 
more literally tlian the 
marble flesh can. The 
qualities of smoothness, 
of hardness, of polish, 
of sharpness, of rigidity, 
may be perfectly ren- 
dered by murble. It is 
not easy to conceive a 
greater accumulation of 
difficulties for a sculp- 
tor aiming at the specific 
style of liis art to con- 
tend with, than the 
representation of a pei-- 
snuage in the modern 
military dress. The 
smoothness aud white- 
ness of leather belts, 
and other portions of | 
the dres'', may be imi- 
tated to illusion in 
white and smooth mar- 
ble. The polish, the 
hardness, and sharpness 
of metal, and the rigi- 
dity even of some softer 
m.aterials. are all quali- 
ties easily to be attained 
in stone ; yet the white 
marble flesh is required to be nearest to nature, though surrounded by 
rival substances that, in many cases, may become absolute fac-similes of 
their originals. The consequence of the direct and unrestrained imi,tatiou 
of the detaih in question is, that the flesh, however finished, looks petrified ^ 
and colourlc--s, for objects of very inferior importance, even to tlie buttons, 
are much nearer to nature. Tho objection to the.se details, from their 
unpleasant or unmeaning forms, is here left out of the account. 

" The boldness \s-ith which the ancient sculptors overcame similar difii- 
culties is rem.irkable. Thus, to take an extreme case, rocks, which in marble 
can be easily made identical -.vith nature (thereby betraying the incomplete- 
ness of the art in other respects), are generall}' conventional in fine sculpture ; 
witness the b;usso-relievo of Perseus and Andromeda, and various examples 
in statues where rocks are introduced for the support of the figure. In 
order to reduce literal reality to the conditions of art, the substance, in this 
instance, is, so to speak, uuoharaeterised : the same liberty is observable 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDIA OF THE CHEAT EXIITBITION OF 1«.-1. 



n 



in Boiilpturod nrniour 08 
troateti by tho iiiicieiits ; 
HharpnosH iw avoided, and 
tho poliHli does not Hur- 
pass, soniotiincs dooa not 
equal, tliat of tho flesh. 
In liko maniior, HtcpK, or 
any jxn'tionH of architoc- 
turo, ai'o irro^dar, and 
not gconiotrieally true 
in their lines and ansloa : 
on a similar principle, 
probably, the inscriptions 
on tho finest antique mo- 
dala are rudely formed ; 
for it cannot bo supposed 
that the artists who could 
treat the figures and 
licad« HO exquisitely, 
could have been at a loss 
to execute mechanical 
details with presision." 

Now mark the contrast 
between the past and 
tho present. Whilst the 
ancient sculptors were so 
engrossed with the di- 
viner part of their work, 
the living figure, that 
they studiously avoided 
the too accurate delinea- 
tion of subordinate ob- 
jects, whether of decora- 
tion or adjunct, lest by 
comparison these should 
detni^ct from tho vrai^eiHr 
hlancc of the former ; 
modem sculptoi's, begin- 
ning too often with the 
most humble attempts at 





\ BRA69 CANDEI.-VBRni. — POTTS. 



rXA AND TUK LIOX. — JOHN Bin.!.. 

seval Court, pointed significantly to 
the retrograde path of art. The 
first object that struck us iu the 
centre, at the extreme end, was a 
statue iu marble of her Majesty, by 
Francis, which unhappily illusti-ated 
many of the eiTors of judgmput 
and of taste we have suggested iu 
the preceding paragraphs. The 
head is as singularly devoid of 
dignity as the figure is of grace, 
being indeed completely buried in 
the cumbersome trappings of Roj'- 
alty ; the artist having made no 
effort to contend with the natural 
heaviness of his material, by indi- 
cating through it the bearing of the 
limbs. On either side of this figure 
wore two other productions by dif- 
ferent ai'tists, which afford examples, 
though not in equal degree of tur- 
pitude, of the diversion of the 
scvilptor's art to sxibjects altogether 
unworthy of and inappi-opriate to it. 
One of these, which is by Mr. T. E. 
Jones, presented a very rough, but 
not very truthful, portrait of a Shet- 
land ponj', upon whose back two 
children are seated, whilst a third, 
scrambling on the gi'ound, offers to 
feed it; a full-gi'own Scotch deer- 

CANDELAERA, BY POTTS. 

The bi-ass and bronze work ex- 
hibited by Potts, of Birmingham, 
was justly ranked with the very best 
things of their kind, and have ob- 
tained for the producer a Prize 
Medal, with, in addition, a memoran- 
dum of "special approbation ;" 
an honour, howevei', which he has 
repudiated. The two candelabi'a 
which we engrave, one of which is 
called the " Stork Candelabrum," are 
very elegant and tasteful in design. 



portraiture, and other 
fcranchcH of imitative art, 
are content tn atone for 
tho lamentable nliort' 
fallings of the living part 
of their subject by tho 
slavish copying of a )Ait- 
ton-hole, or a leather 
strap, or worsted hose. 
And have they not their 
aflmirers 1 Undoubtedly 
they have, and the name 
of them is legion — a pub- 
lic who will stare and 
wonder at the workman- 
like finish of a helmet or 
a jack -boot, but have no 
appreciation of tho sub- 
lime inspiration evinced 
in the various speaking 
and all but breathing 
relics of the antique. 

It would appear, there- 
fore, that, as between 
artists and the public 
there are faults on both 
sides, which, when they 
both begin to understand 
what is worthy of them, 
may gradually be re- 
moved. With these gene- 
ral obser%'ations, we now 
proceed to remark upon 
some of the works in the 
Sculpture Gallery of the 
Hyde Pai'k Exposition. 

Tho Sculpture Room 
was a small, ill-lighted, 
and overcrowded apart- 
ment,which,being entered 
through the gaudy Medi- 




TUE STORK CANDELABRUM. — POTT.^, 



78 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



hound completes the already redundant group, which is obviously bon-owed 
from Landseer, and spoiled." The other subject referred to is Mr. Bell's " Una, 
as Pui-ity." The famale figure, which is of a common-place character, is 
seated upon a shaggy lion, which has evidently been the chief object of the 
artist's solicitude. In order to distract attention still further from what 
ought to be the principal subject, Mr. Bell has decorated the king of the 
forest vrith a wreath of flowers, elaborately finislied, and iu remarkably 
lugh relief, tlie coronals picked out with yellow, which not only covers the 
neck and mane, but extends behind the female figiu-e round to the animal's 
stern, upon which a dove is perched, whilst a single rose occupies a prominent 
position in the I'oreground of tlie base. Could the force of ingenuity go 
fuvtber to destroy tne " purity " of a composition 1 In another part of the 
room. Mr. Bell's "Babes in the "Wood" exhibits a similar instance of 
mischievous ingenuity : heaps of leaves, and a branch of a tree, upon 
which is perched a bird, being prominent above tlie principal objects, and 
breaking the graceful outline which in works of sculptm-e is a condition 
essential to a beauty. 

Still more glaring instances of ignorance of the higher purposes and 
legitimate resources of the sculptor's art are to be found iu Sharp's plaster 
gi-oup, "Christ's Charge to Peter," wliere tlie sheep and a bunch of keys 
are the actualities of the piece, the figures exliibiting a lamentable ignorance 
of the structure of the human body ; and in " Christ bearing his Cross," 
where the sculptor has introduced an absolute wooden cross, some seven 
or eight feet long, which could not have been carried in the way he has 
placed it in the arms of his figure. We notice these productions, not for 
any pleasure of faultfinding, but for tlie purpose of emphatically pointing 
out to tj}e thou.sands who have visited this room, and who may read these 
line--, ^ hat to avoid. 

Against the walk are two large bas-reliefs by Mr. Carew, which exhibit 
considerable merit of intention, though with much of the qiiality and 
weakness, and. perhaps, we might add, carelessness in the execution. The 
iirst in importance is " The Descent from the Cro.ss," of whicli it is remarked, 
that, although it covers a very largo space, the interest of the scene is 
confined to a very limited portion of the base. Tlie upper part is occupied 
by the cross, and an indication of rays of light, wliich, pephaps, the artist 
designed to turn to effective account on the execution of the work iu bronze 
or marble, but which, it must be obvious, only colour or gilding could 
realise. Mr. C:irew has sliown less anxiety to find subject-matter to fill his 
ground than Rubens, iu his great work, on the same subject, thougli the 
latter had all the resources of his florid pencil to fly to, and could have 
occupied the whole of the upper part of his canvass with aerial effects, had 
he been so minded. In the principal group of Mr. Carew's work, the head 
of Christ stands out with remarkable effect, the light fedling upon it so as 
to give it all the palor of death. The heads of the Apostles ai'e of less 
merit, and dissapoint us by the utter want of sympathy and veneration 
which they betray for the precious burthen in their liands. They are all 
looking off the picture, in a downward direction, as if calculating the steps 
by which they are to descend in safety. The female figures, also, which 
are a good deal scattered, appear to be each so overwhelmed with her own 
pai'ticular grief, that they none of them sliow any solicitude about the divine 
object which has brought them together, and no sympathy for one another. 
The boy on his right is an intruder. The consequence is a want of ensemble, 
to say nothing of a want of truthfulness to nature,(which must considerably 
militate against the success of tiie piece. Mr. Carew has very abundantly 
draped his figures, but he he has done it in that broad massive style, which 
is sometimes very effective in painting, bnt which, is always heavy in 
sculpture, and suggests the suspscion that it has been resorted to to avoid 
the trouble of going into anatomical details. The " Baptism of Christ," 
3Ir. Carew.s other bas-relief, is less elaborate and ambitious than the pre- 
ceding work, consisting, as it does, of two figures only. Still, in these two, 
■we perceive a want of judjment — the build of the limbs being brawny, not 
to say hea\"y, a cheraeter, quite out of keeping with the personages repre- 
sented, while chore is little attempt at dignity to realise the sublime poetry 
of the scene. Mr. Carew is more at home in his smaller work, a pla-ster 
figure of " AMiittiugton." The face is very expressive, as in the act of 
listening to the distant sound of Bow bells. In the costume, however, 
there is the same shirking of difficulties, the wliole figure being buried in 
coat and trousers of the thickness and unyeilding texture of leather. 

Mr. Evan Thomas's bas-relief, " Tlio Spirit of Science unveiling Ignorance 
and Prejudice," has m.any pleasing and creditable features ; as, for instance, 
the diizzled and awe-struck expression of *' Ignorance," at the moment of 
being unveiled before the light of trutli, and the sitting figure of " Prejudice," 
wrapped in a thick and impenetrable cloak beneath. The rest is rather 
commonplace, particularly tlie figures of the two youths receiving instruc- 
tion, on the other side of the picture, and who do not sufBcienly balance 
the composition. 

In the " Greek Hunter," by John Gibson, which is exhibited by its owner, 
Lord Yarborough, we have no crude imitation of nature, which artists often 
copy without understanding what nature is, or should be ; here is evuiced 
a mature study, a ripe appreciatiou of tlio best classic models, which after 
all, in the present state ot art. are the be.^t and surest types of excellence. 
In physique, the model is well chosen for the subject, nervous, wily, and 
athletic. The muscular development is carefully studied, and without 
exaggeration : the intent and animated expression of the face is ti-ue to the 
cecasion ; and the general finish of the flesh texture — mark alone that above 
the instep of the riglit foot — approaches perfection. We need not despair 
of excellence in the higher walks of art, when such works as this come from 
British hands. 



AWARDS.-TH E COU NCIL MEDALS. 

UNCLASSIFIED COUNCIL MEDALS. 

His ROY.S.L Highness Prince Albert, for the original conception and 
successful prosecution of the idea of the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
joint medal with that granted for the Model Lodging House iu 
Class VIL 

Chamber of Commerce, Lyons, for the collection which it eshil:>its, in 
which is shown the general progress made, thfotigh theif exertions iu 
the silk manufactures at Lyons. 

East India Company, the Hon.. for the very valuable and extpnsive collec- 
tion, illustratiug the natural resources and manufactures of India. 

Egypt, the Pacha of, for the very valuable aud extensive collection, illus- 
trating the manufactures and natural resources of Egypt. 

French Minister of War, for the part taken by him in exhibiting the valuable 
collection of raw productions from Algeria. 

Spain, the Government of for the valuable and extensive collection of rtiw 
products, showing the natural resources of iSpain. 

Tunis, the Bey of, for the very valuable and extensive collection, illustrating 
the manufactures and natural resources of Tunis. 

Turkey, the Government of, for the valuable and extensive collection of raw 
products, showing the natural resources of Turkey. 

THIiT COUNCIL MEDAL. 
JoRT I. — Mining and Mineral Products. 

Berard and Co., process for washing and purifying coals. 

Brockedon, W., Cumberland lead, condenser and blocks. 

Estivant Brothers, brass of superior quality. 

Gutler, W., treatment of arsenical ores, and the extraction of gold from them. 

Kleist. Baron Von, iron of superior cpiality aud manufaeture. 

Krupp, Fried, east steel of superior quality. 

Pattiuson, H. L., process of treating lead ores, and separating silver from lead. 
Jury II. — Chemical and Pharmaceutical PRODUcrs. 

Ouimet, J. B., artificial ultramarine. 

Larderol, Count F. de, boracic acid, and method of preparing it. 

Longmaid, W., Class I., process for treating copper pyrites with common 
salt. 

Prat and Agard, salts of potash, and other products of sea water. 
JuiiY III. — Substances used as Food. 

Borden, Gail, juu., for the prop.iration called "meat biscuit." 

Darblay, — , juu., for the gruaux and household ilour, of very fine quality, 
obtained by his novel and economical process. 

Grar, N. and Co., for the sugar obtained from beet-root by the Barytic 
process. 

Lawson, Peter, and Son, for their admirably displayed, very complete, 
instnictivc, and scientifically-arranged collection of the vegetable pro- 
ducts of Scotland. 

Masson, E., for dried vegetables prepai'ed by his new aud economical 
process. 

Serret, Hamoir, Duquesne, and Co., for beet-root sugar, procured by a 
method, the result of which is to save valuable substances previously 
lost in the manufacture," and consequently to reduce materially the 
price of the sugar itself. 

Jury IV. — Substances used in Manufactdees. 

Belfast Flax Improvement Society, The Royal, the persevering and successful 
efforts to improve the quality of the fibre of flax, as illustrated by the 
series of specimens exhibited. 

Graux, Jean Louis, de Mauehamp, the origination of a new and valuable 
quality of wool, giving to the variety of merino the best quality for 
combing, and possessing increased strength, brilliancy, and fineness of 
fibre. 

Grcnet, L. F., a now and improved mode of obtaining a pure, inodorous, 
and colourless gelatine from the refuse parts of animals, and valuable 
aii<l diversified modes of applying the materials, as illustrated in the 
collection exhibited, 

Mercer, John, Class XVIII., the process of modifying the fibre of cotton by 
the action of caustic alkali, whereby its physical and chemical proper- 
ties are altered and improved in a most remarkable manner. 

Popelin Ducarre, for the novel and economical mode of preparing vegetable 

charcoal from the small branches of trees, .and from annual plants. 

Jury V. — Machines and Mechanism. 

Appold, J. G., a centrifugal pump, with curved veins. 

Cockerill, J., pair of 140-horse power vibrating cylinder engines for river 
navigation ; a locomotive engine ; an oscillating cylinder 3-horse power 
hmd engine; tubular boiler; a vertical cylinder 16horse power land 
engine. The award is made for the whole. 

Craniptoii, T. R., two passenger locomotive engines. 

Dunn, T., a railway traversing frame. 

Fromont and Son, a double turbine. 

Penn, John, and Son, two pair of compact marine engines, of light constmc- 
tion, for small vessels. 

Jury VI. — Manufactured Machines and Tools.' 

Barlow, A., j.acquard loom, with two cylinders, simultaneously raising ancl 
lowering the suspended wires. 

Call and Co., vacuum apparatus for the manufacture of sugar. 

Douisthorpo, G. E., double wool-combing machine. 



AN TLLTTSTRATTID CYCLOPvEDIA OF TIIK OREAT I'lXTITRTTTOX OF 1851. 



70 



Honkin, H., aiul C'n., paper mncliinory. 

Dick, r)., varioiirt (Mi^iiKirr's tn<rlM and pressrs. 

i'airlKiini, \V.. and Suns, rivetiiiK nmcliino, and a corn-mill. 

Hockniann. ('., vaciiiini appamtua for tlio niiinufacturo nfeugai'. 

Ilcniiiiini, (■., a Hct uf rhoccilate niachinCf^. 

liicli, J!., and .Son, mill ^jcarinK, radial drill, ongioecr'n inndiino tools, hn- 

]iruvfd nuuidrilU. ))(irtablo fort;c«. 
liibliert, I'lalt, and Hon.s, a complete scrips of marliincH employed In tho 
clcatiiiiK. proparation, and npinning of c-ottun, wliowing tho wliolo pro- 
cess, to the weaving incluKivo. 
Lawaon, H., aud Souk, nnmeriuia machine.s employed for tho preparation of 

llax. 
Mason, J., woollen combing-macliine, also .•slubliitig and nving frames). 
Maudslay, Sons, and Field, coining press, acting by an eccentric. 
Morcier, A., and Co., macliinery for carding Mid .spinning woolg. 
Xiusmyth, J., and Co., »team lianinier. 
I'arker, 0. K.. and 0., power-loom f(jr weavinf? sailulotli. 
I'ontife.K and Wood, vacnnm apparatus for tho manufacture of sugar, in 

copper luul brass. 
Heed, T. 8.. aud ('o., new powor-loom for weaving fringes without shuttlos. 
llisler, M.. Fils, ICpur.itor, a machine for cloiuisiug and preparing cotton for 

Bpinnin^. 
Sharp ISrothers and Co., largo double lathe for railway wheels, slotting 
miichine, .and other engineer's machine tools, also a bcautifully-ooll- 
stiMictcd ring and traveller throstle. 
IThlhorn. II., coining pre.^.i. 

Whitwortli. ,!., and Co., a largo colleetion of engineer.?' machine tools of all 
kinds, screw stocks, standard gauges, and a Imitting machine; also his 
machine for mea.suring less th.au the 200.000th part of au inch. 
JuiiY VII. — Architectdbb and Buildiso. 
11' Royal IliL^hnoss Prince Albert, model lodging house. Joint modal to ! 
that grantcil for tho original conception aud successful prosecution of | 
tho Eshibiti.in of 1851. 
l'"-i and Henderson, great building, for the execution. 
I' '-.(..n. .losopli, gi-eat building, for the design. 

JuKY VIII. — N.u'.vL Ari'Hitecture, Military En-gineerino, &c. 
' 'uiiralty, for hyth-ogi-aphio charts, aud for tho models of the .ships con- 
structed by them. 
1 '> iMrtemeut dcs Cartes de la Marine, hydi'ographio siu-voys, and maps of 

Finance. Algei'ia, Africa, and Corsica. 
Drpi'it de la Guerre a Paris, gi-eat topographical map of France. 
Geological Survey Departniont of Great Britain, Class I., for their geological 

surveys and maps of tho United Kingdom. 
Duke of >fortliumbcrknd, for h<a\-ing eau.sed a large number of models of 
life-boats to be designed, with the view to obtaining the best fona of 
boat for the preserv.ition of life and property in cases of shipwreck. 
Ecole des Jlines t Paris, geological map of France. 

Ordnance Department of England, for the illustrations of the great Ordnance 
surveys of Great Britain, for the copper-plate etchings, and electrotype 
process. 
Military Topographical Department of Au,9tria, for their survey and detailed 

maps of the country in and around Vienna, ami of Italy. 
Sir W. Snow Harris, for his .system of lightning eondnctors attached to the 
masts and hulls of ships, which have been for several years in general 
use in tho navy, as a means of preserving life and property from the 
effects of lightning. 

Jury IX. — Agriculture and Horticulture. 
Busby, AV., two or four horse plough, horse hoe on the ridge, ribbing coru- 

drill, and cart. 
Croskm, ^\., Norwegian harrow, meal-mill, cart, clod cnisher, and gorse 

bruiser. 

Garrett and Sou.s, horse-hoe, general purpose drill, 4-row turnip drill on 
the flat, improved hand barrow drill for grass seeds, steam-engine, and 
thrashing machine. 
Hornsby and Sous, corn and seed-drill, drop drill, 2-row turnip drill on the 

ridge, oil-cake bruiser, steam-engine. 
M'Cormick, C. H., reaping machine. 

,TuRY X. — Philosophical I>-.=trume>,-ts. 
A., electric telegraph, 
ewell, F., copying electric telegraph. 
iond, Wm. and Son, for the invention of a now mode of observing astrono- 
mical phenomena, &c. 
lOurdon, E., for the invention of metallic barometers, and for his mano- 
meters. 
3rett, J., printing telegraph. 

Irooke, C, for the invention of a means of self-registering natural pheno- 
mena, by photogi-aphy. 
uckle, ,S., Class XXX., for his photographs on paper. 
Buron. for his good telescopes, the object glass being of rock ci-ystal. 
"'hance Brothers. Cla.ss XXIV., a disc of flint glass, 29 inches diameter. 
31audet., A. F., for his several inventions based upon experiments in the 

practice of photography ; and for his non-iuvei*ted pictures. 
Daguet, T , for the superiority of glass for optical purposes, good specific 

gr.avity, clear ; crown glass as clear as flint, 
f'elguil, L. .J., for his balance air-pump ; aud for the invention of an 
arrangement to keep the charcoal points in electric light at a con.stant 
distance. 



DoUond, a , for atmospheric rocor'ler, by means of which tho reading of 
tho barometer, tho.soof the tliermomctor cvapoMtor, fall of rain, d'lrec- 
tion of tlio wind, ii« strength, electric «tato of tho air, tc, arc dimul- 
ianoously rogiHtered, 

DuboM) Hulcil, J., for a vory Ingenious heliostat, on a new conrttruction, by 
,Silbprman ; the invention of an apparatus for fixing the charcoal points 
for electric light; a sacchanjineter of dclicatu structuro and much 
Injronuity, and an elegant and novel Instrument, by Brevaiii, for 
oxlilbltlug the phenomena of polarised light. 

Dunin, Count, E.. for tlie extraorduiary application of inccluniiim to his 
steel expanding figure of a man. 

Fromcnt, O., for tho goodnoaa of tho work of his theodolites aud divided 
metre. 

Gonnollii, Professor T., pl.anometpr, a machine for meanuring piano Rurfaces. 

Griffith. J., for his barometer, with a vacuum capable of complete restora- 
tion by an air-trap at the top. 

Henley, \V. T., for his convenient and ingenious application of magnetic 
electricity to tho purpose of electric telegraphs. 

Logeman, \V. M., for the o.Tcallence of the magnets shown by him. 

Martens, F., for his talhotyiies on glass by tho alhuminoas proccsu. 

Merz and Sons, equatorial, combining cheapness with excellence of work- 
manship. 

Newman, J., for tho originality, excellence, and perfection of his air-pumps 
and self registering tide gauge 

Oortling, L., for very delicate large .and .small balances. 

Quonnessen, a platina alembic, to liolJ 250 pints, all in one piece, without 
solder or seam, Ac. 

Ross, A., for groat improvements in microscopes, and for the solidity of 
structure, good mechanism, and distribution of strength, great aize,tc., 
of his large equatorial. 

Rosa and TIiom"on, Class XXX., for great improvements in photography. 

Siemfus and Halsko, electric telegraph. 

.Smith and Beck, for excellence of their microscopes. 

Taurines, dynanoraeter. 

A'idie, for the invention of the aneroid barometer. 

JoRY' Xa. — Musical Ixstrumext.s. 

Boehm, T., for import.aut scientific improvements of the flute, and tho suc- 
cessful application of his principles to other wiml instruments. 

Ducroquet, P. A., for his application of the pneumatic lever to a church 
organ. 

Erai'd, P., for his peculiar mechanical actions applied to pianofortes and 
harps. 

Gray and Davidson, for their invention in organ building, of a new method 
of connecting the great organ with the s well organ by means of a ped;il 
and of a new stop called the keraulophon. 

Hill and Sou, invention of a stO|j of great power, and for their mode of 
shifting the stops by means of keys. 

Sax, A., for his invention of several classes of ^viud instruments in wood 
and metal. 

Vuillaume, J. B.. for new modes of making violins, in such a manner that 
they are matured and perfected immediately on the completion of the 
manufacture, thus avoiding the necessity of keeping them for consi- 
derable periods to develope their excellencies. 

Willis, H., for his application to organs of an improved exhausting valve to 
the pneumatic lever, the application of pneumatic levei-s in a compound 
form, and the invention of a movement in connexion therewith for 
facilitating the cU-awing of stops either singly or in connexion. 
Jury Xb. — Clock Work. 

Dent, E. J., for his large turret clock, on account of the combination of 
strength and accuracy of time-keeping attained in it. which are also 
accomplished by a cheaper mode of construction than in other turret- 
clocks of high character. 

Japy Brothers, clock aud watch movements made by machinery, much 
cheaper than by anj- other movement aud equally good. 

Lutz, C, for his watch balance springs, which were submitted by the jury 
to the test of stretching out and heating without affecting their 
form. 

Wagner, J., Neveu, for his clock with a continuous motion for driving tele- 
scopes, and for his collection of turret-clocks, which on the whole dis- 
play great fertility of invention. 
Juries XI. — Cotton Manufactures. XII. Woollen. XIII. Silk and 
Velvet. XIV. — Flax and Hemp. 
Xo Council Medal. 
A large number of the smaller medals were awarded. 
Jury XV. — Mixed Fabrics. 
Deneirouse, E., Bois-Glavy, and Co., the discovery of a new and important 
process in the production of elaborate designs. 

Jury XVI. — Leather, Skins, &c. 

No Council Medal. 

Jury XVII. — Printing, &c. 

Vienna, Imperial Court and Printing Office, novelty of invention, and 

the number of new combinations in the art of typogi'aphy. 

Jury XVIII. — Dyed and Printed Fabrics. 

No Council Medal. 

Jury XIX. — Tapestry, Lace, &c. 

Ball, DuunicUffe, and Co., velvet and Simla lace, being new patented fabric 



80 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 




STOVE — JOBSON AND CO., SHEFFIELD, 



suitable for shawls, dresses, and for various ornamental and useful 
purposes, and of great commercial importance, also for imitation 
Valenciennes lace, black and 
■white point tulle, of gi'eat 
merit. 

Gobelin Tapestry, French GoTem- 

. ment manufactory of, for origi- 
nality and beauty of design of 
the different specimens exhi- 
bited for furniture, and the 
extraordinary excellence of ex- 
ecution of most of the produc- 
tions exhibited. 

JcRT XX. — Articles of 

Clothing. 

Ko Coimcil Medal. 

JnRT XXI. — Cutlery and 
Tools. 
Spear and Jackson, Class XXII., 
for exhibition of circular saws, 
and particularly one 60 inches 
in diameter, of marked and 
very superior excellence, ma- 
nufactured by a process of pecu- 
liar merit, the result of a novel 
application of meclianical inge- 
nuity, recently effected by them- 
selves. 

JuRT XXII.— Iron and Gene- 
BAL Hardware. 

Andre, J. P. V., for iron fountain 
in nave, and the design of the 
alligator and fish fountain. 

Aubanel, J., casting of animals, 
and gUt cast iron door. 

Barbedienne, F., and Co., joint medal with Class XX'VI., sculpture in 
metal, bronzes. &c. 

Coalbrook Dale Company, cast iron statues, new method of bronzing 
steel grates, and dia- 
mondflooringforsteam 
engines. 

Hardman and Co., ec- 
clesiastical brass 
work. 

Hoole. Robson, & Hoole, 
for drawing-room steel 
grates. 

Matifat, C. S., original de- 
signs in bronze. 

Miller, Ford, casting in 
bronze of colossal lion, 
and statues of Libussa, 
and George I. of Bohe- 
mia. 

Jlinister of Trade for the 
Koyal Prussian Foun- 
dry, three va.ses, and 
candelabra, with a 
group of figures, in ca^t 
iron. 

Societe des Mines Zinc, 
do la Vieille 
Jlontague, 
specimens of 
zinccastingH. 

Stuart and 
Smith,draw- 
ing - room 
grates on 
.S y 1 V e ster's 
patent, and 
the novel ap- 
plication of a 
revolving ca- 
nopy invent- 
ed by Laurie. 
Winfield, R. W., brass foundry work, 
rolled pillars, and chandeliers. 

JcKY XXIII. — Precious Metals and Jewellery. 
Elkington, Mason, and Co., artistic application of the electrotype. 
Froment, Meurice, centre-pieces, representing globe surmounted by deities. 
Garrard, R. and S., and Co., artistic plate and jewellery. 
Guej-ton, A., the variety he exhibits, and his electro-plating. 



tiles. 




^TOv^:. — fkatiiam, clhfmiiu sT[tK.i;T 



and metallic bedstead, with taper 



Hancock, C. F., originality and taste in his exhibits. 
Himt and Eoskell, v.oae in repousse by Vechti. 

Jury XXIV. — Glass. 
Mayes, M., novelty of chemical 
application. 

Jdry XXV. — Ceramic Manu- 
factures. 

Minton, H., and Co., new applica- 
tion and beauty of design. 

Se\Tes Manufactory, high art. 

Jury XXVI.— Furniture De- 
corations. 

Barbedienne and Co., ebony book- 
case, mounted with bronze. 
Joint medal with Class XXII. 

Delicourt, E., paper hangings. 

Fourdinois, A. G., carved side- 
board of walnut-wood. 

Leistler, C, and Son, carved fur- 
niture in four rooms. 

Lienard, M. J., clock case and 
other articles. 

Jury XXVII. — Mineral Manu- 
facture. 
Barberi, The Cavaliere, a table in 

Roman mosaic. 
Demidoff, Mes.srs., malachite ma- 
nufactured into various articles 
of furniture and decoration. 
Society for Improving the Condi- 
tion of the Labouring Classes, 
sundry improvements in the 
construction of bricks, and the 
improvements of habitations 
for labouring classes. 
Minton, H., and Co., encaustic 
Joint medal with that given to H. Minton and Co., in Class XXV. 
Jury XXVIII. — India Rubber, &c. 
Gutta Percha Company, The, gutta percha. 

Goodyear, C, India i-ub- 

ber. 
Mackintosh audCo., India 
rubber. 

Jury XXIX.— Miscel- 
laneous. 

Constantin, J. Marques, 
flowei"s in cambric. 

Milly, L. A. de, invention 
of practical methods of 
using lime in the manu- 
facture of stearic can- 
dles, and the use of bo- 
i"acic acid in the pre- 
paration of wicks. 

Jtry XXX. — Sculp- 
ture, &c. 
Kiss, A., the Amazon, cast 

in zinc and bronzed. 
Marochetti, Baron, Out- 
side, West, Richard 
Crcurde Lion, in plaster, j 
Pradier, J., 
Phrync, in 
marble. 
"Wyatt, the late 
Richard J., 
Jlain Ave- 
nue, East, 
Glycera, in 
marble. 

ORNAMKNT.IL 
STOVIiS. 

England ha-s 
certainly dis- 
tanced'all com- 
petitors in this 
important branch of hardware, including the manufacture of stoves, fenders, 
&c. In taste of design, crispuess of casting, and colour of the metal, our 
principal manufactures, both in Sheffield and London, leave nothing to be 
desired. The stove by Jobson and Co. is a very elegant production, after the 
new semi-spherical fashion, wliich has peculiar properties of throwing out 
heat. — Featham, of Clifford Street, has several choice and curious works in 
the Elizabethan and medieval styles; not the least so is this very handsome 
stove, of admirable workmanship highly polished, and enriched with or-molu. 




ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPEDIA 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION 




MODEL HOUSES FOR THE LABUUKINU CLASSES, EXHIBITED BY I'KINX'E ALBERT. 



PRINCE ALBERTS MODEL HOUSES FOR FAMILIES. 

pEW who visited the wonders of wealth and industry exhibited within 
the Crystal Palace, can have passed unnoticed a small block of neat, 
iheerful-looking houses, newly-erected, which stand at the side of the drive, 
I little west of the Barracks, and not far from the south entrance of the 
■reat Exhibition. These were the philanthropic work of the Prince 
Consort ; who, in the midst of the splendid attractions of a court, and the 
jursuits of science and art m their higher branches, has not disdained to 
ive a careful consideration to the condition of the hardworking artisan, 
n the humbler fields of industry. It was an intervention which was much 
,nted, which humanity had loudly called out for in vain, as all know 
vho have inspected the abodes of the industrious and poorer classes, not 
>nly in the crowded city, but in the rural village ; for neglect for the 
iufferings of others, and a niggardly denial of the essentials of health, 
cleanliness, and comfort, have been equally m.anifcsted in the town and 
provincial districts throughout the country. 

This has long been a crying evil, but too long only heard as the wail of 
the lowly and defenceless, .and dependent classes, whicli found no way into 
No. 6, November 8, 3851. 



the cat's, much less into the hearts, of those who shnuld have heard their 
complaint, and solaced their rugged course of life, by all means reasonably 
within their power. It was not until half-a-dozen years ago that the sani- 
tary condition of the poorer classes was forced upon the attention of the 
Legislature and the Government, as a matter worthy of public consi- 
deration ; and the pleadings of the humane and the warnings of the wise 
having been fearfully supjiorted and confirmed by that providential scourge, 
the cholera, a Boar-d of Health was appointed, with certain powers, which 
have already been put in course of caiTving into operation in nearly two 
hundred populous districts, with already very important and salutary 
results. The disclosures made by the Inspectoi-s appointed by this Board, 
as to the wretched home accommodation of tlie poorer classes, which 
existed as a rule, with scarcely any exception, throughout the kingdom ; 
the utter want of drainage, of water supply, of the ordinaiy precautions for 
the means of personal cleanliness, and the denial of the breath of life, 
through a wholesale and almost wilful neglect of ventilation, were such as 
to startle many even of those inhabitants of the very towns in which theso 
flagrant evils existed. The consequences upon the health of communities 
were al.-;o shown to bo most serious, excessive mortality existing in some 

PiucE OsE Penky. 



82 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



^X 




places to the extent of being two and tliivc fold what, with ordinary sanitai-y 
lirecaution, it might fairly be expected t.) be : two and three fold what it 
aetnally was in some other districts more happily circumstanced.* Added 
to this, the chai'ge upon the pubUc purse in the cases of sickness, of 
widows and orphans left to burthen the pai-ish, of labour lost by temporary 
incapacity during illness ; and a case was made out which convinced all 
cool anddispassionate individuals that it was the wealthy who had a direct 
pecuniary interest in the he:ilth of the poor; and that as regarded health 
itself, they were not altogether exempt from participation in the sufi'erings 
of their fellows— the pai-ting breath of the dying pauper not unfrequently 
poisoning the atmosphere of his richer neighbour. 

Upon this subject, also, contemporaneously with tlie inspections of the 
Board of Health, the correspondents df some of the morning papers — more 
particularly the Muming Chronicle — lent their iiseful aid, and brought in a 
vast mass of coiToborative evidence, thus giving increased publicity to iiiicts 
already too well established in professional and official quarters. 

The Journal last mentioned states, in a recent article; — "A couple of 
yeai-s ago our corre.sjioudents in the metropolitan, agiicultnral, and manu- 
faoturing districts, painted a succession of the most melancholy pictures of 
the wretched and degradmg tenements in which the poor are lodged, both 
in town and country — in London alleys and manufacturing suburbs, and 
in inu-al lanes. The dens of lodging-houses in the great towns — the cellars 
and garrets where thousands of unhappy creatures are penned, sometimes 
three and fotu" in a bed, and very often without the least distinction of 
sex — have been amply described in letters portraying the east end of 
London and the huge and swarming towns of Lancashire ; while the hovels 
and dilapidated cottages which stud the agricultural districts, particulai-ly 
in the south and west of Engl.and, have been sketched in colours 
just .OS dismal. Turning back to our files of a couple of seasons 
ago, we find column after colnnm, and letter after letter, devoted 
to the exposition of the miserable, the worse than savage con- 
dition of the dwelling accommodation of a great portion of the 
peasantry of Entdand. We read again and again accounts of 
cottages ciiirnbling into ruins — the cold wind blowing iu at every 
chink and cranny — the rain sopping the nmd flooring— the dung- 
hill overflowing, and sending its fcetid juice in streams across 
the threshold. AVc read of bed rooms immediately beneath the 
putrid and leaking thatch —of bed-room.> in which a whole family, 
father, mother, adult and infant children, young men and young 
women, all slept tog'.'ther like so many pigs in a sty ; of cot- 
tage accommodation, iu fact, which made us wonder how there 
was any natural decency and feeling, or human restraint of 
behaviour left amid a gi'eat proportion of our rur.al population. Iu many 
part.s of England it is perfectly clear that tho people are not better, perhaps 
they are wor^e, lodged than they wev under the Plautagenets and the 
TuJors. No dwelling can by possibility be worse tlian a ricketty cottage, open 
to every wind of heaven, admitting r.ain throush roof and wall, a diingliill 
piled before the door, and men and women, children and parents, lying down 
to sleep together on ragged mattrasses and straw iu the same fcetid, unventi- 
lated room. Indeed we suspect that in many cases the condition of our 
nu-al population is even worse than it was in the days of the most despotic 
of our early Norman kings, because a greater proportional amount of rent is 
squee3e<l out for accommodation in nowise l^otter than that possessed by the 
'villains' and the 'vavlets' of the good old tim<=s. Rents have risen, in 
fact, while cottages have not improved ; and, worse even than that, as our 
.agricultui'al correspondents have proved, population has iu many districts 
increased enormously, and cottages net at all. It is to be earnestly hoped 
that a change in this respect is now at hand, nay, that it ha' already begun. 
The beautifully arranged .and substantially constructed cottages in Hyde 
Park, to say nothing of the model lodging-houses iu various parts of 
London, prove that good houses can now be erected as cheaply as bad 
ones, and that the building of such dwellings may be made to form at 
once one of the safest, most profitable, ,and most philanthropic means of 
investing nioney. Those who would be inclined to sneer at the justa- 
po-sition of pihilanthropy and profit in tlie same sentence, know very 
little of human motive. Jlen naturally like to get as much fur tlieir 
capital as they can — society wouM not hold together unless such were the 
case; and men also — the monetai-y advantages being equal — just as 
natur.dly prefer realising these advantages through supplying the means 
of comfort .and contributing to the well-being, rather than thi'ough a bare 
and insufficient ministering to the actual physical requirements of their 
fellow creatures. The new houses erected in Hyde Park are calculated 
to pay 7 per cent, on the outlay — a very handsotno return — and they are 
calculated, at tlio same time to rear a population brought up in decent 
household comforts, adapted alike to their physical and moral well-being." 

Tho model house in Hyde Park consists "of four dwellings, compactly 
put together — two on the ground, two on the first floor; the latter 
attained by an outside staircase, which gives a feature of architectural 

• The nlwvc siafemcnt is sti startliiif;, tli.at soiiio, facts or i.\U of autUority seem to be 
called for in explanation anil cnnfirmaMoii of it. In Liverpool and Manchester it is 33 in llie 
thousand of the respvctivc populations. In CanUff ami .Mertliyr Tydvil it is 30 in tlie 
thousand; in South Shiolds It is 28 in the thousand ; in Sunderland it is 25 in a thou- 
.sand. On the otiiar hand the avcra',-e mortality of " «ixtv-nne more healthy re-'istralion 
districts," taken from sevural counties, as Kivun hy .Mr. l.ce, ono of tho inspect'>i-s under 
the Hoard of Health, is Ifi in the thousand of the pn|jMUition ; .some (as Tavistock and 
Okohampton) beins under 15 in tlio thousand. And as the general result of his ohser- 
v.alions ("Summary of E.tporicnce on Discrksc," ]iijl,) .Mr. Lee says :— " I have shown 
hy facts and arirumeni.s which I think arc indispulald", that tho inevit-ablc mortalitv of 
the kingdom at largo,, is not greater. l)nt most probably less, than tlie proportion of 11 to 
a thousand animally of the population.'' 



beauty to the elevation. Each dwelling (they are all facsimiles) contains 
a general sitting-room and kitchen, entered by a lobbj^ (au essential requir>ite), 
two small bed-rooms for the male and female branches of the family, a 
large bed-room for the parents and the younger children, a scullery, and 
a decent water-closet. The whole of the rooms are full of cupboards and 
such conveniences ; the building i.s fire-jiroof, tliere being no particle of 
wood Jn the whole structure ; water is laid on ; a passage to a general 
dust-hole communicates with all the sculleries; tlie kitchen ranges are 
models of economical neatness; ventilation has been carefully attended to 
on the most scientific principles ; the walls are built of a peculiar species 
of hollow bricks, wiiich are cheaper than tlie old ones, and have another 
most important requisite, that of deadening sound — and altQgetlier the 
cottages ore models of the most ingenious compactness and simple comfort. 

The building before us h.as been designed and practically superintended 
by Mr. Roberts, the honorary architect to the excellent *" Soci^^ty for 
Improving the Condition of the Working Classes," the President, Prince 
Albert, having supplied thq nieans, and obtained the advantageous site on 
which it stands. 

The following additional particulars are from those drawn up by the 
architect — 

" In its general arrangement the liuilding is adapted for tho occup.ation 
of four families of the class of manufacturing and mechanical operatives, 
who usually reside in towns, or in their immediate vicinity ; and as tlie 
value of land, which leads to the economising of space, by tho placing of 
more than one family under the same roof, iu some cases, renders the addi- 
tion of a third, and even of a fourth story desirable, the plan has been 
suited to such an arrangement, without any other alteration than the requi- 
site increase in the strength of the walls. 

" The most prominent peculiarity of the design is that of the receding 
and protected central open staircase, with the connecting gallery on the 
first floor, formed of slate, and sheltered from the weather by the continu- 
ation of tlie main roof, which also screens tlie entrances to the dwellings. 









SI'EClMEiJ OF IIOLLOW^BHICK-WOHK. 

" The four tenements are arranged on precisely the same plan, two on 
each floor. 

" The entrance is through a small lobby, lighted from the upper part of 
the door. 

"The living room has a superficial area of about 150 feet, with a closet 
on one side. of the fireplace, to which warm air may be introduced from 
the back of the range ; over the fireplace is an iron rod for hanging pictures : 
and on the opposite side of the room a shelf is carried above the doors, 
with a rail fixed between them. 

" The scullery is fitted up with a sink, beneath which ia a coal-bin of 
slate ; a plate rack at one end, drained by a slate slab into the sink, covers 
the entrance to the dust-shaft, which is inclosed by a balanced self acting 
iron door. The dust-shaft leads into a closed depcsitory under the stairs, 
and has a ventilating flue, carried up above the roof. The meat safe is 
ventilated through the hollow brickwork, and shelves are hxed over the 
doors. A dresser flap may be fixed against the partition. 

" The sleeping apartments, being three in number, provide for that sep.a- 
ratiou wdiieh, with a family, is so essential to moiulity and decency. Each 
has its distinct access, and a window into the open air ; two have fireplaces. 

" The children's bed-rooms contain 50 feet superficial each, and. opening 
out of the living room, an opportunity is .aff'irded for tho exercise of 
parental watchfulness, without the unwholesome crowding of the living 
room, by its use as a sleeping apartment. 

"The parents' bed-room, with a superficial area of about 100 feet, is 
entered through the scullery — an arrangement iu many respects pi-eferable 
to a direct approach from the living room, particularly in case of sickness. 
The recess in this room provides a closet for linen ; and a shelf is carried 
over the door, with a rad fixed beneath it — a provision which is made iu 
each of the other bed rooms. 

"The ivatcr-closet is fitted up with a Staffordshire glazed basin, which is 
complete witliout any wood fittings, and supplied with water from a slate 
cistern, in common, of 160 gallons, placed on the roof over the party and 
staircase walls. The same pipes which carry away the rainwater from tin.' 
roof serve for the use of the closets." 

With reference to the cost of construction, the following statement is made : 

" In most parts of England the cost of four houses, buUt on the jilau of 
this model structure, with ordinary materials, and finished similar to the 
ground floor apartments, may be stated at 440/. to 4S0/., or from llOi. to 
120i. fir each tenement, contingent on the facilities for obtaining materials 
and the value of labour. Such dwellings, let at Z». Gd. to 4.<. a week, would, 
after deducting ground rent and taxes, afford a return of V per cent, on the 
amount of outlay. Where hollow bricks are obtainable at a fair price their 
use ought to effect a reduction of about 25 per cent, on the cost of the 
brickwork, or equal on these four houses to about 40/." 



AN ILLUSTUATKD CYCLOIM'IDIA OF TllR GIIKAT KXIIIIJITION OF 1851, 



83 



PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENTS AND PREPARATIONS. 

|)i)l,l,ONI)'S ATMOSPHEMC RECOHDER, 
[\IK. DoljLoNl), tlio uminciiit optieinn, crecteil a .snuill womleii liouao, 
ill tlio oiicloBCil nivii, ouUiilo tlio cxtremo western end of the liiiililiiig, 
to ooiitiiiii h'n liiKlilycluboriitc'i " AtinoKpheric rccorilor, or solf rcfjistoriug 

Hjipai-atuH for tlio various ilmiigos of tlio baroiuetor, tbormomotcr, liygro- 
iiicter, electromotor, pliivioiiii.'ter, nnd evaporator, ami of the force and 

(liroction of tlio wind." Tliis is tlio most complete and efiicicnt inatnimoiit 
which has yet been contrived for this purposo. It cousi.sts of a rectangular 
frame, of about two feet by three feet six, firmly Bupporteil ou four pillars. 
Near each end of the frnnic is a roller of one foot in circunifcrcnco, to on« of 

wliiclu.sattachod au eight-day clock.to drive it round once in tweutyfourhours. 

Tlio roller at the opposite ond of the frame acts as a rest for carrying the 

register-paper to a platform in the miildle of the frame. Near the end of 

the frame, which is placed toward.s the north, is a strong bar. upon wliith 

all the fulcra of the iudiealoi'.s. or markers, arc placed ; these markers, 
eing arms of a font long, with spring points at their ends, for the barometer, 

tberniomctcr. and hygrometer, are struck down to the paper every half 

honr by a falling lover. Kor the electrometer, rain evaporator, .and force and 
iiroction of tlio wind, ever-pointed jicucils are used, making a continuous 

mark upon tho pajiei". Each indicator liivs its proper senle set near the 
ine of the rogisturing points and pencils, .so that the last marks maybe 
■ompared with their rospootivo scales, with reference to the time at wliich 

:he indieation took place. 
On each side of the frame is a marker for time, governed by a wheel 

ittachcd to tho clock roller, which, by a lever and inclined planes, are made 

!o regi.ster tlio time coiTectly at each half hour, and the sixth hour more 

itrougly. for eonvenience m counting. 
The barometer is on the principle of a syphon of large bore. Upon the 

-urface of the meroury in llio shortest leg, is placed au accurately eotmter- 
lised float, couiiuuuieating by a thread and puUy with the marker, the 
idication.s being given on a scale of tlirec to one. 
Tlie theriuometric.al arrangement consists of ten mercurial thermometers 
f peculiar form, placed on an elevated stage, and having a corresponding 
idieator. They are su.spentled ou an extremely delicate balance, the 
lotion of which, due to the vai'iatious in the expansion of the mercury, is 
ommunioated to the indicator; they are screened from the wind by perfo- 
ited zinc plates. 

The liygromoter indicator is acted on by a slip of mahogany, cut across 
lie grain, and placed outside the observatory, in a tube open at both ends. 

I'iiis slip of wood was prepared by placing it in a cylinder of water, sus- 
2oded from its upper end, with a weight attached below, until it was found, 
iV i-i'peated examiu.ations, that it w:is completely saturated, its length 
'^jing increased to its fuU extension. This length was then referred to an 
■curate scale, tho wood being placed near a stove pipe with the same 
.eight hung to it, until it contracted to its utmost amount. The difference 
etween these two results being then taken, the scale was formed aceovd- 
igly. It is suspended and weighted, with full power to act on the 
I licator, quite free from the action of the sun and rain, .and shows, upon 
1 open scale, every hundredth of its extremes of dryu'^ss and moisture. 

i'his plan of hygrometer is the invention of H. L.awson, Esq., F.RS., who 
■;i3 one in his possession, made for and used by Franklin, and which is still 

L".i accurate indicator. 

The arm of the electrometer for tlmuder-stonns and electric changes 
i worked by a well-insulated conductor, placed in an elevated position, 

lud having a wire brought down to au insulator on the top of the obser- 

■ atory, and thence to a standard, through another insulator, to a metal 
Use ; between which and a spring'thore is a moveable disc, attached to a 
;I;iss arm. In connexion with this arm and disc there is a pencil, carried 

■ 'I'vv.'vrd to the line of indication. Tho spring is fixed to a standard, at 
ibout three inches from the first disc ; to this a wire is attached, and carried 
.;ito the earth. When a cloud, clLirged with the electric fluid, comes 
.'.ithin the range of the conductor, the moveable discs begin to pass slowly 
rom the first disc to the spring, discharging, each time, n portion of the 
•leetricity, and increasing in rapidity of motion, until the discbarge of the 
■loud by lightning takes place. It then falls back to the iirst disc, remaining 
itdl until again called into action in a similar manner. 

The pluviometer indicator is in connexion with a receiver, -which has an 

■3a of one square foot, and is elevated clear of anything thiit might 

interfere with the fall of the rain. From this external receiver, a pipe 

inducts the water to a cylindrical vessel beneath the apparatus. A float 

n this cylinder is in connexion with a series of inclines, contrived so that 

-.cli shall represent an inch of rain. As the rain falls, the inclines pass 

"pwards with the float, acting on the end of the indicator, which is th\is 

;aoved over the required distance on the paper, showing as it proceeds, the 

i-jsult of each drop to the hundredth of an inch in superficies, until an 

'ich is registered. It is then discharged, and returns to tho zero of the 

c.ile for another inch. 

The evaporator indicator, is actuated in connexion with a square foot 
.^ceiver, supplied with wat r from a larger vessel, being connected by a 
ijie beneatli. From this connexion the movement is conveyed to the 
idieator, from a float in t c larger vessel. The evaporator is covered with 
plate of glass, set at an angle to keep out the rain, and yet allow of free 
vaporation. 



Tlicanemomotricalindicationnaro taken from a vcrlic.d board of ono foot 
area, kept in opposition to tho oxiict direction of tho wind by a fcuiinountiug 
vuno. ThiK portion of the appanitus in nicely balanced to avoiil all friction, 
aiirl in in connexion with a chain pa«."iiig over a pulley with wcighti kiw- 
piiided to it. The chain pajiseji down tho tubular vane Hliaft, near the foot 
of which it is attached to a act of incliucH acting ujion an indicator. When 
tho board is acted upon by tho wind, its motion elev.iles tho wcightu, and 
iiioveH tho pencil on tho scale, registering the weight lifted, in onncoH and 
P iiind.H avoutlupois. A little jioncil, at the came time, indicates tlio 
direction of tho wind by tijo turning of the vane. The paper for tho 
' roLMstratiou diagrams is specially made for the imrposc, so that a diflii.-ulty 
long felt by meteorologists iu securing a suitable kind, is now removed. 

CON.STABLES COMPEN.SATINa FL Y-WI lEEf.,. 

Im tho collection of mechanical model.'!, wo ob.^ervcd a curious ono by 
Mr. W. Constable, being what ho calls a "compensating fly-wliceL" It in 
intended to perfect tho action of the ordinary lly-whecl in its office of 
accumulating the irregular impulses of the reciprocating engine, and turning 
them into a uniform power. The common fly-wheel is, indeed, usually 
described as effecting this, pretty nearly to perfection, from its aptiic8.< in 
gathering up all contributions of power in virtue of its inertia; but it 
is plain tliat as it is fixed unyieldingly upon its shaft, whatever irregularities 
occur, whether from variations in the steam prcssm-c. or in the resistance 
of tha driven machinery, they must bo communicated, to a greater or 
less extent, through the whool to the machinery. Every one knows bow 
palpable this is \vith a light wheel, as being more ea.sily affected by tha 
disturbing impulses ; the remedy has therefore been sought, with but 
partial sucoo.ss, in increased weight. 

As no increase in weight can fully correct these inequalities of motion, 
Mr. Constable has given us, in his model, a hint of another system. 
Instead of keying his wheel firm on the shaft, he places it loose, and, 
coTineots it to the moving power through the medium of springs. Along- 
side the wheel is placed a bo.ss, ■with three radiating arm.s, extending nearly 
to the periphery of the wheel. This boss is keyed ou the driving shaft, 
and to the end of each arm is attached a strap of leather, passing over a 
pulley set on a stud in the rim of the wheel. The stud paisses through the 
rim, and its opposite end carries a second pulley, to the periphery of which 
a .strap is fastened and passed from it to the outer end of a helical spring 
carried on the side of tho^fly-wheel arm. It is then cleai', that if tho 
moving force becomes accelerated, the three arms fast on the shaft will act 
iu virtue of such acceleration upou the fly-wheel springs. These springs will 
absorb tho surplus power, or, in other terms, the surplus velocity, so as 
to preveut the .acceleration from acting at once on the wheel to urge it 
beyond its speed ; whil.st, on the contrary, when the moving force becomes 
weaker, or the arms fail in speed, the reaction of the sprmgs gives out 
tho surplus power formerly stored up in them, and the original relation 
between the impelling arms and fly-wheel is again resumed. In this way 
.all oscillations of force will be conveyed through the springs, ■without in 
any w.ay interfering with the fly-wheel. 

But there is yet something more to be done. If both the strap pulleys 
are of the same diameter, the conversion of a fluctuating into a constmit 
force -nould still be imperfect. One of tho pulleys h:is its periphery 
formed to what tho inventor terms the iiodijnamic curve, so that the lever 
of resistance within it, through which the impelling arm acts by the strap, 
increases as tho impelling force increases. We are not .aware that this 
scheme has yet received any practical trial : but a.s Mr. Constable professes 
not merely to improve, but to perfect the action of the reciprocating 
engine, we presume it will shortly be heard of amongst practical engine 
builders. — Practical ilechanic's Juanial. 

English and French Files. — An interesting instance of the superiority 
of English over foreign files, was recently given .at the Cutlers' Hall, 
Sheffield, on the occasion of tho entertainment given to the Loc-d Com- 
missionei's of the town. The narrator. Mr. Overend, himself a commissioner, 
st-itcd that there was a French gentleman among the jurors, who veiy 
properly showed great zeal in protecting the interests of his coimtrymen. 
He had admitted that Sheffield had made the best files, but he maintained 
that there was a bouse in France that could make better. He challenged 
Sheffield to the trial, and he selected the house with which he would make 
'the trial, and it h.appened to be that of which the mayor (JIi'. Turton) is 
the he;wl. He sent to France to have files made for the purpose. He 
brought over a Fi^cnch engine-:^r to use them, and he challenged Messrs. 
Tvu'toii and Sons to tho contest. Two pieces of steel were selected upou 
which to try the files, and they were fixed in two vices. Messi-s. T'ai"ton 
accepted the challenge, but they did not send to Sheffield to have any files 
made specially for the occasion. They merely went to a London customer 
whom they supplied with files, and took '31es iudiscrimiuately from his stock. 
They chose a man from among the Sappore and Jliners in the Exhibition, 
to use their files against the French engineer and the French files made for 
the trial. The two pieces of steel being '.ixed iu the vices, the men began to 
work upon them simultaneously. The Englishman with Messre. Turton's 
file had filed the steel dowm to the vice, before the French engineer had 
got one tbii^d thi'ough. When tiie files were examined, Messrs. Turton's 
file was foimd to be as good as ever, while the French file was nearly worn 
out. The French juror then .s;\id, no doubt he w.as beaten in that trial, but 
.Alessrs. Turton's file must have been made to cut steel alone, whereas the 
French tile was better adapted for iron. A new trial then took place upon 
iron, and the result was still more in favour of the English file. 



84 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




FOREIGN AND COLONIAL 
DEPARTMENTS. 



THE ZOLLVEREIN. 
AUR readers are probably aware that tho 
ZoUverein — a name which occupied a 
large portion of the Foreign side of the 
Crystal Palace — is not that of any individual 
country. On the conti'ary, it designates a 
union of several States of Geiiuany under 
one common custom-house law ; — a policy, 
not a country, — which brings under one 
series of fi.scal regulations, concerning im- 
port and export duties, the subjects of 
several States of Germany, having in other 
respects different laws and lying widely 
apart. It embraces Prussia, Saxony, Wirtem- 
berg, Bavaria, Baden, Nassau, the two 
Hesses, and all the minor States of the 
centre of Germany, and comprehends alto- 
gether somewhere about 26,000,000 people. 
Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburgh, Bremen, 
Lubeck, Mecklcnburgh, on the north ; Bo- 
hemia, Austria Proper and other German 
dominions of Austi-ia, on the south, are not 
member^ of this union. Prior to its being 
formed, tlie 37 States, large and small, into 
which Germany was divided, levied each its 
own duties and tolls on rivers and roads, 
and had its own custom-house officers to 
levy them. As the rule, uo goods could 
be transmitted through any one of these 
States to another, or sent from one to 
another, without being subject to all the 
vexatious delay of a custom-house examina- 
tion at the boundaries of every State. The 
actual facts were still worse, for many noble- 
men and cities levied, till a very recent 
period, private tolls; and at their " bars " 
all goods were liable to a similar examina- 
tion. The annoyance of this system, to say 
nothing of the accompanying annoyance of 
passports, which still continues, was im- 
mense, and fiu- exceeded anything of which 
our people, long united under one Govern- 
ment, and having amongst themselves inter- 
nally a perfectly free commmiication, have 
ever practically had to form any concep- 
tion of To get lid of some of these vexa- 
tions, the States above mentioned, under 
the influence of Prussia, united. themselves 
commercially about twenty years ago into 
one body, abolishing all intermediate tolls 
and customs duties, and levymg only duties 
common to all, at the one extreme boundary 
of tho confederating States, and dividing 
the revenue accruing among the difi'ercnt 
States composing the union, in proportion 
to their size, population, consumption, pre- 
vious revenue, &c. All States not comprised 
in the Union, and preserving their own 
revenue laws, are, so far as trade and customs 
duties ai'C concerned, considered foreigners. 
The reader will see, therefore, that the 
name ZoUverein in the Exhibition is a mere 
political designation for a great part of 
Germany, separating it from Northern Gcr- 
m;my on the one hand, andfi-iUn tlie Austrian 
dominions on the other ; and sucli products 
of the industry of the 26,000.000 people 
comprised in this Customs Union as they 
plf .Tsed to exhibit, it is now our intention 
to describe. 

The department of the ZoUverein was in 
the ea-tcrn part of the Crystal Palace, 
approximating towards the centre. It ex- 
tended on both sides of the Nave into the 
galleries, as well as on the ground-floor ; 
having Russia on tlic ca-st and Austria on 
the west. Intermingled with it, liowevcr, 
was tho space .appropriated to Northern 
Germany, an aruingcmcnt justified by the 



AN IT/LUSTRATKl) CVCLOIMIDIA 01'' TIIH fJllKAT KXlll lilTlOX OV l«5l. 



geographical i-oliitioiia of the two, but nt variance with the iiolitical 
(loBTgnntioiirt, anil which h(!canio the cause of 801110 confusion. In truth, 
disorilor in arningcincnt, singuhirly cnougli for the incthocUial (jcnnaiw, 
soeniH to us to hiivu charactcriHod tlicir |iart of the Kxhiljition. Althougli Wir- 
tombcrg, Saxony, ami Uavaria liad distinct exhibition rooms on tliu south 
side of tho Nave, in which to (Usphiy tlieir clotlis and nliawls ami stockings ; 
in tho (Iraml Ccntro Hall of the Zollveroinon the north some of their most 
distinguished iinnlucts, and tlie mont distinguished jinnlucts of tho other 
States, were mingled with the products of I'russia, which disabled us from 
forming a just aiipreciation of the industry of tho seiiarato people, or of 
tho whole Z(dlvercin. In the medley, we camiot compare and contrast 
what has been ilone by the lively, vain, egotistical and royal I'russian with tho 
prod\U'tions of the more soliil and somewhat duller Hessian; nor can wo 
convenicntlv distinguish between the industry which is rooted on the Iscr, 
and that wiiich nourishes mi the Klbo or tho lUiinc. 

For the above reasons the general remarks wliich follow will apply in a 
gi-oat measure to tho industry of all the Glermans, not excluding even the 
Austrians, though we shall describe separately tho Austrian part of the 
I'Jxhibition ; and we must, therefore, make our readers fully aware of the 
number of people to whom they apply. The ZoUverein comprises about 
'_'!!. 00(1,(1110 ; Nurtliern (lerniaiiy, about 4,0(10,0(10; and Austriiui (jermany, 
iili'iut 7,000,000. The tracts of laud inhabited by these people extend 
IVom the Baltic to tho Iser and tho Rhine, fn.m the German (Jccaii to the 
('arpathian Alps, and embraces a great variety of soil-surface and climate. 
It is rich in minerals and raw products, and is traver.sed by numerous 
large rivers. It is the best .and principal part of central Kuropo. For such 
;i country and such a people, the exhibition of their industry struck us as 
roiiiparatively poor and compa.ratively uniform. There was a sameness iu 
i( tiu-.iughout, not met with in any other part of tho Exhibition, of equal 

inc(, elisions. 

1 11 one great natural quality Germany is ileficieut, and tho want of it Ua.'S 
Imcii much .aggravated, instead of being relieved, by the policy of its goveru- 
iiicuts. It has comparatively a small extent of sca-eoast. Denmark and 
1 1 liland shut it out from a direct connexion and communication with two 
|i;irts of tlie ocean. It has had. therefore, iu relation to other .states, a small 
ind not fivst-growing foreign trade. The many small states into which it 
\Mis divided, and the absurd fiscal regulatioiLS in each, added to the want of 
(nc;m communication, till very moilern times, limited and hampered its 
internal traffic. The consequence wa.s, that the subjects of each state were 
[■irlty much confined to their own products for subsistence; and comiJara- 
(ivcly little separation of employmciit.s, or little division of labour ousued. 
Old, ;vs a cousecpience, little variety iu the industry of the people. The 



Germans rather pride themHelvcH on tlio circuniHtancc, that diviiiion of 
labour iH not extensive nmonght them — that they arc what they call many- 
handed — but that is only an approucli to barbarium, when every individuiil 
pioviileil by his own nioaiiM for all bin wants. To natiiffy the cominoii 
demands for food and clothing they all neccfsai-ily afloptcd the same or 
similar arts ; and the nanio caiLsea continuing to prevent the Be]ianitiou of 
cmploynients, they have contimicd the siune or himilar practices. In con- 
junction with this, tuo, the reB|]ective governments undertook to a degree 
unknown in Enghuid to guide the imlustry of their subjects ; and as tlicy 
were gonciidly actuated by a similar policy, and liad similar objects to 
attain, they generally directed the industry of the people in sUnilar paths. 

After the wants of I'oodand clotliing were 
supplied, the great object of the ditl'ercnt 
governments, besides the common desire 
of military power, wjus to have luxuries pro- 
vided for courts, which for a long period 
borrowed their ideas of luxury from tho 
French court as a ouiimon model. Accord- 
ingly, as you pass amidst apartments hung 
full of cloth (Uid of damasked linen, with 
a profusion of swords and cutleiy, walking- 
sticks, pipes, buttons, and coiunion tools, 
models of old castles or modern residences, 
with some fine porcelain, some exquisitely 
carved ivory, some delicate bronzes, and 
some admirably stained glass, you iind a 
great uniformity in the products of nume- 
rous distinct and dift'erent people, for which 
you were hardly prepared ; nor is the im- 







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T.IE SVJI'U 01' LUHLKIDUKG.— ESGIiLIiAr.U. 




GOBLET. COXKAD KS'OLL. 



URIXKIXG-CUP. — JOHASJJ KALtIG 



86 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



pression removed by the appearance of some well prepared leather for 
diSerent purposes, some valuable mineral and other raw products, several 
specimens of wool, and some splendid crystals and colours ; the 
result of chemical arts, and a little well-^vrought furniture. What is 
called Berlin-wool, raised carpeting scarcely fit to walk on, models 
of castles, dried fruits, a multitude of. ornaments in cast u'on, an abundance 
of toys, plaving cards, much ordinary jewellery, piles of stockings and 
suspenders, " with a few printed books, complete the miscellaneous 
assortment. 

Many of the articles would excite surprise in any exhibition, but we are 
chiefly astonished to find them so many leagues away from the place where 
they were made. The Germans supposed they were to sell, as well as 
exhibit; they looked on the Exhibition as a market, and thought that the 
cheapness of their hose, their cutlery, their common tools, and their cloth, 
■would ensure them numerous customers. In fact, many of their articles 
have been exhibited avowedly only on account of their cheapness, not on 
account of their excellence, theh rainty, or their beauty ; and tlie exhibitors 
prepared and published a catalogue in which the prices are mai'ked, for the 
very purpose of showing that they can undersell the Enghsji, particularly 
in hose, cutlery, and cloth. Till the quality of the ai'ticles can be brought 
to a test, this appeai-s to be possible. They imitate our piitterns, and try to 
sell their goods as English. We noticed — and to our surprise, in the Saxon 
department, and amongst the hose — one or two pair marked very distinctly, 
in good English lettci's, " Merino patent," an inscription which used to be 
stamped on a favourite English production. We have some doubts of the 
propriety of allowing such contrefarons to ajipear in the Exhibition. They 
reminded us of what we saw on the Hartz mountains a great many years 
ago, where the shot cast at a celebrated lead manufactoiy v,'ere all packed 
up in bags, with the names and labels of English makers imprinted on 
them. We were told by an American gentleman in the Exhibition. '' It 
is quite true the Germans have improved very much in making cutlery 
within a few yeai'S. I have had a great deal to do with them iu the matter. 
They were anxious to sell their goods iu our markets ; but they were so 
clumsy, our people would not look at them. I then sent patterns of your 
best London and Sheffield makers to Solingen, and the Germans made their 
cutlery after these patterns, putting on them the name of Rodgers and Son, 
or some other celebrated English maker. The German cutleiy looked very 
well, and was sold cheap ; but, on being tried, it proved to be not half .^o 
good as that of the English, and I doubt whether the sale will increase." 
In v.irious kinds of cutlery, that can scarcely be proved, the Germans make 
a great show ; but it is evident even here, that the bulk of their articles arc 
male after English patterns. The display was intended, too, we believe, 
more for foreign markets, than for consumption here. 

If the Exhibition wer^ a mart, where the artisan could buy a pair of 
pincers, a dandy a cravat, a housewife ajar of preserves or of potted larks, 
and parents Christmivs presents for their children, it could scarcely have 
been richer in the supply of these and similar articles from Germany. 
AVith some exceptions, which it will be our business hereafter especially to 
not ce, the products of Gei-man industry, taken as a whole, therefore, may 
be characterised iis displaying little variety ; and many parts of it were 
trivial, neither adding to national wealth nor helping forward national 
gi-eatness. Admitting the fact, but implying tliat the Germans have a 
richer and more varied iudusti-y than tiicy have shown, which we doubt, a 
German writer in the A llyem^ine Ze'iiunrj states "that Germany is here 
exhibited to foreigners as b-niall change." Who, then, is culpable for havmg 
kept back the large coins and the more precious ingots, if they exist ] 

German industry is not only uniform ; it is obviously imitative. There is 
as complete a want of independent thought in their art as in their political 
reforms. 

France had its hijouUrie, its exquisite ornaments, its unmistakeablo 
graceful luxuries, its adornmeuts for boudoirs and persons ; England had 
its solid and compact machinery, often as neat and elegant in form, though 
rigid, as it Wi\3 useful ; the United States had their rocking and their other 
chairs, their sewing machine, and their almost infinite application of 
caoutchouc: Russia had its furs, its homp, its malachite; even Austria, 
witli its Vienna furniture and its Bohemian glass, wliich ai'e German, had 
somctliing of its own. Xay, Tunis and India shone out conspicuous and 
peculiar. Only Germany, of all the nations of Europe, had nothing 
apparently in the Exhibition which could be said to be cliai'acteristic of it, 
but its toj-s, a few skull caps, and some useful specimens of domestic wool 
manufacture. Borrowing its ornamental arts mainly from France, its u.seful 
arts from England, the things it exhibited are chiefly imitations, ve>y often 
deficient in the grace, the lightness, the neatness, and convenience of the 
originals. Its productions are solid, substantial, sometimes cumbrous, and 
generally honestly made, but they are all in the main French or English, 
rather than peculiarly German. Perhaps those who have had the ordering 
of the matter have wished chiefly to exhibit the success of the Germans as 
rivalling other nations, and have rather Tirought forward European than 
German productions. They have exhibited no specimen of their dm-able 
but old-fashioned furniture ; of their I'raclilwaf/en with their loa'is packed 
and secured to resist the jolting of bad roads, like the cargoes of ships, 
which move not when tossed about by the waves; no specimen of their 
multifarious vegetable productions on which the bulk of the people live, or 
of the useful and couifortable garments that their domestic industry still 
provides for the gi-eat multitude, all of wliicli are at once peculiar and 
picturesque; they are sometimes, too, convenient. Germany has many 
peculiarities, but they belong to a past age, and the Royal Commissioners, 



who have presided over the German part of the Exhibition, have not been 
desirous to exhibit them, *■ I cannot deny," says the WTiter already quoted, 
'* that, in general the specimeus of German industry in the Exhibition (the 
fine arts are not included) have no peculiar character, and give me tha 
idea of its having been the intention to avoid exhibiting what is national. 
German industry appears iu every department to lean on something foreign, 
or to be an imitation, and nowhere to stand on its own feet. At one place 
we see the hand of England, and at another that of France. I may be 
mistaken, but this is my veiy distinct impression." If we turn to the 
machinery exliibited, we shall find it of little importance ; and the principal 
objects, such as the vacuum pan and the Jacquard loom, very imperfectly 
improved as compai-ed with others in the building, are borroned from 
England or France. The machinery exhibited, and generally too the tools 
and tlio cutlery, arc imitations of those of England, and can have nothing 
to recommend them, if it be not their cheapness. 

Tlie nature of German industry in general is brought into a strong light 
by the varied industry of Hamburgh, and the taste displayed in the 
exhibition of the articles sent from that city. It has furnished no less than 
123 ; while the rest of North Gei-many. the kingdom of Hanover, Lubeck, 
the two Meckleuburghs, have supplied only 35. They consist chiefly of 
useful and ornamental furniture, such as side-boards, sofas, chairs, &c., of a 
very superior description of clocks, musical instruments, specimens of 
oil-cake and refined sugar, charts, pianofortes saws, rocking-chairs, looking- 
glasses, bird-cages, and a large assortment of walking-sticks. Here, how- 
ever, instead of being merely hung against the wall, they were displayed in 
a cheerful tasteful manner, so that the Hamburgh room had a light and 
elegant appearance, superior to that of the central room of the ZoUverein, 
in which were heaped together all the best and richest of its contributions. 
On entering the .apartment, the spectator was much struck by a represen- 
tation of the sun sending his rays on all sides, placed against the opposite 
wall of the apartment. It was composed of walking-sticks, cliiefly fi'om the 
workshops of C. A. Meyer, who employs several hundred persons, and 
exports walking-sticks to all parts of the world. In Hamburgh, as in 
London, it is a considerable trade; and, being a source of wealth, is not 
inaptly typified by the sun. Herr Meyer, tlie founder of the house, is a 
good specimen of what trade does for men in Germany as well as iu 
England. He arrived in the city from Thuvingi.a, with no other wealth 
than his skill in carving wood ; and, by care, frugality, and an opportunity 
of exerting his talents, he has created a large establishment, and become 
one of tlie princ'?ly merchants of the city. He is an individual example of 
the general opulence and general industry and skill of Hamburgh. It was, 
and yet is, practically and truly free — not merely nominally a free city ; 
and the success of its industry a-s displayed in the Exhibition in comparison 
witli the industry of the many long-enthralled states of Germany, does 
honom- to its freedom. 

As we have already adverted to the Sculpture, and intend including that 
from Germany, wo do not extend our present remarks to the latter. 
German sculpture takes a high place in the Exhibition, but that art, 
though treated successfully by the Germans, we need scarcely remark, is 
not peculiarly German. 

With these first and general impressions we now proceed to make a tour 
(from recollection) of the ZoUverein department, commencing with that on 
the nortli side. Our attention is arrested at the entrance by an object 
which forcibly reminds us of the militai'y character of the principal State 
of the Verein, and indeed of all the German States. Pl.anted at the centre, 
as if to forbid entrance, or at least to allow it only on conditions, standt 
a remarkably well-mounted field-piece. The gun gives you an idea o!' 
solid and substantiid work. At the same time it is highly polished ; and 
the plain varnished carriage is a perfect model, on a small scale, like one oi' 
Maudslay's engines, of compactness and neatness combined with great 
strength. The workmanship has the finish of a jewel, concealing in tlio 
instrument the power of a demon. Beneath it are polished cuirasses and 
otlier instruments or emblems of war, destruction, and death. Tliis is the 
shape in wliich an invention of a new process for tiie manufacture of one 
of the most useful things shown iu the whole department, cast-steel, i-; 
exliibited. We admire Herr H. Krupp's skill, but should have though i, 
better of him and better of Germiny had it been displayed iu rollers sucli 
as are employed with great success at Munich, for grinding corn, or surgical 
instruments, or sometliiug more appropriate to this peaceful age and to the 
Exhibition, than a model field-piece. 

Close by it, however, inviting you to the confidence which the gun 
repels, h.angs an altar-piece, in which arc worked and emblazoned tlie 
words, " Gutt ist die Liche ; und wer hi der LitJie bleibt, der blciU in Gull, nnd 
GoU in ikm'" ("God is love; and who dwells in love, dwells in God, and 
God in him" ). There is not much in the article to admire, but the senti- 
ment is very expressive of the afl'eotionate kindly chai-acter of the Germans. 
The care tbey take to provide amusement and employment, as well a^ 
instruction fur their childx'cn, as exemplified in one of their chief m.anu- 
factures, and which a rugged hard people would have neither patience to 
begin nor the kindliness to continue, is another illustration of the same 
characteristic. The more one traces their kindliness in their manners, the 
more it is to be regretted that a contrary principle presides over their 
atfairs, as typified by the field-piece. The softness of their character seem.^ 
to allow a long dominion to a harsh political system ; and a little more 
rugged energy amongst them would keep better in check the violence 
against which they now only dmect a few enigmatic sentences. 

Pa.ssing through, with some indifference, rows of arras, perhaps tlie 



vN ILLUSTIiATKl) CyCLOIM':i)IA Ol'' TIIK fJillAT KXIUIUTTON OF IHol. 



H7 



Hiiontotor may linvo lii» ntloiitinii iiKiiiiuntiirily iui'OhUuI hy tlio vaiiouB 
nneoimenH of crookory, oiirtlu'iiware, or chiuii inaDiifiictiirccl in tlio npi);li- 
iiimrli(i"(l ol' Kniiikloi't on tlio (hlcr. It in clour, holid, nnrl f(. nenilly of 
[ilBttsiiig funiiH. a|ipnixiMiatiiiK mum to our KtoiU!\v.-iro tliun to (iiiytliiilK else 
tliot woaro iicquiiintml willi, Init is Btipoiior to tlmt in it« rlo;ir iiiiil uniform 
Kinzo. For noiitmisH niid utility, it is Rcarocly fiur|ia.sM'it in tlio whole 
colli'cUon. 'ilic porccluiii. hotli of .S;ixony unil I'rUHRiii, in, of course, niui:h 
nioro spleiicliil ; somo of tluit is very much to ho luliuireil, nml KooniH to 
(iuil nunu nius customcrH, for.several of tlio iirticleH of tho iieilin mannfucturc 
wcro very nuon marked '* disposed of;" but the porcelain, with its 
.admirablu paintings, cornea within tho reach of a few, wliilo tho ologant 
;iod cleanlookins" Ihonmidren in attainalilo by tho mimy, and uuist con- 
tribute to the pleasures of all wlio use it. This wiiro is largely exiiortod 
to eouutries with which Knglnnd" trades ; and we are inclined, tliercfore, to 
Knppo,se that it must be as cheap as our ordinary ware, and it is, generally 
speaking, mure elegant, and appears less brittle, (vombiued with several 
other things vihicli come from Frankl'ort on tho Oder, it gives lis a 
unieh higher idea than wo before had formed of that city as a place of 
' I niufHeturo. 

I'loiu the very eireuiustance that much of tho cutlery, particularly that 

■nil .Soliiigoii, is maile after English patterns, it appears very good, and 

.iii.;Ii superior to that which was formerly, and is still very nmch in use in 

: ia;tny. Some of the surgical instruments, too, are very good — indeed 

aid to I'C made better in Berlin than iu any other i)art of the continent. 

lie of t'lO common jewellery, tho stipply of which is large, is well set; 

Mill the bulk of it, as is to be expected from the cpuintity, is common, and 

rithcr tasteless, 

(lei'inauy abounds in metals ; all the zinc in use comes from thcro : but, 
« illi tho exception of its being applied to roof a liouse, a model of which is 
exliiliited, showing some very substantial workmanship, and for spouts, we 
n.itieed no other impiutant application of this ductde, and now much used 
metal. Those who have visited Germany must be well aware that there 
aie many uses to which it might be most advantageously applied, and 
^vould contribute more to the health and comfort of the Germans, and the 
neatnoss of their houses, than most of the poor articles they exhibit. 

Passing to the west and north, opposite the room for the machinery of 
'lie ZoUverein, we observe two specimens of ma-ssive safes for money and 
Mpers. One is remarkable for the ease with which its heavy doors are 
limed, and the other for tho impossibility of opening it without receiving 
iii4ruetious from the maker, and both for their many conveniences. Four 
I tliem, we have seen it stated, have already been ai'dcrcd from Germany, 
11 consequence of their having been seen here. 

Tlio machine-room looks bare, and at least is quite spacious enough for 
ilie machinery tho Zollverein chooses to place in it. Wo believe that 
iGermany is richer iu such contrivances than the Exhibition shows. We 
'should pronounco it very backward, wero wo to judge solely of its 
specimens here. Cards for combing, made of imported materials, seem to 
us very inferior to those made in Manchester. Engines for coining, 
1 lunching, and milling are good, but nothing extraordinary. The Jacquard 
loiiiu and vacuum pan we have already mentioned. 

Civilisation and the power of man are directly in projiortion as he is 
enabled by skilfxd machinery to command tlie assistance of nature. As he 
makes the expansive power of steam, or tho weight of the atmosphere, or 
the i-ushiug of streams, work for him. he is strong and powerful. Machinery 
being generally private property, men cannot be constrained to display it 
when they fear that the secrets connected with it may be discovered ; and 
hence the samples in the Zollverein are not specimens of the best machinery 
1 ,of Germany. If thoy were, we should form an unfavourable opinion of the 
i Ipast, and a very mifavourable augury for tho future of tliat country. 

I Now coming back to the south, we enter the great centre room of the 
iZoUverein, crammed full of tho bijoux of German art ; but we must 
j Ireserve wl.at wo have specially to say of that and other parts of the 
I jexhibitiou of the ZoUverein to another occasion. 



ili.usthations in page 85. 
the nymph op luhleiberg. bt engelhard. 
A IX who have steamed up tho Rhine know the precipice of Lurlei, and 
,ts famous echo, which is supposed to repeat sounds fifteen times. There 
,3 some legend attached to it, in which a nymph is concerned, though at 
the moment we do not recollect the particulai's. M. Engelhard, of Ham- 
burgh, amongst other contributions in the plastic art, presents us with 
an inspiration of this fanciful creation — a comijosition of some merit of 
Iciign, and not deficient iu grace. 

GOBLET. ET CONRAD KNOLL, OF BAVARIA. 

Conrad Knoll's goblet, the model of wliich, in plaster of Paris, was 
^hibitcd in the ZoUverein Hall, and which is intended to be cast in 
ironze, is covered with devices illustrative of '* loving and living on the 
i&ine." Those who know what a German's enthusiasm is in behalf of his 
utiful Rhine, will bo able to estimate the spirit in which this little 
decorative work has been conceived, and the laboiu* and care bestowed 
iilii.n it. 

DRINKING-CDP. BT JOHANN HALBIG, OF BAVARIA. 

Here we have another tribute from German art to German natioUiality. 
This " Imperial German drinking-cup," or rather plaster model for one, is 
-iqiposed to represent "the unity of Germany." On the top stands Ger- 
iii,iiiia in the Imperial States ; the figures surrounding the cylinder are the 



allegories of tho virtues nocosiiary to unity. Tho coat* of aniin arc those of 
the Ke<leral .Statin; on the cover that of tho cnipiro and the kingdoiiiH ; 
on tho cylinder those of the smaller German SUitoa. It i.i thun llnit Ger- 
man thought and German tispiratioii, denied Wprcnnion through "tho 
ordinary channela of intelligence," a» thoy call neWBpaiiorn (for nhortncw!) 
in the House of hereditary wimlom, find vent in allegory and |.la«ter of 
I'ari.i, In this light the cup beforo iiu in a curiosity; an a work of art, it 
has small pretcnsioiLS to adniiiittion. 



SMALL NOTABILIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 



" PHILOSOPHY in Sport made Bcienoa in Earnest" wan th« title of a 
little book which we recollect reafling with very great pleaaure aome 
years ago; and, published at a time when the generality of the community 
had hardly begun to inquire "in earnest" into tlie important secrets of 
natural and physical soicnco, now every day producing such useful practical 
results, tho modest duodecimo in question did gooil service l>y the awakeuiug 
and inviting very many individuaU to tho pleasures and advantages of 
various branches of study, which they would otherwise never have dreamed 
of including within their province of intellectual observation. 

But " Philosophy in Sport" is not always " Science in Earn03t ; " and indus- 
try unguided by the unerring truths of philosoiihy and thooisential dcmanda 
of utility, is sometimes nothing better than industi-y "run mad." Industry 
is. ono thing, and caprice is another and a very di6feront thing : — iu like 




DUNIN'S EXPANDl.NG FIGURE OF A MAX. 

manner, we may say that ingenuily is one thing, and whimsicality another; 
persevering good sense is one thing, and persevering folly a very different 
thing : so of workmauship and the production of a useful article, when 
compared with a prolonged waste of human labour iu concocting and 
finishmg a trifle, a toy, or an absurdity. These tilings all involve a dif- 
ferent species of effort and result, and call for a very different sort of 
estimate. Amidst the innumerable examples of well applied labour in tlie 
Great Exhibition, it must, nevertheless, be confessed that there were also a 
considerable number, amomiting, indeed, to a motley variety of articles, in 
the construction of which we are bound to say that much thought, and yet 
more labour, have been gi-ievously misapplied. 

Foremost amongst these we must place Count Duuin's " Man of Steel." 

This is a piece of mechanism, in the figure of a man, which is constructed 

of seven thousand pieces of steel. Most of them appear to be either springs 

or slides, and they are so put together .and arranged as to be capable of a 

{Continued on pa'je !»'X) 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



CLOCK-CASE. DESIGNED BY J. BELL. 
Mu. Bell lias contiibutcd more to oruamcntal manufacture, in the plastic 
line, than, perhaps, any other artist of the day ; and the present is by no 
means the least happy of his productions, coming as it does within the 
scope of legitimate sculpturesque decoration of a work of utility. It is 
styled the " Hours Clock-Case," from the fact of the face being embellished 
with a bas-relief representing the twelve hours circling round the clock ; 
which itself has an enamelled dial, '■ representing the .sun, its centre a 
flying phmnix, which fable relates is born anew every 500 years." At the 
base are two figiu-es respectively illustrative of repose at evening, and the 
wakening to labour in the morning. The apex is crowned with a figure of 
Psyche, or the soul, looking upward, emblematic of eternity. The whole 
is prettily conceived, aud plea.singly designed ; though it might perhaps 
be improved in subsequent copies by omitting the void interval between the 
figures and the clock face, which produces an effect of flatness which is uot 
satisfactory. The connexion between " the hours " and the clock would 
also be more distinctly marked by this alteration : the figures might, in 
short, be represented as supporting it through space. Some modification 
would, in that case, be neces.sary in the clock-face itself, which, instead of 
representing the sun, should represent a clock-face tout -pure. This work 
has been produced in electro-bronze, by Messrs. Elkingtou, the exhibitor.s, 
in their best style. 

SILVER VASE. BY WAGNER, OF BERLIN. 



One of the most interesting objects of art eontr 
Exhibition of Industi-y is a magnificent silver eper 
ment of Messrs. Johann 
Wagner and Son, silver- 
smith'i and jewellers to the 
King of Prussia. It is 4 .J feet 
in height, and weighs 80 lb. 
It was designed and execut- 
ed solely by M. Albert 
Wagner, to whose artistic 
taste aud skill it does the 
greatest credit. A luiity 
of design runs through 



ibuted by Berlin to the 
gne, from the establish- 
the whole. The artist 
has embodied the " Pro- 
gress of Mankind to 
Civilisation, under the 
guidance of Genius." 
The group of figures at 
the base, which are 
designed with vigour 
and freedom, represent 
man in the first stage of 
levelopment, and as the 



hunter and herdsman. The female figures above denote the blessings of 
abundance attending the more regular pursuits of cultivation and husbandly. 
The bas-reliefs which encircle the outside of the vase have a reference to 
both these ages. Here closes the external stniggle with nature. From 
within rises a palm-ti'ee, sui-mounted by Genius bearing a torch, and strang- 
ling the evil principle of ignorance, typifying tlie internal culture of the 
soul to its perfectibility. The figures are sculptured, embossed, and cast, 
the workmanship of every part being of the finest description. M. Wagner 
has been awarded a prize medal for this elegant work. 



ORNAMENTAL IRONWORK DOME. BY THE COALBROOK- 
DALE COMPANY. 
One of the most pretentious works in the Building was this fantastic and 
withal remarkably pretty inutility. The casting supports the reputation of 




the founders ; but there 
are many and grave 
obj ections to the design, 
wliich is childish and 
purposeless. Though 
called a dome, it is 
merely a rustic garden 
house. The foolish-look- 
ing vane which crowned 
the whole we have 
omitted for want of 
space. Within is a cast 
of J. Bell's "Eagle Slay- 
er." The eagle trans- 
fixed by an arrow at 
the top inside must be 
considered an absolute- 
ly inexcusable piece of 
bad taste. 

The pianofortes iu the 
Crystal Palace,more par- 



ticularly the in- 
struments plac- 
ed in the Nave, 
were a never- 
failing attraction 
to loungers. On 
the more fa- 
shionable days 
crowds of aristo- 
ci-atic and atten- 
tive listenei-3 
were to be seen 
lingering around 
and witliin the 
east-iron dome 
oftheCoalbrook- 
dale Company, 
listening to the 
tones of Col- 
lard's splendid 
grand pianoforte 
whic,h here 
found a resting- 
place. 



.^.-.jlv..Li^ i,y :. i>LJ,i..- JiA.,liA^, ILlw.U UV LLkl.NOlU.N. 




SILVEU YAPK.-WAtiXKK, UEHLl.N. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOVMmA OF THE OHEAT EXHIBITION OP 18.-.1 




ORNAMENTAL IKOXWOHK DoME.-BY Tlii: COALDKOOK-DALE COMPANV. 



90 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



graduated movement, by means of which the proportions of the whole 
figure maj- be expanded from the standard size of the Apollo Belvidere to 
that of a Goliath. From these colossal proportions it may again be con- 
tracted at pleasure to any size between them and its oi-iginal standard, as 
now displayed. The mechanism is composed of 875 framing pieces, 48 
grooved steel plates, 163 wheels, 202 slides, 476 met;U washers, 482 spiral 
springs. 704 sliding plates, 497 nuts, S500 fixing and adjusting screws, mth 
numerous steadying pins, so that the number of pieces is upwards of 7000. 
The only utility we have ever heard suggested as derivable from this 
elaborate piece of mechanism, is its applicability to the various measm-e- 
ments of army clothiers or tailors, as it would serve for the figures of men 
of various sizes. We do not know whether this is the purpose assigned to 
it by the inventor, as it seems a very absurd one ; the same result being 
far more easily attainable by the incomparably more simple means of half 
a dozen dummies, or wooden lay-figures. 

^ But hold ! it behoves us to speali with deference and humility in this 
matter, seeing that the Council of Chairmen of Juries, tlie supreme lieads of 
wisdom, to wliom the dispensation of the Exhibition honours wa-s 
intrusted, have thought jiroper to reward the constructor of this huge 
mechanical toy with a " Council Medal." Yes, hear it, Trougliton and 
Simms, who talk about novelties in astronomical instruments to which a 
councU medal was denied, though recommended by the jury ; hear it, 
Clausseu, whose newly-discovered, and nationally important processes in tlie 
prepara tion of flax received only a common medal ; hear it, Losely, whose 
compensated pendulum, one of the most ingenioiLS and valuable improve- 
ments in horology in tlie wliole Exliibition — ; bear it, Applegath, whose 
vertical printing machine — ; hear it all ye whose performances liave to share 
the common fate of merit in *" a certain degi*ee ; " — tlie Jury in Class X (*■' tliat 
of pliilosophical instruments, and processes depending upon their use,") 
have awarded, and the Councd of Cliairmen have confirmed to Count 
E. Dunin a council medal; — " Fui' the extraordinanj application of mecha- 
nism to his expanding Jlifure of a man!" 

After reading this result, we began to be somewhat doubtfiJ about all 
we set out witli touching " Philosophy in Sport," and nice distinctions 
between " ingenuity " and " whimsicahty " and so forth ; and in a moment 
of bewilderment and irritation, were almost upon the point of consigning 
the notes iipon which the rest of tliis article will be composed to tlie 
fire. But fortunately, we were restrained from so doing, by an urgent 
application for " copy " from a quarter which is not used to be denied, and 
therefore we proceed with the task upon vvhicli we set out. 

Still in the Philosophical Instrument Department, we come upon " an 
apparatus of a peculiar construction, showing the ebb and flow of the tides," 
exhibited by a Mr. Ryles, of Cobridge. Staffordshire Potteries, who thus 
describes the novel theory it is intended to illustrate : — " The artiele I sent 
to the Exhibition, is an appar.atus to illustrate the idea of the earth, heing a 
living creature encased in a shell, as a snail-house or sea-shell, and by tlie 
action of the heart, causing the tide to ebb and flow ! Press down tlie 
blower, and the heart (as seen through the ghiss tliat is on the top of the 
shell), will contract, causing the tide to rise; let tlie air out of the shell, 
and the heart will expand, caitsmg the tide to fall." He adds, " I want a 
patron tliat would enable me to show how Me tide causes the rotatory motion 
of the earth, which only poverty prevents my doing." 

Mr. Ryles has not received a council medal, nor a prize medal, not even 
" honourable mention," which, considering the honours heaped upon the 
" expanding figure of a man," we consider hard. The lea.st Count Duuin could 
do, would be to share his council medal with Kyles, and, thrusting the 
model of the " living creature " constituting the Earth, into his " extra- 
ordmary application of mechanism," exhibit its expansibility by revealing 
" the action of the heart " of the encased monster. 

Dr. Gray, of Perth, has invented a medical walking-staflf, containing 
instruments, melicines, and otlier professional articles. Would not a small 
tin case, or a sandwich-box, have answered tho same purpose far better, 
and far more conveniently, as it miijht be put into the pocket, where the 
"medicines," not being half so much "shaken" as in the walking-staff, 
would have loss chance of fermentation or other injury .' 

An "artificial silver nose" has heen invented by Mr. ^V^litehouse. We 
will not pronounce rashly upon this; but it strikes us, that, as all artificial 
noses, both in shape, size, and the amount of nose required, will depend 
upon the amount wanting by aa individual, and the size and shape, in fact, 
suited to his particular case, the material also of which the nose was 
manufactured would very often have to he regulated by the special circum- 
stances. 

Art-manufactures in mutton fat are certainly a novelty, and Mr. W. E. 
Hall, of Bideford, exhibits "a socio, or kind of vase," made of a mixture 
of mutton fat and lard. We should fear that in a tot summer, or in a 
cold winter when a good fire is needed in the room, these articles would 
be extremel)' liable to a change of form not at all contemplated by th(! 
inventor; nay, there might bo occasions on which they would "run away" 
altogether. 

Mr. MClintock, of York, exhibits a chain in regular links, tho whole o. 



which, we are informed, hiis been cut out of a solid block of wood ; to 
what purpose, except to the unnecessary length of time such a performance 
must occupy, we are totally at a loss to conceive. Mr. M'CUntock has, 
however, been surpa-ssed by a lieutenant of the navy, whose name has | 
escaped us, and wbicli we do not know where to look for in the Catalogue, ; 
who has achieved the same result from a block of wood vnih the help of 
no other tool than a penknife. Will anybody endeavour to surpass them 
both, we wonder, by doing the same thing with a pin ? 

We do not very well know what to say about the " osti'acide," the instru- 
ment with a grand name for opening oystei's. and bearing a close resem- 
blance to a pair of sugar-nippers. It may be useful, or it may cut the 
oysters to rags in the operation ; M'e hope not ; but Messrs. Brown, of 
Newcastle, will excuse us if we hint, th.at, to avoid this, it may be neces- 
sary to practise opening oysters with the ostracide almost as much as with 
the old-fasliioned oyster-knife. 

'* The semibreve guitar " of Mr. Dobrow.sky was a good thought enough 
for a new name, and for a fresh attempt to prolong the sound of the notes 
of the guitar ; but, if the iiiventor would have us understand by the terni 
"semibreve" that his instrument will sustain a note of any such duration, 
we must plead absolute .scepticism to the possibiUty of any instrument of 
this kind being made to accomplish such a result. 

Tlie euharmouic guitar, manufactured by Panormo, of High-street. 
Bloomsbury, chiiuisforits original inventor and designer no less a personage 
than the ingenious Colonel Perronet Thompson, M.P., who some years nc^:'. 
invented a new kind of organ. Of the enharmonic guitar now cxhibitcl 
it is announced that it is "capable of being arranged in the perfect rati^- 
for upwards of twenty keys." We do not doubt this ; we accept it at oncu. 
not only from what we know of the scientific capabilities of a guitar, but 
of the great scientific attainments of Colonel Thompson ; but after his 
enharmonic guitar has been " airanged " for any of these keys, what \vill 
be the effect of " plajnng " in them, amidst all this mechanical interference 
with the finger-board 1 So much for the impediments to execution, to say 
nothing of tone. We must say. in justice to Mr. Panormo, the Qjanufacturcr, 
that, benig convinced bis own simple guitars on the Spanish model hav- 
more tone in them than any otlier giutars. we regret he should havr 
employed so much labour in the construction of this very ingenious 
learned, and impracticable invention. 

Mr. Jones, of Lombard-street, exhibits "a silent alarum bedstead to turn 
any one out o/ ted at a given hour." This is certainly one of the most amusing 
inventions we ever heard of. It assumes a degree of density in the sleeper 
which no alarum can affect, or else a singular amount of luxurious weakness 
of purpose. Tlie bed, therefore, acts the part of Picsolution for the sleeper : 
and having been " set " over night for a given hour in the morning, tho 
said incorrigible sleeper finds the bed revolve so as to tilt him out ; and a 
bath being placed by the bed-side, he may at once be relieved of all need 
for summoning a resolution either to get up or to take a plunge. 

The Cliinese have long been famous fur their cajirices of invention, and 
whimsicalities of workmanship, over each article of which the greater 
portion of the lives of several artisans appear to have been expended. We 
find exhibited here some of their celebrated ivory balls, richlj- carved out- 
side, and containing another, a size less, inside, richly carved also, with 
open-work, to show you, th.at there are balls within balls to the extent of 
twenty or more, each cut clear of the rest, and carved and capable of being 
turned round — the whole of these being produced by means of a vai'iety of 
curious tools and instrumonts, out of tho first solid b,"!!!. This, they assert, 
nobody else can do ; and it may be true, for the Chinese are capable of ] 
wasting any amount of time upon any triviality. But the Chinese are not 
the only people who have a love for difficulties, for the sake of the unneces- 
sary labour and time thoy involve, which gives the articles so much addi- 
tional value in their eyes. If Quang Sing, of Cautun, carves and eugi-a%'es 
upon peach stones, and makes baskets and boxes with the stones of 
apricots and nectarines, Mr. Jacob, of Coventry-street, displays egg-shells 
with carvings and engi-aviugs upon them, aud " views inside." If Shee-kuig, 
of Macao, delights in wasting his own life, and the lives of others whom he 
employs, in carving a nest of ivory balls out of one solid ball, instead of 
obtaining a similar re-sult, (if the world must have these toys) by the 
regular tools and simple means of ivory workmanship, we find several of 
our own countrymen equally assiduous in substituting a common penknife 
in order to perform operations which proper tools would effect far more 
easily in a tenth, perhaps a hundredth part of the time. There seems, in 
fact, a sort of mania for this )ienknife-work. Mr. Aston, of Chelsea, 
executes a model of St. James's Church, South, in cardboard, with a pen- 
knife ; Mr, ScoUick, of Birmingham, exhibits a model of St. Paurs Cathe- 
dral ; and Mr. DickerL-JOn, of Waterloo-place, a model of York Min-ster. each 
in cardboard, aud each employing no better instrument than a penknife. 
M. Schnitzer, of Jei-usalcui, exhibits two vases carved, out of a species of 
sandstone found in Jerusalem, with a penknife, which the proprietor, Sir 
Moses Moutefiore, takes care to inform the world was " an ordinary 
penknife." 

In like manner, we find an exhibitor who displays a model cottage 1 
composed of 20u0 pieces of willow wood (these also are all cai'vcd with a i 
penknife) ; and there was a table to be seen which is composed of 2,000.000 
of separate morsels, all inlaid in mosaic-work. The practical philosophers 
and economists of modern times complain of the great waste of human [ 
labour in the construction of the Pyramids of Egypt — let thoni consider 
the same subject in reference to this table. 

Many of our readers were doubtless, like ourselves, much struck with 



AN ILLUSTRATIH) (;Y(;1/)IVEI)IA OF THK filM-lAT KXIIIIJITION OF IH.",). 



m 



tlio inuilul of ii Hjiip, iiiuilu witli liottlflcurks, iind rigged in tlic Haiiio fiudiiou. 
Tiio object of tliin '"euin-ice" \\v i-iitiiiut ratliuiii. 

Ml'. Cii.fHeiis, 111' Iliillioni, exliiiiitoil ii iiunlc-l miulo in eMor pith; anil 
Mr. C'lifriiril, 111' lOxetrr, ilis|il;iyi!il iiimlel.s niiidu " nl' tlio ]ii(li of tlie eiinunnn 
groen nisli," wliicli lio i-arot'iiUy iuforius u^ i.i Hueli a-i i.s " umoiI in luakini,' 
ruBlilinlits." 

In line of Ifogai-tliH prints tboro is a capital satire uiion tlie uxpomlituro 
of oxtraorilinuiy means to proilueo a Binijili! result. Vou see a pile of 
OOMiplieateil niaeliinory, wliieli iiiiliuates tliat an operation reipiiring groat 
power in aliiiiil to lie iliKplayeil. The skill of the artist in the ilesigii anil 
in the lUTiingeniout of light ami simile eausies the eye to travel about and 
oxauiine the viu'ious jjarts of tho nnichinery in order to ascertain the work 
it is about to |ierfonii. when finally you discover at tho bottom of tho 
great machino lUi oiilinary wine-bottle, the neck of which is corked, and 
tlie whole of this ni.achinery is evidently employed in " drawing the cork." 
Of a similar kind of elaboration in order to effect a very simide object, 
wo fufti' wo nuist class some of tho new inventions in horns and flutes, to 
tlie former of whit-li many complicated crooks and curves, and to the 
latter many scarcely praeticablo keys have been added, merely to enable 
the instiiimcnt to produce a certain note which might be omitted with no 
great loss, or produced by otlier means. Nothing injures tone more than 
a Buperalinndanco of mechanism. Vivier always plays on tho old l''reuch 
horn, without any of tho complicated improvements, and Nicholson used 
to play on a ihite niueh simpler tlian many now exhibited, and wo have 
never heard any performer who gave so much tone to the iustruincnt. 

An American inventor of the name of Wooil, exhibited a combination of 
the pianofoitc and violin, with which ho assumes that pieces can bo jilayed 
with the effect of these two instruments in concert. Something like this, 
no doubt, may be accomplished by gi\nng an attaclmient to the piano, 
wliioli shall produce a resemblance to the sound of a violin ; but in the 
present instimco the inventor has literally attached a violin, played iipon 
by four bows, which ai'e put in motion by a separate set of keys on a small 
\ipper finger-board, wliich cause tlie bows to "saw" (.as we may truly say) 
upwards and downwards, with an effect which we frankly confess to be 
indescribable. You can see the whole operation; and a more ludicrous 
thing both to see and hear, it has seldom been our lot to experience. 
Moreover, there is nothing now in tho contrivance. The " Philosophical '' 
Jury, t'lass Xa, however, discovered some peculiar merit in it, and have 
awarded the maker " 50/. for the expenses incurred in constructing Ids 
piano-violin ; " a slice of " solid pudding," (us Punch describes liis imaginary 
award of '20.000/, to Sir Joseph Paxton,) fai' more acceptable than medal or 
" honourable mention." 

An inventor exhibited "a model of a carriage," which supplies its own 
railway, laying it down as it advances, and taking it up after the wheels 
have passed over. This is extremly ingenious ; but, unfortunately, it 
supposes the existence of a level line for the operatio'^-, so that its utility 
becomes r.ather questionable. 

A drinking glass v/as exhibited, with a partition for soda and acid, to be 
mixed separately, the junction of the two streams effecting effervescence 
only at the moment of entering the mouth. Few people could "stand this" 
we should think. 

In the windows of most of the great cutlers of London may be .seen 
knives witli an extraordinary number of blades ; and on the ground floor 
of the Grand Exposition was exhibited a large glass case, as big as a hand- 
some summer-house, full of all sorts of fine ciitlery and other workmanship 
in steel, the most prominent features of which are several of these prepos- 
terous knives. Some seem to have 50 blades, of all sorts of shapes and 
sizes, others 1 50 blades, and one or two of them, we feel assured, cannot 
display less than 400 or 500 blades. To accomplish this capricious feat, 
the inventors are always obliged to have recourse to a strangely thick 
handle of an utterly impracticable kind a* to all handling : and in the glass 
case rcferreil to might be found one in the shape of a cross, thus combining 
fom* handles, each one crowded with blades ; another has the handle in the 
shape of a star or double cross, thus combining six handles, each one 
bristling with lihi.les, and arranged at the end of each handle in the form 
of a fan of bright penknives and blades of instruments. But all these are 
surpassed in capricious ingenuity by a " knife," the handle of whicli, if we 
must call it so, is a combination of three handles, each in form of a cross, 
the lai'gest being in the iniddle. The tliree crosses are combined by an 
upright shaft, and each of the three comprises four handles. Thus, we 
liave twelve handles in one, and from each of the twelve there sticks out a 
shining fan-work of blades and steel instruments, of all conceiv.able shaj^es, 
and all real or imaginary offices, not one of which could be put in operation 
amidst .such a crowd. It is oue of the most wonderfully useless things we 
ever saw. As to the number of blades and tools, they defy calculation. 
In the same case might be seen miniature knives, which are actually of the 
same kind, and present numerous blades from a handle of an inch and a 
half in length. Also miniature knives and scissors of an inch long, of 
half an inch long, and of a quarter of an inch li;»ng ; and, by way of com- 
pleting the wonder, twelve paii-s of miniature scissors, placed in Uttle brass 
IBoales, which show that the whole twelve only weigh half a grain. They 
require a microscope to be seen properly, when it becomes manifest that 
tliey are perfectly fonned scissors. We suppose Messrs. Rodgers would 
jSay, in explanation of all this fancy-work, that the use of it was to show the 
world what Sheffield could do, not only in work, but in play. 



GLASS MANUFACTURES. 



71.- 



-VaIIIOL'8 KiNIlS 01' Ol,AM T) l^CRlnRD. 
CoioullINii. 



Or.Ass CirrmtoxND 



TN our first arliclo on tho subject of Glass Mnnnf.u;turo«, (No.4,pp. 49-51.) 

after giving a history of that useful and beautiful production, we c<jnfined 
our observations to a description of the jiroccss adopted by Messrs. C'liaiico 
and Co., in manufacturing the ghtss used in the consti-uction of the Crystal 
Palace— a process by wliich platoglaus wjis maile by blowing and preuiiiug, 
somewhat after tho fashion of broaU-glas.s. Tliis it will be observed in a 
new method of procedure as relates to platc-gla«s, and it i» one wliich 
could not liavo been adopted if the licavy duties upon glass, which existed 
till within the last six years, had still been retained. The rea.son of tlii.t L) 
well known to all acquainted with tlie various processes euiployetl in tliu 
manufacture, all of which were conducted under the turoeillance of the 
exciseman. Hy the rigorous rule adopted by this tax-master, all material 
once put in course of manufacture was held liable to duty, even though 
broken, or wasted by accidental causes. The conscqiicuco was, that 
experiments were out of the question, and all thoughts of attemjitiug new 
or improved principles abandoned. 

Having explained thus much, we will now retrace our steps B little, and 
describe the various sorts of glass, and the processes ordinarily applied to 
them, previous to the removal of the glass duties. AVo will aftenvanls 
take a review of some important new processes of recent adoption, which 
we find exemplified amongst the contributions to tho Great Exhibition. 

Generally speaking, there are three kinds of glass in ordinary use : — 
Flint-glass, Plate-glass, and Crown-glass ; but some make five soris, viz. : — 
Fllnt-f/lass, or Ci'ijvUd ; Plate-glass; Crown^f/lass^ or Oerman shed-ylass ; 
Broad ijlass, or romnion Wtinl'/w-glass ; and Bottle-fjlass, 

Flint-f/lass, the most fusible of any, is used for bottles, utensils intended 
to be cut and polished, and for various ornamental purposes. The best 
kind is composed of white silieious sand, pearlash, red oxide of lead, nitrate 
of potash, and the black oxide of manganese. It fuses at a lower tempc- 
ratm'e thau crown-glass, and has a beautiful transparency, a gi'eat refnu;tive 
power, and a eompai'ative softness, which enables it to be cut and polished 
with case. On this account it is much used for glass vessels of every 
description, and especially those which are intended to be ornamented by 
cutting. It is also employed for lenses and other optical glasses. Fliut- 
glass is worked by blowing, moulding, pressing, and grinding. Articles of 
complex form, such as lamps and wine-glasses, are formed in pieces, which, 
are fif forwards joined by simple contact, while the glass is hot. It appears 
that the red lead used in tho manufiicture of liint-glass gives up a part of 
its oxygen, and passes to the state of a protoxide. 

Plate-glass, so called from its bcmg cast in plates or large sheets, is the 
most valuable, and is used for mii-rors and the windows of carriages. It is 
composed of white sand, cleansed with purified pearlashes and borax. But, 
should the metal appear yellow, it is restored to its pellucid ti-ansparency 
by the addition (in equal proportions) of a small ciuantity of manganese 
and arsenic. It is cast on a large liorizontal table, and all excrescences are 
pressed out by passing a large roller over the metal. To polish the glass. 
it is h"dd on a horizontal table of freestone, perfectly smooth ; and then .i 
smaller piece of glass, fastened to a plank of wood, is passed over the other 
till it has received its due degi'ee of polish. But, to facilitate this process, 
■n-ater and sand are used, .as in the polishing of mai'ble ; and, lastly, Tripoli, 
smalt, emery, and putty, to give it lustre. 

It has been already explained that a sort of plate-glass is now made by 
blowing and pressing. It was so made for the Great Exhibition Building. 

Crown-glass is the best sort of window glass, and differs from the flint- 
glass in containing no lead, nor any metallic oxide, except manganese, and 
sometimes oxide of cobalt in minute portions, not as flux, but for correcting 
the natural colour. This glass is much harder and harsher to the touch 
than the flint-glass ; but, when well-made, it is a very lieautiful article. 
It is compounded of sand, alkali, either potash or soda, the vegetable a-shes 
that contain the alkali, and gener.ally a small portion of lime. A small 
dose of ai'seuic is often added, to facilitate the fusion. Zafl're, or the oxide 
of cobalt, with gi'ouud fhnt, is often used to correct the dingy yellow of 
the inferior sort of crown-glass : and by adding the blue, natural to glass 
coloured with this oxide, to convert the whole into a soft light gi'een. 1 ounce 
of zaffre is sutticient for lOOOlb. But when the sand, alkali, and lime, are 
very fine, and no other ingredients are used, no zaffre, or corrective of bad 
colour is required. A verj' fine glass of this kind may be made by 200 
parts of pretty good soda, 300 of fine sand. 33 of lime, and from 250 to 300 of 
the ground fr-agmeots of glass. AVe had formerly in London t',vo kinds of 
crown-glass, distinguished by the places where they were wrought ; viz. : — 
1, Eatcliff crovru-ghvss, -fthich is tho best aud clearest, and was first made 
at the Bear Garden, on the Bankside, Southwark, but since at Rati-liff : of 
this there are twenty -four tables to the case, the tables being of a circular 
form, about three feet six inches in diameter. 2, Lambeth crown-glass, 
which is of a darker colour than the former, and more inclining to green. 

Crown-glass is made by blowing in the form of circular plates of 50 or 
60 inches in diameter ; this is efl'ected in the following manner : a quan- 
tity of " the metal," in a pasty state, having been collected upon the end of 



92 



THE CRYSfAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



the blowiug-tube, is converted by blowing into a globe of 
the requisite thickness. This globe is then transferred to 
the end of a rod, and after being re-heated, is twirled round 
and round, — just as a mop is twii-led, in order to drive out 
the water : the effect of this twii'ling, by the centrifugal force 
generated, is to elongate the globe laterally : th;it is, to 
flatten it gradually from the shape of an orange down to 
that of a circular disk. The sheets may be seen in the circu- 
lar form in the glass-cutting shops. 

Broad-glass is an inferior kind of wiudow-gla.ss, made with 
a cheaper kind of alkali. It is blown into a cylindrical form, 
cut open, and spread into a flat plate, in the same way as 
the jjlate-glnss for the Great Exhibition, described in our 
previous notice. 

1\xe bottle QT (jreen glass, 
usually made of common 
sand, lime, and some clay, 
fused with au impiu'o 
alkali, is very hard, and 
resists the corrosive 
action of all liquids much 
better than flmt glass : 
the green colour is owing 
to the iron : and it is well 
adapted for chemical 
vessels. 

We now come to speak 
of Annealinrj, which is a 
process which all glass 
requires to undergo be- 
fore using. For this pur- 
pose large furnaces ai'e 
prepared, where the 
glass, after being blown 
or cast, is deposited, first 
in a heat not sufficiently 
liigh to melt it, and it 
is then successively re- 
moved to cooler parts of 
the annealing chamber, 
till it becomes cold 



enough to be taken out for use. If cooled too suddenly th6 
glass would be too brittle ; and the effect of cooling without 
any annealing, is curiovisly exhibited in what are known as 
glass drops, or Prince liiiperCs tears. These are made by 
letting drops of melted glass fall into cold water, wlicrehy 
they become suddenly solidified without annealing. Their 
form resembles that of a pear, round at one extremity, and 
tapering to a slender tail at the other. If a part of the tail 
be broken ofl', the whole drop falls to pieces with a smart 
explosion. 

Colouring. The different coloured glasses owe their tints 
to the different metallic oxides mixed with the matei'iala 
\\hile in a state of fusion. In this manner are made those 

excellent pastes, 
which so faith- 
fidly imitate, and 
not unfre<|iiently 
excel, in brilli;).ucy 
their originals, the 
gems of antiquity. 
The glass, how- 
ever, for this pur- 
pose, is prepared 
in a peculiar man- 
ner, and requires 
great nicety. It 
combines purity 
and durability. 
Opaque glass is 
made by the ad- 
dition of the oxide 
of tin, and pro- 
duces that beauti- 
ful imitation of 
enamel which is 
so nnich admired. 
Dials for watches 
and clocks 
thus made. 

GlasS'Cutthig is 
performed by 




OKOUl' OF liollEJUA;,- CLAsa. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPyLDIA OF THE C.WY.XT KXIIIHITIOX OF 1851. 



93 



),'i-in(linK tlio sui-faeo upon mnM wIicl'Ik of »tone, inotsil, or wood; 
tlio gliu'fs licing lield to the Hurfnco of tlic wIicoIh, nncl movod almut 
by tlio Imnd of tlio workiniin in the diroctionn ncccn«iiry to produce 
tho doMired figure. Tlio first cutting in dono with whccln of Btono ; 
tlio sccoikI with iron, covered with Hliiirp Riuid nnd emery; and finally 
with brush wheclH, covered with p\itty. Tho cut 
aurfaccH nio polished in parts, or left dead ac- 
cording to tho reciuirenicnta of the design. A 
small streain of water is kept continually run- 
ning on tho glass to prevent tho friction from 
exciting too much lioat. In tho case of very thin 
iuiirlcs, as tho finer description of wine-glasses, 
ilh- material is supported by moans of a wooden 
rmiii or mould introduced into it; upon which 
also aro sometimes marked the principal points of 
I the design. 

I Wo now turn to a consideration of some of tho 
rcniarkablo evidences of our newly developed 
industrial energies, in this branch of m.aiuifacture, 
presented by tho various collections exhibited in 
the Crystal Palace. Of the Palace itself, and tho 
Crystal Fountain which adorned its central com- 
I'lirtiuent, wo have already spoken, in some detail ; 
111- lia\o now to deal with other instances, indi\-i- 
■ 111 illy less striking in their appeals to tho eye, 
I'ut to the full a.s interesting iu an industrial and 
-riontific i^oint of view. 

Messrs. Chance and Co. who supplied the glasa 
('>!■ tlie E.xUibitiou building, aro also exhibitors of 
111 nrticlo which until tho removal of the duty 
( \\ e shall never have done referring to that odious 
I'lirtlien!) was scarcely ever attempted in this 
icountry. One of the specimens of dioptric ap- 
jparatus for Iighthou.ses, in the western nave, was 
from their manufactory ; the other was con- 
structed by Mr. Wilkin.s, of Long-acre, for tho 
(Trinity Bo.ard. Tliis optical apparatus is itself a 
'distinguishing feature of our improvement iu 
glass manufacture. Hitherto all the lenses of this 
'order have been supplied from the Continent. The 
light-houses on our own shores could only be reu- 
|dered efiectivo by the use of French and German 
Iglass. Here we have, however, tho most inter- 
iesting proof that we can make these beautifully 
iarranged lenses and eatadioptric zones for our- 
iselves. Fresnel claims the merit of this hast 
iimprovement, by which a total reflection of all 
the light is effected; but at the s.ame time it 
must not be forgotten that the experiments and 
-ugf,'e3tion3 of Sir David Brewster, during the 
|iuvestigation of the commissioners apjjouitcd to 
Ircport on the northern light-houses were the 
j5tarting point of the inductive process from whicli 
this final deduction was derived. Messrs. Apslcy 
Pellatt and Co. .are large exhibitors of flint glass. 
They commenced by showing all the materials 
iiiiployedin its manufacture, together with models 
3f the glass-house furnaces — completing their 
icrics by examples of the purest crystal, pai-ti- 
iilarly as employed for c.andelabi-a and chaudc- 
icrs. The largo chandelier which hung at tho 

rner of the north central galleiy and the 

uisept, manufactured for Messrs. Perry, is a 
l-eiT beautiful example ; it is constructed "for HA 
handles, and the prismatic drops are so cut and 
m-auged that the general result is the appeai-anco 
jf one elegantly formed ma.s3 of ci-yst,al. 

The exhibition of the candelabra made for her 
aajesty by Messi-s. Osier, of Birmingham, and 
ither examples of flint glass from the same firm-- 
n addition to those already named, and to others 
iVliose works we shall eventually examine in detail 

prove tho perfection of this branch of manu- 



facture. It is not merely in tir\ii'-p:ir'iiry to light and in freedom from 
colour that tho beauty of flint gl.wi or crystal conBists— it i« in the diamond- 
like jiroperty of sending back the rayH to the eye in greater brilliancy than 
it receives them ; and in this respect much of that which wa« hIiowu in the 
Exhibition is very perfect. The Knglisli were not formerly micccHsful in giving 



I 




i i;\>TAL eAM>l,I.Al;l;A --UriLlLK. 

THESE SPLENDID CAKDKLABHA, IN CUT CBYSTAL, WERE SIANTFACTURED FOB HER MAJESTY. THET STAKD Elf-HT FEET 

H GIT, AND HAVE BRANCHES FOR FIKTEE;,' LIOUT^ EACH. IN THE S.\5tE GROUf ARE SMALLER CANDELABRA. 



94 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



colour to their glass ; there was always a want of that brightness which distin- 
guished the works of the Germans, and particulai-!y of the Bohemians. The 
colours are given in nearly all cases by metallic oxides, and these vary not 
merely in tint, but actually in colour, by the quantity of h" at to which the 
fused "mixture is exposed. In the Bohemian glass a ruby, in particular, was 
produced offer greater beauty than auythiug wliich our manufacturers could 
accomplish. This eo]om- is due to oxide of gold, although reds of much 
brilliancy can be produced by copper, and also by iron. Some examples 
of the reds produced by those metals were found amongst the productions 
of British exhibitors; and upon examining' the examples of Bohemian 
glas", it became apparent that we can now produce glass in every respect as 
brilliant and as intense in colour as that which has rendered our continental 
friends so long celebrated. In tlie articles exhibited by Mi-. Varnish and 
Jfr. MelUsh these colours were well sliown. Most of the gla.ss exhibited 
by them was manufactured by Messrs. Powell and Co., Whitefriars, and 
this itself presents a noticeable peculinrity. All the glass is double, the 
object of this being to enable the patentees to fill the inside with a solution 
of nitrate of silver, to which gi-ape sugar is adilod, when all the silver held 
in solution is deposited in a beautiful film of revived silver over every part 
of the glass. This sihmnr/ on the interior wall of the glass (globes, vases, 
and numerous other articles are shown to be susceptible of the process) 
has the property of reflecting back thruugli the glass all the light which 
falls on the surface — whereas ordinarily some is transmitted, aud only a 
small portion reflected. This exalts many of the colours in a striking 
manner, and not only does it exalt tlie colours, but the dichi'omism of the 
glass is curiou.=ly displayed. Much of the red and yellow glass thus 
as.sumes an opalescent tinge of blue, which, in some examples, is not un- 
pleasing. U'e greatly admire some of the coloured examples of this process, 
but we cannot think that the pure white glass — the beauty of which is it.s 
ti-anspai"ency — is in any respect improved by silvering. 

The illustrations of engraving (m glass were numerous, and many of them 
exceedingly beautiful. Vi'e particularly admired some of the specimens by 
Mr. ICidd, of his new process for illuminating, embroidering, and silvering 
flat surfaces. All the designs are cut on the under face of the glass, and 
then being silvered, are thrown up in a veiy pleasing manner, producing 
an optical deception of an interesting character. In many of the engi-aved 
specimens we have the very beautiful eflfect of cutting through several 
surfaces to coloui-ed glass. do\vn to the translucent body. The opaque 
glass coating, which may be produced either l)y mixing oxide of tin or 
ai"senic with the glass, is first laid over the crystal ; then on this is applied 
the ruby glass, and where the ruby has been jiroduced by gold tlie result 
is most satisfactory. These, being cut through, present the three surfaces 
in any way which may be decided on by the artist. Rice Harris and Son's 
pressed glass is of the gi'eatest interest. By pressing into moulds, this 
eleg.ant material is produced to the public in uscfvil and symmetrical forms, 
at prices considerablj' below those at whicli cut flint glass could possibly 
be offered. Many of the specimens of pressed glass exhibitod. have a degree 
of shai'pness in all the oraamental pai-ta which renders it difficult, without 
a close examination, to say whether or not they have been subjected to the 
operation of the gla.ss-ciitter's wheel. 

Among other new applications of this process of pressing glass into form, 

Messrs. Powell and Sons, of tlia Whitefriars Glass-works, exhibited their 

patent pressed glass for windows. There is much novelty and ingenuity in 

thi.s. The pattern is pressed in the glass, and then, by a subsequent process, 

'.dass of another colom' is flowed into it ; the whole is then ground down 

to a imiform surfece, and the result is an inlaid pattern of glass of one 

colour, in glass of another. The windows formed in this manner are verj- 

cHective; and it appeirs to us that they realise the re.-:ults which in stained 

gla^s are only obtained by the long-continued action of the atmosphere aud 

light. None of our modern church windows realise that *' dim religious 

light" which is peculiar to those older fanes standing as memorials of the 

piety of our forefathers. The light permeating tlio modem windows suffers 

ordinary chromatic anal}-sis, and falls upon the floor in well-defined colour, 

and the outlin" of the design can be easily traced. In those of olden time 

the colours fall blended ; thero is a general diffusion of tones ; no one 

colour coming out more decidedly than anothei". Upon examining old 

gla.ss windows it will be found that the utmost pains had been taken to 

secure this effect ; the glass is often purposely roughened ; frequently pieces 

of different colours are blended ; but stdl the action of time and the abrasion 

of the expo.sed surfece is the important agent to which the harmonious 

effect is due. Mes.5rs. Hardman and Co. have had glass manufactured 

purposely to endeavoiu- to imitate the i-ec^uired condition of the mediaeval 

styles, and in m.iny of their wimlows they have been eminently successful. 

The antiquity of pressed glass Is veiy remai-kable. The A.s.syrians, the 

Eg>'ptians, the Greeks, aud the Romans all adopted the process of pressing 

or squeezing the glsss, when it v.-.-us in a pasty state, into moulds. Some 

6ne examples of this will be found amongst the glass series in tlie Museum 

of Practical Geologj-. 

The examples of plato-glass were exceedingly good. The Thames Plate 
Glass-works exhibited at the western end of the building the largest glass 
plate hitherto manufactured. The examples of British plate which are 
found in the Spitalfiolds trophy are beautiful specimens of this class of 
manufacture. 

On the whole, the glass manufacture of the Kxliibition — commencing 
with the sands, alkalies, and models, and terminating with the great Glass 
Palace itself, and its fancy fountain — is exceedingly complete, and of the 
Iiighcst interest. 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION.-THE AWARDS OF THE PRIZES. 

(from the illustrated LONDON NEWS.) 

'rHAT a limited number of prizes should be allotted amongst 17,000 
cancUdates, by any body of men, however immaculate, however 
profoimd in judgment, in a manner to give satisfaction to eveiybody, was 
hardly to be expected. Such a result could not have entered into the 
widest dreams of the most Utopian votary of universal hannouy. Vi'e 
were well prepared, therefore, to find that the awards of the juries in the 
Great Exhibition contest should give rise to much animated contention; 
but we were also supported by the hope that their decisions would have 
been such as, after free discussion, to meet with a general and conscien- 
tious support from the majority of the public. Such w-as.our view of the 
difficulties inseparable from the case, such our hope of the conclusion to 
be arrived at. We regret to say, and it would be useless aud vain to 
disguise it, we have in all this been grievously disappointed. If universal 
contentment was scarcely to be aimed at, much less expected, such general, 
such wholesale discontent, at the closing procedure of those intrusted with 
responsible authority in the affairs of the Great Exhibition of Industry of 
all Nations of 1851, was hardly to be apprehended, as that which has 
.already begun to visit the contents of the ominous-looking packet, delivered 
to the Prince President on that cold damp morning of the 15th of October, 
when, in almost soleuiu silence, the public business of the Royal 
Commission was brought to a close. 

Wishing to deal with this subject with the gravity and in the coolness of 
tenijier which its importance to the whole industrial community of the 
woi'ld demanded, we abstained from making any comment in our last 
publication ; considering that what it took thirty-four juries, of five and 
upwards each, nearly six months to agree upon aud propound, might well 
require as many days for the journalist to examine and understand. It 
was hardly possible, we thought, for any man to airive at a correct conclu- 
sion upon the value and justness of so voluminous a repoi-t as that 
presented, a report comprising five thou.s,and names, without some days' 
deliberation; — the malversation must indeed be flagrant and palpaMe, 
which could be detecte«l upon a first blush of the document ; and, there- 
fore, although many murmurs of discontent on the one part, many sugges- 
tions of auccessful diplomacy on the other, in respect to these awards, had, 
during many weeks past, from time to time reached us, we preferred 
holding our.selves unprejudiced in the matter, in order to form our ultimate 
opinion upon an inspection of the actual decisions, coupled with our own 
knowledge of the facts. In this spirit we now proceed to consider the 
conduct of the Commissioners of the Cireat Exhibition aud their delegates, 
in the all-important mattt-r of the Adjudication of Prizes. 

Aud, in the first place, a word about the prizes themselves, which, 
although the closing honours of the whole proceeding, were, as we all 
must remember, held out as a jirimary object and inducement at the 
commencement of the undertaking. 

We are not now going to discuss in the abstract, whether, in an inter- 
national competition of industry, money rewards of considerable value, or 
mere honorary awards whose value must dej)end entirely upon the circum- 
stauces under which they are allotted, are the most desirable, and the most 
likely to bring about the object held in view. Our opinion, however, is in 
favour of a certain amount of money rewai-ds in good round sums, iu 
conjunction with honorary prizes : the former to be considered as pre- 
miums for a contribution of actual value to the whole comnimiity (accom- 
plished, perha])S, at considerable cost to the producer) ; the latter as 
testimonials of individual merit, conducing eventually to the profit of the 
individual producer. 

And, whether or not we are right in this view of the case, it was that 
adopted as the very ba-sis of the Exposition of l&al ; it was that confirmed 
in the most authoritative manner by the patent by which the Royal 
Commission was .appointed. And it w,a,s so adopted upon gi-ounds which 
are plainly set forth in the minutes of the meeting at Osborne, on the 1st 
July, 1849, thus recorded : — 

"The Prizes proposed, to be submitted for the consideration 'of the 
Commission of Medals, and money prizes sn large as to orercnme the scruples 
and prejudices even of the largest and richest manufacturers, and ensure the 
greatest amount of exertion. The first prize to be .5000?. ; and, one at lea.it, of 
1000/. to be given in each of the four sections. Medals conferred by the Queen 
H'ould very much enhance the value of the prizes." 

Here lu-e money Prizes announced, and announced as inducements to 
individuals to support the project — money prizes to the amount of 9000t 
at the least, besi<les '■ medals conferred by the Queen." But that this was 
not the limit of pecuuiary rewards at that time contemplated by the pro- 
motci-s, appears by the very words of the patent appointing the Royal 
Commission (dated Jan. 3, 1S50), th" premises of which, recited that 
20,000i. had been actually invested in the hands of ti-ustees by the Society 
of Arts for the purpose of being distributed in Prizes, such sum being 
named as the minimum amoimt which it would be proper to devote in tliat 
manner as an inducement to manufacturers to come forward in competition 
with their best and most expensive works. 

Such was the original intention of the Society of Arts, such was the 
scheme whiidi w.as confirmed by Royal patent ; and we hold that it was 
no unimportant feature iu the affair, inasmuch as the estimates of thc 
probablo cost or risk of the whole undertaking, upon the strength of which 



AN ILLUSTllATMl) CVCLOP.EDIA OF TMH GREAT EXHIBITION 01'' IH'A. 



95 



tho pulilio was nppoaloj to for subscriptions, included tliin 20,000/. for 
I'rizcs as u spcuific item, tlio gross cstinmtc being about 80,000/. And to 
tbat miiH-al tho publio, thouyli not witliuut iniKglvin!,'M, roplicd by fleudinK 
ip subsunptiiins to tho .aino\iiit of 7<'.(iO0/., of wliicli li-l.TiOO/. bad boun paid 
up boforo Ibo opuiiin^ of Ibi^ Kxliibiliou, and at a time when its profitable 
isauo Wivs still a mutter of cpiuation. 

Such was tho original schonio ; bow different ha."! boon that actuully 
carried out. ovorv ouo knows, as wo said before. Witli rcsiieot to tho 
abstract jxdicy of the change decided upon in tbo natvn-o and adju<lication 
of the Tri/.c^, wo have not now to speak. It niiL;lit bo (juito competent to a 
body of C)i>niuiiK.<ionei'«, noting in a multer jiurely their own, and di.sjOTsing 
of tboir own, to d" so iu any way they tliought nio.st conducive to tbo 
object tliey eniisiilei'ed it <le.sirablo to atfcun ; it nii;;bt liavo been fjuito 
c-i>mpetent to tlicm. in such case, to have substituted an unlimited mimber 
of bix>u/o mcduls i'ov a niiainuun amount of mouey prizes, in addition to 
nioduls. But luiw stands tbo question with regard to those who contri- 
buted their mnuoy to make up tbo rtviuired amount for the Exhibition and 
its announced nmncy prizes f how sianils the question with the nmnufnc- 
turci's and otlier producora, who at great expense, and at great cost of 
labour, wore inducetl to prepare objects for exposition upon tho induce- 
ment of a ]>ossibl0 reward in one of those luoney prizes i 

This is a very delicate question — money matters always are — and we will 
notuowdiscu** it further. We will ouly, with very groat doforeuco, submit 
that tho abandouuiont of the largo mouey pi'izes distinctly announced in 
tha premises of the Koyai patent is morally, if not legally, a fatal 
iloparture from its purpose, at least in as far as the liability of voluntary 
f ubsorihers is concerned ; and wo will add, that nothing could justify the 
alteration of policy limiting tho rewards to a distribution of bronze medals, 
except its signal and entire sucee.s3. 

A review of the minutes iu which the altered scheme of prizes was 
niinounced, followed by a careful consideration of the address of Viscount 
('anning as tho heid of tho jury department, convinces us, tliat, iu this 
very important matter — a matter involving the only tangible result of the 
whole proceeding — neither tho Comnii-sioners nor the Juries ha 1 arrived 
.'it any definito notions either as to what should l;)e reward' tl, or the scale 
of rewards to be apportioned. At the very outset uf their labours, indeed, 
tiio jurors appear to have been restricted from rewax'ding merit according 
to its degree or relative importance. It «as originally intended that there 
.s-iiould be throe medals : tlie first, fov the highest (legree of merit, to bo 
awarded ouly by tlie general body, the second for superior merit, and the 
third for merit in a le.")s degree — botli the latter to be at the disposition 
t'i' the scvGi'al jvu'ies. But such a disposition of awards soon became 
iuMnsist^nt with an instruction from the Commissiouei-s which at the very 
outsat obstructed the proceedings of the juries. Viscount Canning, in his 
address, states : — 

"The Council of Chairmen, in proceeding to the discharge of their duties, 
v,'er© met ."it the outset by a serious difficulty. Her Majesty's Commissioners 
li'vl expressed themselves desirous that mcnt should be rcicanlal wherever 
!-' pre9«nttd ih<if, buf rtur/ow.i at the same lime to avoid the recognition of com- 
pclitinn between iiidimdual e.rMhitor.s. They had also decided that the prizes 
sliould consist of three medals of different sizes ; and that theie should 
be awarded, not as first, second, and third in degree for the same class of 
Siubjects and merit, but as marking merit of difierent kinds and character. 

" The Council of Chairmen found, to their regret, that it would be 
impossible to lay down any rules for the awarding of the medals, by which 
fiie apjiearanre at lea^t of denotiny different degrees of sicecess amoiufst exhi- 
hiUjv& in the same bra7ich of production could he avoided. Accordingly, after 
fully explaining their difficulty to her Majesty's Commissioners, they 
roijuested, as a course by which it might be materially diminished, that 
ouft of the medals might be withdrawn. Of the remaining two, they sug- 
gC6te(l that ono, the i'rize Medal, should be conferred wherever a certain 
.^t'tiMiard of excelleuce in production or workmanship had been obtained — 
utility, beauty, cheapness, adaptation to particular markets, and other 
e!»ments of merit being taken nito consideration according to the nature 
'>f tlie object: anil they recommended that this medal should be awarded 
by the juries, subject to confii'mation by the groups." 

The Euglisii of tliis is unfortunately too plain. The juries having 
obtained authority to distribute medals just as they would halfpence in 
1he streets — "wherever a certain {qu. uncertain) stand.ard of excellence" 
presented itself — had absolutely abnegated their responsibility as jurors 
between candidate and candidate: their value of the "prize" as a test of 
" superior merit" was gone, and a general scramble ensued, m whicli the 
.".ttainmeut of a medal might be profitable to the small publicity-hunting 
trader, but could never bo "honourable" to the man engaged in any of 
the higher branches of discovery or enterprise. 

The Council of Chairmen seem to have been early aware of this inevitable 
result of the abandonment of a portion of their functions; and, accord- 
i'lgly. Lord Canning says; — 

" In regard to the other and larger medal, they suggested that the cou- 
d.tions of its award should be some important novelty of invention or 
iipyiHcation, either in material or processes of manufacture, or orirjinality 
omkhted with great be.^uty of design : but that it should not be conferred 
; Jt. ea:cellence of production or workmanship alone, however eminent; 
rnd they further auggosted that this medal should be awarded by the 
I'ouneil of Chairmen, upon the recommendatimi of a jury supported by 
ilsfirtnep." 

The proceeding was still further mystified by a device adopted by 
the jurors, at their own instance; who, although they would not imder- 



t.iko to apportion two di/itiiu't claHncs of bronzo mcd.-il«, yet attempted to 
distinguish between two claxseH of merit. Tho " prine mcdaln," unlinjitcd 
in number, alniont unconditional in their application, were not Hufticient 
to mark tho very ordinary level of raorit required of tho reclpinntu ; aud 

accorflingl}' — 

" Tho juries have found it just (cays Lord Canning), in framing their 
repojt, to make AoHoiirn/y/c mcn/iwi of certain cxhibitonj whoso contributions 
were not such as to entitle them to receive a vicdul." 

It only wanted this to crown tlio adjudication of awardii with ridicule ; 
and to render then- value nomething moro than questionablo. Ij)t thoHe 
wdio feel aggrieved at being denied one of tho 1 70 "• Council inedalii," and 
thrown into the common lot of 338-1 "I'rize medal" recipientu, consider 
the feelings of tho 2012 who are condenuicd to put up with " honourable 
mention." 

It will 1)0 curious one day to endeavour to ancortain tho line by which tho 
juries separated the " I'rize medal " cla&s from those entitled to " honourable 
mention." At present, a few instances of both, the result of a very curiiory 
cxamuLttion, must suffice. The exhibitor of " a well-mado sljirt" from tho 
United States, of " lamb's tail oil," of a " clay tobacco-pipe," of a " wedding 
cake," of a "box of .-wBctmcats," of a " walking-stick," of "a p.iil," of "a 
broom,'' receives a m'-<lal of equal value with that awarded for the ciystal 
fountain of Me-ssrs. Osier, tho jjianofortcs of Messrs. Broad wood and Me-srfl. 
CoUard, the railway break of Mr. Lee. the porcelain and statuary of Jlr. 
Copeland, the vertical printing-machine of Applegath, the new motive 
power and other valuable inventions of I'^ricsson, the nationally-important 
and commercially-valuable processes iu the preparation of flax of Claussen, 
tho oompensated balance of Loseby, the wood-carving of Itogera and 
Wallis, &o. 

Amongst tho crowd of subjects which have been put off with " honouralde 
mention," we find "amber cigar mouth-piecos," "canes of ram's-hom." 
" toilet soaps," " toys," " clay pipes," guns, pistols, photographs, &c. We 
find, also. Fowler's draining-plough. Shepherd's electric clock escapement, 
"a violin combining quality and cheapness," Biintiiig's "collection of furni- 
ture" (including ono of the best sideboards and ono of the handsomest 
tables iu the Exhibition) ; Hcywood, Higgingbottom, and Co., new and 
imiiortant process for producing paper-hangings by machinery. We find, 
also, Belmes' 'Startled Nymph," and some other of, to our mind, the bee^ 
pieces of sculptui-e exhibited. 

And as we have come down to tho Scnl])ture department, which enters 
into Class 30, we shall, by way of making an end to our present article 
endeavour to investigate the principles upon which the three cl<i.saes of 
awards (including the Council medal) have been made as instanced iu 
this branch of production. Now, what tliis medal was intended to effect, 
or how it was to he applied, we have no very clear notion from the 
official statement of the Chairman of the Council of Juries ; but we are 
very distinctly informed by bis Lordship of the nature of certain cases 
in which it was considered necessary to withhold it : and this must suffice 
as our guide for the present. Viscount Canning states : — 

" It was to be expected, that cases would arise in which tho Council 
medal, as the higher reward, would be asked for exhibitors whose claims 
were only somewhat stronijer in degree, without differing in kind from those 
of others to whom the Prize medal had been awarded. In such cases 
it became the duty of the Council of Chairmen to refuse their sanction 
to the award of the Council medal, without, however, neces-sarily im- 
pugning the alleged superiority of the article for which it w,is demanded. 
On the other hand, some instances have occured in which they havo 
felt themselves called upon to confirm the claim to a Council medal 
where the object for which it is claimed L?howed, in itself, less merit of 
execution or manufacture than others of its class. It follows, therefore, 
that the award of a Council medal does not necessarily stamp its recipient 
as a better manufacturer or producer than otiiers who have received the 
Prize medal. It is r,ather a mark of such invention, ingenuity, or origi- 
nality, as may be expected to exercise an injlutnce npon indvMry more extended 
and more important than could be produced by mere excellence of manufacture ^ 
Taking tliese observations as our rule and guide, we ask what the Council 
of Chairman saw in Marochetti's plaster figure of Richard Cceur de Lion 
— what in Kiss's Amazon — what in Pradier's Phryne — what, even, in the 
late E. Wyatt's beautiful nymph Glycera, to call for a Council medal'; 
when Debay's Eve, Bell's Falkland, Simonis' Godfrey de Bouillon, and 
Watson's portrait statue of Flaxman are sufficiently rewarded with a prize 
mediil !— when Behncs' Startled Nymph, Eugel's Ciroup of Amazons, 
Klingsby's (Denmark) ivory casket, Miller's Orphan, Neucini's Bacchus, 
are got rid of with "honourable mention!' — and when Gibson's Greek 
Huuter,* Campbell's Muse, Max's Hagar and Ishmael, received neither 
Council medal. Prize medal, nor honourable mention 1 

It is impossible to reconcile such glaring inconsi-^teucies as the above 
with any I'ule of common sense or common purpose ; and the only 
consolation we coiild hope to bring to the irritated and bewildered can- 
didates, whose pretensions have been thus dealt with, would be by 
recurring to the emphatic words with which Mr. Cole, six mouths ago, 
closed his introduction to the Official Catalogue : — " The work is done, 
and the collection made of the productions of 15,000 exhibitoi-s, working 
witli the ability God hath given them. To these we may siy with St. 
Paul—' In lovfiiness of mind let each esteem others better than them- 
selves.' " 

• In tlie case of Mr. cahson, oar cntcmporiu-v tippoavs to have overlooked tlie fact tliat 
tlmt gentleman, being ou the jury, could not receive a prize. — Ed. C. P. 



06 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 



TELESCOPE FUNNEL FOR 
STEAM-BOILERS. 
Mr. E. T.^ruN, of H.M. Dock- 
Yard, 'Woolwich, exhibits a 
"Model of a telescope funnel 
or chimney for marine boilers.* 
By tills design, it is intended to 
strike the chimney and waste 
steam-pipe of any steam-vessel, 
from the highest elevation, level 
with the upper deck, or even 
below it, if required. By this 
means the deck may be freed 
from such encumbrance, at tho 
particular times when, by dis- 
pensing with the usual height, 
neither the working of the 
engines nor the boiler wUl be 
prejudicially affected ; whilst the 
vessel, having full command 
over her sails, may use them 
instead of steam to greater ad- 
vantage than has hitherto been 
accomplished, the chimney being 
entirely removed, and not par- 
tially so. 3s is the case with all 
steam-ships as now fitted. 
Hitherto the chimneys of steam- 
vessels have been so constructed 
as to admit of but one sliding 
part, which, when sti-uck to the 
lowest possible position, gene- 
rally presents an unavoidable 
altitude of many feet above the 
deck, thus adding to other dis- 
advantages that of presenting 
resistance surface to the air 
when imder sail. It is presumed 
tliat the screw-ship would find 
this compound sliding-funnel a 
desideratum, particularly when 
not only an unsightly funnel, 
but even masts, rigging, and 
their appendages, might be con- 
sidered inexpedient to be re- 
tained, and when the hull only 
should be seen floating on the 
water, in order to achieve some 
important enterprise by ap- 
proaching an object unobserved. 
In such case, a smokeless coal 
or coke might be used, the 
products of combustion escaping 
from tlie chimney, though 
struck level with the deck, and 
being perfectly harmless to the 
crew of the vessel. Tho com- 



-<^ 



-■«% 



% 



s- -^ 




ill 

Iliii 

■'" .illr'ilii '<■■-• ,^x^ 



't ,■> 



TlIK FAITHFUL MESSENGF.R. — GEEFS OF AXTWEHP. 




pound funnel may be composed 
of any reasonable number of 
sliding parts, and yet the entire 
series may be raised or lowered 
Bimultaneously, in less time than 
an ordinary single telescope 
funnel, and this by means of 
a series of guide pulleys and 
chains, worked by a winch. 



HOSKING'S IMPROVED ■ 
VALVE FOR PLTMPS. 

Mr. R. Hosking, of the Perran 
Foundry, Cornwall, has an ex- 
cellent specimen "of a " valve 
applicable for Large pumps, 
divided into several parts, so as 
to avoid the risk of breaking by 
concussion, the different parts 
shutting in succession." A ver- 
tical section of this valve in its 
open state was exhibited ; the 
lifting portion in this example 
were two in number, the water 
passing through their annular 
spaces. In this way, not only 
is the water-way increased, but 
the valve action is made almost 
noiseless, and quite free from 
objectionable concussion — im- 
portant advantages, which have 
hitherto been quite unattainable 
in one valve, because, to reduce 
concussion, the water-way has 
always been narrowed. Tlio 
water in Mr. Hosking's valve 
gets clear away near the centre 
of tlie column ; and as the valve- 
lift is always in proportion to its 
area, the system of division 
constitutes each section a sepa- 
rate valve, shutting at different 
intervals, and the lift is thus so 
reduced that the shock in drop- 
ping is scarcely perceptible, 
Cornish engineers have taught, 
us many lessons in mechanicalj 
engineering, and this one on 
pump-valves is by no means ofi 
tho least importance. 




PAPER PATTERN. 

EY JEFFREY AND ALLE>r. 

This is a very handsome frieze™ 
in paperhangings by Jeffrey and 
Allen. The subjects 
nvc copied from ]ior- 
tions of the Elgin 
frieze, and represented 
witliout repetition in 
the entire length of 
24 feet. The effect of 
the chiaroscuro is very 
good : approaching to 
that of actual relief in 
stucco. 




Ji r f^jftsB 



FJ;IE7.E OF PAPKR P.VTTERX DY JEFFUF.Y AND ALLEN 



THE FAITHFUL 
MESSENGER. 

BY .1. OEEFS, OF ANTWERP. 

We have here a very 
pretty little piece of 
sentiment, very pleas- 
ingly treated. An ex- 
pression of softness 
pervades the whole ; 
the hair and drapery 
are light, and grace- 
fully disposed ; in fact, 
the material, which is 
marble, has been suc- 
cessfully handled in 
every part. 



AN IliLUSTRATEI) CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



SCULPTURE. 

THE AUSTRIAN SCULPTURE ROOM. 

\X/E inteml in tho pro'ont article to devote our attention to some of the 
works of sculptmo liy foreign artists exhibited in the Crystal Palace. 

Although old Rouic would of prescriptive courtesy cl:um our atteution 

first amongst the foreign contributors, the more numerous and varied 

display presented in the Austrian department um-t bo our excuse for giving 

tliQ latter precedence on 

the present occasion. The 

little chamber, with its 

ante-room, ' which was 

'allotted to the various 

j nations owing allegiance 
I to the Imperial House of 
i Austria, for the exposi- 
I tion of then- prod«ctions 
I in sculpture, was cram- 
' med full of works of the 

highest finish, not in 
{plaster, but in marble, 
' affording very interesting 

means of studying the 

actual stats and the pre- 
vailing tendencies of the 

various schools followed 
I by nations distinct in 
: themselves, and some of 
' which have had little 

intellectual intercourse 

with the older Art-fields 

of Europe. Not to go 
' too deeply into generali- 
ties upon this head, we 

may observe, that as Mi- 
I lanese art occupies a sort 
1 of middle place between 
' the colder classicism of 

the modern Roman 

school, and the w-ilder 

fancj* of Germania — tho 

more virgin minds of the 

central and eastern states, 

whilst they are not with- 
I out their share of the im- 
■ pulses evinced by others 

of their day, give a hint 

in some of their examples 

of working after the 

models of tlie mora 
I ancient scliools of Greece, 

the predecessors of those 

of Italy herself. lu many 

cases there is ranch tn 

condemn ; experimental 

conceits, manipulative 
No. 7, NOVKMBEK 15, 1851. 




SUSANNAH.— BY A. GALLI. 



achievements unworthy of art, and incongruities in composition which 

sober judgment cannot reconcile either to the requirements of poetrj- 
or of common sense ; in short, many instances of art misdirected, and 
marble misapplied, some of which it will be our duty to refer to more 
pai-ticularly as we go along. But, with all these drawbacks, there can 
bo no question, that, viev,-ed as a whole, tho Austrian Exposition in 
sculpture was one of tho most creditable and interesting wo have ever 
seen brought together by coutcniporancous aiiists. 

JIaking our way through 
the anteroom, wo were 
by no means favourably 
impressed by a gi-oup of 
"Atala and Chactas," by 
Innocenzo Fraccaroli, of 
Verona, which was a com- 
mon-place affaii- enough. 
This artist, we should 
mention, had another 
work of a much higher 
class (in the main avenue). 
" Achilles Wounded," the 
attitude of which wa-s 
striking and effective, 
whilst the expression of 
pain and horror in the 
face, as the hero views his 
wounded heel, is well 
depicted. An attempt 
at exhibiting the more 
essential feeling of which 
the incident is susceptible 
— the full appreciation of 
the evil omen attaching 
to the mishap, wouM 
have heightened the 
effect, and given that 
touch of historic poetr\ 
to the character, of which 
it is now deficient. 

To return to the ante 
room of the Austrian Gal 
lery : on either side of th 
table were tn-o infan 
subjects, by Antonio Gidli 
of Milan, and Benedett 
Cacciatori, of Can-an 
True, the gilt ring or hal 
round the head of th 
one implies that it i 
intended for the Infat 
Christ, whilst the othe' 
lying on a rocky surfac- 
is supposed t» be Joh 
the Baptist. But thei 
is little attempt at in. 
pressing the divine ch; 
Price One Pennt. 



98 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS: 



racter upon the covintenanccs ; indeed, how should it be in such mere 
babes as they are, and asleep too? And, direstcd of this, what of high or 
poetic interest can attach to a marble representation of a hximan suliject 
before it is formed, even in the stage of boyhood, and as yet uugiftcd with 
the intelligence and impulses of our nature ! In painting we have abun. 
dant instances of the introduction of the Infant Saviour, as part of wliat is 
called " the Holy Family ; " but, except in some few cases where the child 
is depicted as already inspired witli the prescience of his divine mission, 
and as in the act of blessing the spectator, the sanctity of the subject is 
■Generally realised by the devotional and reverential regards of the mother 
and bystandei'S, all which in the single marble subject is necesscu-ily out of 
the question. 

" The Vintage," by Gaetano Motelli, of Milan, is a very elaborate piece 
of carving, representing a whole family of cupids disporting amongst the 
branches of a clump of vine, making free with bunches of grapes as big as 
themselves, scrambling in and out, between and around them ; some pressing 
the gathered grajies in a vat below, whilst one little fellow at the top 
squeezes the purple juice into his tiny mouth. The figures were shown in 
the round : and tlie whole w:is treated as a block or centre-piece : but wo 
submit, with all its unquestionable beauties, th.at the composition is one 
better adapted to wood carving, or, better still, to silver, as a dinner table 
decoration. 

A group, byDemocrito Gandolfi, entitled "Grief and Faith," which stood in 
a prominent position at the entrance of tlie inner room, provoked criticism 
as much by the incongruities involved in its conception, as by its sins against 
harmony of outline and proportion in the arrangement. In the foreground 
• — fancy a foreground in a piece of ?culpture ! — in the foreground is a tomb 
or sarcophagus of large dimensions, over which leans, covering her face in 
her hands, a female figure ; this is '' Grief," accordiug to the commonplace 
types exhibited on the walls of eveiy parish church in England, only that 
there the artist has generally contented himself with representing it in bas- 
relief, whilst here it obtrudes upon the floor in the fullest dimensions of 
reality. For the rest, " Faith " is represented upon a circular pedestal in 
the rear, in the person of a young female kneeling. This figure, we should 
observe, was the only tolerable bit in the whole performance, and would be 
pleasing enough if .separated from the rest, with which, even artistically, it 
has no connexion. "The gi'oss error against common sense of representing 
a real object (the weeping female), and an ideal existence (the spirit of 
Faith), in the same material, and that, hard unyielding marble, must be too 
obvious to call for much remark. Even lieynolds was criticised forintroducing 
in his " Death-bed of Cardinal Beaufort " the ideal presentment of the evil 
spirit waiting for his soul in the background ; though by many he has been 
held to be justified, as only realising the picture presented by Shakspeare's 
lines descriptive of the scene. But if this was a license hardly excusable 
in painting, where, by means of the well-known appliances of art. the sop.a- 
ration of the actual from tlie imaginative part of a subject may be clearly 
defined, it is one totally unjustifiable in sculpture, where the material is 
capable of no such modification, either by tlie application of colour or the 
interposition of aerial media. 

One of the principal show-pieces in the room, and which excited the 
wonder of gazing thousands, is " The Veiled Vestal," by Raifaelle Monti, 
The ambition of the artist in this production is to represent the eifect of 
a face seen tlirongli a veil ; and so ingeniously has he managed it. that at 
a distance of the breadth of the room, the face — the marble face — actually 
looks as if it were covered with a real piece of lace. This is a triumph of 
mechanical dexterity certainly, but upon the value and merit of which we 
may have some misgivings, seeing that it achieves a greater vcrisinnlitudc 
of the worthless rag of a veil — being to the eye reality — than of the poor 
face, which remains still, pale, cold stone. The ancients wouhl never have 
been guilty of such profanati'in of their subject. 'Tis true thoy took pride 
in representing the soft outline of the limbs as rounding out and supporting 
the crisp light folds of the drajierios of their figures, (nhicli, by the way, 
they seldom liked to exhibit entirely nude, except when the case rf-ndered 
it necessary); but they would certainly have t(mi the vestal's veil from her 
face before they took her portrait, or would have abandoned her altogether 
as a subject. So much for the ancients, who can well take care of theni- 
Belves. Proceeding to a nearer examination of .Signor Monti's performance, 
we found, as we suspected, indeed knew must be the ease, that liis veil effect 
was a mere trick of art, and a trick practised to the utter destruction of the 
beauty of his vestal's face, whether seen from afar or near. Artfully dis- 
posing the folds of the veil, and making tliem generally very broad on the 
enter pai-ts, and very narrow, nay, almost vanishing, on the inner parts, 
being thoEe next the face, he further roughed the surface of the intermediate 
KjKiees, as if tlie flesh were actually covered with a vtil : and these surfaces 
seen at a distance, take the lights in such a manner, that, blending with 
tho.-ie Tin the outer siirfaces of the veil, they produce the general effect 
intended, lie form of the face being dimly and indistinctly seen as through 



a veil. In reality, portions of it only are seen at one and the same time, 
and ui one direction, and the effect so produced is not a genuine cff'ect 
quasi, but a delusion ; not a matter lirought to the mind's eye bj^ means of 
the sense of sight, but a trick played oft' upon the too credulous fancy at 
the expense of the organ of vision. Common sense and legitimate art are 
further outraged in this work by the introduction of a basket of real arti- 
ficial white roses in the hands of the figure, instead of a sculptured offering 
ill marble. The drapery generally is artificial, and the whole character of 
the piece unearthly and disagi-eeable. 

There were two other examples of the same sort of trickery in the 
room. One entitled "A Bashful Beggar," by Democrito Gandolfi, wIkisc 
" Grief and Faith " we have already noticed, represented a woman seated by 
the roadside, her face covered by, but partially revealed beneath, the folds 
of a linen drappry. in which is also wrapped the infant in her arms. More 
prominent, and at her feet, are two children begtring. A milestone, with | 
'"Dover" on it. informs us that the party are on their travels, and an in- 
scription on a scroll upon the ground states her sad case : — ''Jc suis emi- 
graute, mere, venve, et j'ai une aneurisme au creur ! " (" I am an emigrant — 
a mother — a widow — and I have an aneurism in the heart ! " ) A very poor 
subject for emigration certainly ! All tliese points show a striving after 
cff'ect by illegitimate moans, which pure art would disdain. The tfiird 
veiled figure is smaller than either of the others, and w-liich it may bo 
sufficient to ))oint out by ii.ame : it pretends to repre-sent " A Slave in the 
Market," by Eafl'aele Monti, the artificer of tiie " Veiled Vestal," (engraved 
ill No 4 of the Crystal Palace.) who seems to have adopted this notion as 
a sph-ialite. Indeed, it appears he has not been without encouragement, 
the " Veiled Vestal " being announced as the property of the Duke of 
Devonshire. 

But the trick itself has not even the merit of novelty ; it has been tried 
before, in a bad school, and at a bad age of art certainly, and has been 
condemned by the judicious. Two examples exist in the Church of Santa' 
Maria della Piet^, at Naples, executed about the middle of the last century, 
at tlie instance of the Prince Raimondo di Sansevero, in honour of the 
memory of his father and mother. In the case of the latter, she is repre- 
sented in marble, under the emblem of "Modesty." Duchesne, in the 
ilnsce di Ptinture ct <Jc Hcidpture, speaking of this work, says : — " This 
statue was wrought about the middle of the IStli century, by the Venetian 
Corradiui, Bculptor to the Emperor Charles VI. It then acquired great 
renown for the singularity of seeing a figure covered with a veil, light 
enough to show the full shape of the body and the features, which uiifir- 
tunately are not handsome.'' We may add, that we remark concurrently 
in this work bad taste in the arrangement of the drapery, and other vices 
of detail, as the introduction of a garland lying acr xss and breaking the 
outline of the figure. The other example referred to is a still more extra- 
vagant feat of art. It is from the chisel of Francesco Gueirolo, a Genoese 
sculptor, and is called the " Sinful man undeceived." " It represents," says 
the writer previously quoted, "the father of Prince Raimondo, partly 
enveloped in a net, of which he is seeking to rid himself The artist 
alludes to the situation of that prince, who in the course of his life often 
let himself lie carried away by vice ; but who, at a later period, and en- 
lightened by his genius (the good genius is represented as an angel in 
smaller dimensions), reverted from his errors. The net is in marble, as 
also the statue and all the accessories, which must have produced great 
ditliculties in the execution, as it adheres but in a very few parts. The 
appearance of this coarse envelope contrasts with the high fiiiith of the 
flesh parts. The difficulty overcome is the principal, and, it might be 
almost said, the only merit of the gi'oup." 

We turn with I'leasure from those caprices to other works of more 
sterling quality, which the room contains. Adjoining the " Veiled 
Vestal " is another work of importance by the same artist, "Eve after her 
F.ill." The attitude and character of the figure are full of merit, the 
limbs graceful, well-roumlcd, and realising as near as may be the softness 
of flesh. The artist has represented the hair in massive and dishevelled 
tresses hanging over the face on each side ; and the executive skill 
disjilayed in acconi|ilishing this difficult point is worthy of honourable 
mention, tlinugh it mu.st be added, that the soft and flexible character of 
the human hair — its great beauty — is somewhat sacrificed to attain the 
cud in view. The introduction of a little Cupid peering up from amidst a 
cluster of roses behind, is, to say the least, a cmiceit rather apocryphal in 
itself, and, upon the whole, had better have been dispensed with. 

Antonio Galli, a Milanese artist, has three works in marble : — a 
" Jephtha's 1 )auglitci'," very pleasing in character, simple yet graceful, and 
the head endued with considerable expression; another, entitled "A 
Youth on the sea shore ;" and the third, "Susannah at the Bath," which wo 
have engraved. The attitude and expression are well conceived, and aptly 
illustrate the situation of one surprised at a bath ; and the general treat- 
ment is satisfactory, though the hair might have been improved, had the 
softness and flexibility of nature been followed, and the draper}', what 
little there is of it, by being lighter in material, and freer in disposition. 
Marchesi's " Eurydice," is also a meritorious performance ; but, perhaps 
the sweetest and most touching cifoi t in the room, was the little cabinet 
group of "Hagar and Ishmael," by Emanuel Max, of Pr.ague. The treat- 
ment of the female figure is full of dignity and truth ; the hand, thrown 
open as in the act of supplication, rests upon the bosom of the dyini.' boy, 
whilst the steadfast and imploring look she directs to heaven reveals the 
wdiole story. All the points are finished with gi-eat delicacy and purity of 
handling. The same ai-tist has a very clever bas-reUef of an Amazon. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP.TIDIA OV TUK GREAT EXHTRITION OF 1851. 



99 



Tho fill''' aiiit fi'-juro wniiM S''i'in tho trim iil'iil cif Aiii,'izoiii;i,Ti ji/ii/sn/ur, mid 
ihdvo irt I'Vu'lii^iniis cncrt^y in tlio action botli of lior,^" anil ridci-. 'J'ho 
ilotiiii-t uml iH'cos^oiir'i. itliii'li lU'o Kiillicionlly luiiplo, are fininlifil with f»rciit 
(jre, Imt ill n Mtyln jniliuiinisly sudiliied ; in slioit. in nlo^t rcapccts. tliia 
\TOrk iiidiisitcR a lipi? ft])|ii-ei'iation of the purer nindols of anti'|iiity, wliicti 
wo sliunlil bo gliid to linil nioro frocpiently exliil>it«(l liy otiior artists of 
our day. 

" I.slnnacl," unattenlod by Ha^rar, is a subject filmply puiiifnl— a poor 
yciitli in all the aKonira of deatli from thirst ; and this Kignor Strazza, of 
Milan, Iia.-i ii'i.rosentcd witli terrililo earnestness and roa)i'y. in a iiro.itratc 
iiguru, lil'i' .sizo, which occnpics a prominent position in tho eentro of tlie 
room. No Olio eau deny tho wonderful talent displayrd in the working 
out of tliis siil'joct : tho features of tlio face are drawn and lirid under the 
hand of death, and the whole figure denotes hoIple.sR prostration in ifk last 
stage. lint c:ui we look upon it with any feeling lint that of shuddering? 
and must wo not resret the ah.senee of the only redeeming and poetic 
feature of wliieli tho .story is susceptible, and which M. Max has so 
beautifully and with Bueh toueliiug cfi'ect introduced ! 

Joseph Koekszn.an, of A'ieuna, has a very pretty " Hebe," tho head 
eUarmnigly graceful and expressive, and tho whole treatment of high 
excoUeuee. We do not like so well his very tall and sentimenttd 
"Shepherd," unneces.sarily denuded; nor his " Flora," who is too artificial 
in her attitude, and overburthened with a heavy garland of flowers 
extending from head to foot. Neverthclcs.s, the faco of tho latter is 
pleasing enough. ^ 

THE EXHIBITIOSr AS A SCHOOL OF INnU.STRY. 

(FnOM THE " AnciIITECTDRAL QUARTERLT REVIEW.") 

TO pursue the difficult question of the tendency of mechanical pro- 
duction, and the induenco of increased facilities upon the condition of 
the workman, would involve us iu a greater length than vt-o propose in this 
present article. Unquestion.ibly, tho immediate results are often suffering 
and hardship to individual workmen, atid often to a whole triide. But Wfe 
cannot quite address ourselves to the logic of arguments, that improved 
modes of production, which confessedly place the article within the reacli of 
a greater mimlier, are to bo retarded In ortler to benefit a minority ; that 
the course of science is to bo checked ; thdt knowledge is baneful ; anil that 
cither piu-ticular modes of production, Or particular habits and m.inners in 
men, are to bo kept up solely for the existence of particular trades and 
pai'ticular classes of artisans. Moreover, those who outer into these 
arguments are prepared to show, that the social ftiachine rights itself ih a 
much shortei' time than might have been anticipated. We well recollect 
the fearful prognostications at the commencement of the railway system. 
Cai'icaturcs of distracted innkeepers and delighted horses wore to bo seen ; 
and what was shown in caricature was true, at least for the time, as to tho 

I innkeepers. The coaching glories of Lichfield, Northampton, and St. 
Alban's, passed to places which had been too small to dread railways ; 
new towns rose with wonderful rapidity, and tho old became melancholy 
and deserted. We need not tell what every one knows ; though let the 

I artisan class bear in mind, that from the development of tho (railw.ay 
system a great amount of new employment has been gained, and families 
once struggling against reverse of fortune are now contented and happy. 
And if we say that the very innkeepers and horses liad soon more to do 
than ever before, and that towns wdiich had rejected railways got looped in, 
bitterly lamenting, then we .shall have simply told tho story of the last 

I sixteen years. But the moral wo cannot omit. It is, that the antidote to 

i these temporary hardships must be supplied by education, liy tho develop- 
ment of mind in the workman ; and for this antidote tho means exist in this 
Exhibition. By debasing the workman to a mere machine, it has followed 
necessarily thiit the human machine was superseded, sooner or later, by the 
superior mechanism which springs from mind. Immediate advantages of 
concentration of attention and subdivision of labour were the limitation ; 
and it may not unreasonably be inferred, that the recent prevalence of 
insanity, even has been the result. Improved education, and the develop- 
ment of mental energy, would not only lead to the discovcly of new 
sources of employment, indispen,sable in a state of progress, but would, at 
the same time, substitute an honest pride and pleasure in the perfect 
execution of even mechanical work, the increasing want of which is a 

I main c.aiLse of tho inferioi-ity of many works of art, and a constant source 
of annoyance to architects, and loss in buildings to the public. From 

'the brickwork and joiner-s' work, or ironmongery in a house, down to a 
chair or an umbrella, lowness of price without the asserted durability, is 
universal ; and the ingenuity, and even pleasure, which both dealers 
and workmen evinCo in the practice of a deception, is equalled by 
the readiness of Ibe public to deceive themselves. As we oauuot grasji 
the reasoning of a Chancellor of the Exchequer, that because chicory is 
sold, ciifix has been available to a class which had not before used it, so we 

iregret the prevaleuce of the delusion which exists iu buihlings as in every 

■other commodity. Many amongst the class of building artisans appear to 
disregard directions as to work, for the mere pleasure of practising adoocit. 
For this pleasure, we mast substitute the pride of producing good work, 
.ind this antidote, we repeat, may be found in this Exhibition. Wo could 
have hoped that the influence of the Exhibition would have been exerted 



in tlie rc-moval of a delusion liefore refeired t^i, namely, that expense and 
elalionito work are iinlinpnianljlr to the production of beauty. He.-iutifuj, 
indeed, and Huggestive as are many of the objcctH of tho Exhibition, there 
appears to bo an entire absenco of that cheap beauty which would bo 
within tho roacli of all classes. Tho attnininent of tliis object would have 
been the more desirable, since recent attempts to extend the influence of 
Art. in association with objects of decoration and utility, liave fostered 
ralher than discouraged the delusion, and so have not advanced the objects 
of those who liavo mndo Ihetn, What has to be done, in fact, is to ini'cst 
every form of utility with the attributes of aiit, and this alike from tho 
most olaborato work of (irchiteeturo, to the least important article of 
furniture, or the meanest utensil. Certain principles wliich have to bo 
kept in view are alike in all these cases. They correspond with those 
which tho most enlightened artists are endeavouring to bring to tho 
regeneration of architecture ; they are in many respects distinct from those 
which determine the forms of jminting and sculpture, and, perhaps, have 
never yet been accurately ]ierccivcil .'mil exemplified in the architecture of 
any ago. They dcjiend, indeed, upon tho constant recognition of the fact, 
that the reason must bo satisfied, as well as the eye delighted ; and tho 
want of this recognition is the great fault in the numerous designs for 
decorative objects, now held up to notice as excellent works of art. We 
think that the Exhibition maybe made tho means not only of contributing 
to tho ."jdvaneement of architecture, but of placing it in a position in which 
1^. has never yet stood ; but there are particular circumstances in connexion 
with manufactured art which should be guarded against, although not 
)iivci.sely in tho manner urged by those who deny the value of multiplica- 
tion of copies. As for tlie collection of grates, ironmongery, furniture, and 
all those objects which afford interest to the architect, they cannot bo 
viewed without advantage, — since the greatest difficulty is often felt in 
obtaining knowledge of the existence of particular inventions and con- 
trivances. As a complete collection of these things, the Exhibition is, of 
course, not to be regarded. It is from tho uses of the Exhibition, on which 
WG li.ive dwelt above, that its chief value will be felt. 



DISPOSAL OF THE EXHIBITION SURPLUS. 

REPORT OK THE ROYAL COMMISSIOXERS. 

QN the 6fh of Nov., instant, tho Commissioners met. and agreed to a 
report to lier Majesty, from which it appears that the total receipts, 
including subscriptions, have been .'ifl.'i.OOU/., and the available surplus, 
after defraying all expenses, will be l,"iO,000/, Tho Commissioners are of 
opinion that the most appropriate purpose to which the surplus funds 
could be applied, would be one which would increase the means of 
industrial education, and extend the_ influence of science and art on 
industry. As yet, however, they have not devised any specific plan for 
carrying out the<ie objects ; nor will they be in a condition to do so, until 
they obtain further powers by royal charter from her Majesty. 

The report states the gross income to have been derived as follows : — 

Subscriptions £67,400 

Entrance fees 424,400 

Casual receipts 13,200 

Total .... £505,000 

With regard to the future, tho report states : — 

"Tho subscriptions were derived, with few exceptions, solely from 
your Majesty's subjects, and wore made after a public announcement, that 
they must be ' absolute and definite,' but that should any surplus remain, 
it was the intention of her Majesty's commissioners 'to apply the same to 
purposes strictly in connexion with the ends of the Exhibition, or for the 
establishment of similar exhibitions for the future.' 

" Wo humbly beg to reiirescnt to your Majesty, that we are of opinion 
that it is not advisable to apply the surplus to tho last-named purpose. 
Considering that the Exhibition which has just closed has afforded ample 
proof that an undertaking of this kind can be made self-supporting, 
and that it may safely be left to the public again to provide, when 
required, the means of meeting the preliminary expenses — considering also 
the impossibility of fixing long beforehand any definite period for the 
repetition of such an Exhibition, which requires for its success so many 
ooncurreut circumstances— we are of opinion that greater benefit may bo 
derived by the public from a judicious application in the interval of the 
means at our disposal to the furtherance of the general objects for which 
tho Exhibition was designed, in such a manner that the advantages which 
may bo obtained should not be confined solely to your Majesty'.s subjects, 
but should be shared, as far as it may be possible, by other countries. 

" Your jNIajesty's commissioners are of opinion, that no measures could 
be so strictly in accordaueo with the ends of the Exhibition as those 
which mav increa.se the means of indu.strial education, and extend the 
influencf of science and art upon productive industry. We are fully aware 
of the difficulty of devising a comprehensive plan to meet these objects ; 
should tho view, however, which we have taken as to the manner of fulfilling 
our pledges, meet with your Majesty's approbation, we beg to assure your 
Majesty that we shall give our fullest and most careful consideration to 
this important subject, and we would suggest that full time should be 
afforded us to consider and mature such a plan as we should feel wai-- 
ranted in laying before your Majesty, the more so as from the disproportion 
between the end proposed and the means at present applicable to it, much 
will depend on the extent of co-operation we may receive from the public." 



11 



100 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




FOREIGN AND COLO 
NIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

• • 

THE EAST INDIES.— No. 2. 
THE EAST INDIAN COURTS. 
THE contents of the East 
Indian Courts, situate on 
either side of the Western 
Nave, at its point of junction 
with the Transept, were rich 
and varied in character, and 
were interesting in the high- 
est degi-ee, as illustrative of 
the natural resources of a 
large territoiy — resources 
which, except for articles of 
show and luxui-y, have as yet 
experienced a very slight de- 
gree of development. Turn- 
ing our attention to the 
Northern Court, we come 
first upon a collection of 
utensils in brass, copper, and 
potteiy, all highly curious, 
especially some which are 
used by the Hindoos in the 
worship and service of their 
idols. The utensils in iron, 
inlaid vnth silver, amongst 
which is a lai'ge hookah, are i 
very elegant in form, and of 
higlily finished workman- 
ship. Proceeding to the 
rear, or extreme north of 
this department, we were 
first struck with a great va- 
riety of ornaments, fi-uit, 
flowers, &c., in wax. Two 
ivory chairs, inlaid, from the 
Eajah of Vizi.anagram, stood 
conspicuously here. At this 
point and around were glass 
cases filled with specimens 
of agate and jasper, both in 
slabs and fa.shioned into a 
gi-eat variety of objects of 
adornment and titility. In 
other parts of this room 
were some veiy admirable 
specimens of carved furni- 
ture, in black wood, from 
Bombay, and of carved boxes 
and ornaments in sandal- 
wood, from Mangalore ; carv- 
ings in ivory, from Morsted- 
abad ; samples of embossed 
paper and illuminated writ- 
ings, forwarded by the king 
of Oude; and a variety of 
aiticles of eminent and 
unique beauty, in which the 
minute and patient industry 
of the native Hindoo is pleas- 
ingly illustrated. Against 
the north wall of the inner 
room were two chaii's and a 
couch, of Rajpootana white 
marble, the backs of which 
were remarkably fine sped- 
mensof open carving. In the 
centre was a royal state bed- 
stead from Benares, the cur- i 
tains of which were of pm'ple 
muslin, richly embroidered. 
One of the most strikinK 
features in the Indian col- 
lection was a room furnished 
in the style of an Indian 
palace, in which all that ro- 
mance has said of Oriental 
luxm'y and gorgeous display 
was more than realised. 
Aroimd it, externally, were 
a large collection of figures, 
illustrating the various trades 
and castes of the Hindoos: 
rich shawls, carpets, mattinj;. 



AN ILlJISTIiATEl) CYCLOPvEDlA OF TIIK CWKAT KXIIIHITKJX OF IS.';]. 



101 



mixed fiJ.)iiL'M, &'■., ill-. Noi- imiHt tlio vurious olijeclH <pf liutunil ]pro(Iiicc, 
vogetablf, miinial iiml uiiiienil, bo overlookcil ; lor, HiohkIi Ivhh »trikiiig, 
upon pictHresquo grouiuls, tlimi iiuuiy wo liivvo iiioro ])ni'ticularly rcfoiied 
to in tUo above observations, they uro perbui>H of oven liigher iuteiest to 
the futiiro dcstinie.'i of our vast Iiidioii omiiirc. 



cii]>,'i1jIu of learning iniprovtincnt« in mcctianicul aiiit oh Kuropcunii ; while 
botli in jewellei-y and in weaving there are Hpcciiiiens which the bcHt 
Kuro])ettn nicclmnicH woubl liavo great difficulty in equalling. But when 
wu turn to the agricultiirid iiiiplementii and tooU used by mechanicfi, at finit 
sight it Bccuis extraordinary tliat uo^advouco should have been mode for 




II.AY MODELS Of iUKDOO CASTE, 



STATE OF AGRIOULTUUE AND LABOUR IN THE EAST INDIES. 

The collection of machines, tools, manufactures, and models of the vaiious 
trades and callings of the natives of India, afford a series of illustrations of 
the condition of that extraordinary country, which cannot be passed over 



centuries. The Hindoos of tlio present day seem to have liad handed 
down to them an unbroken legacy of the agi-icultural and manufacturing 
arts of the ancient Egyptians. A comparison of the models in the East 
Indi.in collection with the drawings of the same kind of implements in use 




' ^'7/^'///''-y''/- ■//jY/0'/^0j'' 




m^iMiiiiJiiii!' 



l\OKl' CAin'iXG. — rr.OCESPKtX- OF A NATIVn INDIAN litlNCE — EROM JIi'ItSIIEnARAD. 



in a few words. Among the manufactures ai-e specimens of purely native 
work, and of imitations or copies from Em-opeau models. From an 
examination of the latter, it is quite plain that the native Indians are as 



auioug the Egyptians, affords a number of very curious coincidences. But, 
without tracing back the history of these agricultui-al tools to such very 
remote periods, we find, by Abul Fazl's chronicle of the reign of the Mogul 




INDIAN 'iTATF EAKGE.— rAUVKD IN ivonv AT M0R3HF.PABAD 



102 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



Emperor Akbar, that, 300 ycai's ago, rice, wheat, sugar, iudigo, homp, 
sugar-cane, aud cotton were cultivated with at least as much skill as at the 
present day ; as high a rent was paid for land ; and the numerous regula- 
tions on the subject of irrigation, and the allowances to cultivators under 
losses, and the estimates of revenue raised given by Abul Fazl, show that a 
great part of central India was imder regular cultivation. 

Why this people have made so little progi-ess, why the gi-eat bulk of them 
are in the same condition, moral, social, and intellectual, that they were in 
300 years ago, is a question too large to be discussed here : but we may 
venture to point out. certain obvious reasons. The first is to be found in 
tlie narrowness of their wants. Look at the army of little figures, modelled 
from life, representing various trades and callings, chiefly in Bengal, wiiich 
were exhibited in the north bay of tlie Indian collection, and observe liow 
♦ittle these people need, how few are their incentivcsto exertion. Putting 
out of the question domestic servants, like tlie butler and groom, whose 
clothes ai'e part of their master's state, it will be seen that tlia native rural 
population need scarcely any clothes. The gardener, the shepherd, the 
village waterman, the carpenter, tlie black.smith, the ploughman, the 
waggoner, ami a number of others of the same rank, wear nothing except a 
cap or turban (the Hindoos have adopted the turban from their ilahoramedan 
conquerors), and a piece of cloth round their loins, which is ciccasioiialiy 
used rather as an ornament then a covering, tlirown like a Highlander's 
plaid over one shoulder. Oil — to obtain which, linseed, sosamum, and 
palma Christi are largely cultivated — is liberally applied to tlieir naked 
skins, in the place of those coats, breeches, waistcoats, shirts, and stockings, 
which so largely absorb the funds, and employ the population, of the 
inhabitants of colder climates. 

What would the Great Exhibition have been, in the two great displays 
of machinery and textile manufactures, if we di-essed like the Indian 
population ? 

The Zemindars and gi-eat Indian gentlemen hold the same feelings with 
respect to garments as their subjects and tenants. Clothes, with them, are 
ornaments, not necessaries. After appearing in public blazing in jewellery, 
in shawls of countless price, and gold-embroidered silks, on an elephant or 
a prancing Arab, as represented in the model of an Indian fair; an Indian 
Prince, Sir Tliomas Munro tells us, will pull off everything, and sit semi- 
nude in a calico wrapper, just in the same manner that we Europeans relax 
in slippers and dressing-gown. Magnificent embroidered shirts and shawls, 
like those hung up in the Indian tent, are often heirlooms in a native 
gentleman's family. 

Then again, the system of vegetable food, cooked in the simplest 
manner, promotes an economy which is very much opposed to the com- 
merce and competition on which improvement rests. But the chief 
cause of the stagnation of mechanical arts in tlie interior of India (leaving 
out the question of religious influences) is to be found in the extraordinary 
state of isolation in which the rural population live. 

There are no made roads in the interior of India ; where the natural 
roads are sufficiently good, carts drawn by one, two, up to twelve bullocks, 
coivs, or buffaloes afe employed ; and excellently well constructed for the 
purpose are these carta or drays for ascending or descending precipitous 
hills, with the small weak cattle of the country, as was to be .seen in tlie 
models in the southern bay. But it is only for short distances, or in the 
neighbourhood of great towns, where roads have been made, that cai-ts can 
be used at .all. The chief mode of conveying produce and merchandise in 
India is on bullocks' backs. In the north b.ay, a set of models of loaded 
pack bullocks was exhibited. In the rainy season, when for an uncertain 
number of months the rain pours down in a deluge, travelling with mer- 
chandise or produce becomes all but impossible ; dry water-courses grow 
into dangerous torrents, and villages cannot depend on supplies from their 
neighbours. The evils of this geographical isolation are to a certain extent 
alleviated by a, system wiiich disco\u-ages intercourse between village and 
village. 

The rural population of India is not spread over the country in detached 
dwellings, but lives collected in small villages or towns, for protection 
against robbers and wild beasts, and are each in themselves miniature 
commonwealth-?. They are like islands, with very little external commerce 
and no uiternal competition. The mechanical arts and several other 
callings are placed in the hands of parties who are public officials. The 
blacksmith, the carpenter, the potter, the ropemaker, the shoemaker, as 
well as the water-carrier, the barber, the butcher, the washerman, tlie gold- 
smith, the poet, and the astrologer, receive each a piece of land rent-free, 
and a stipend in grain or money from each villager, in return for which 
they are bound to perform the duties of their respective vocations ; to make 
ploughs, build houses, dig wells, shave heads, tell tales, and cast horoscopes 
for the community. No system could have been devised better calculated 
to render mechanical artsstatiunaiy, and each little population is perfectly 
independent of foreigners. Competition is uuknowm — trades are hereditary 
—improvements of niachiuei-y never displace hand labour. The land is 
the property of the supreme government, and every heaii of a family has 
a piece of it. Almost all laws are defrayed by a tax, which is, in effect, 
the rent of land. In fact, the condition which certain social reformers 
desire to cany out in Europe, is realised, and haa been realised for cen- 
turies, among the Indian villages. 

Bad roads, rivers, jungles, marshes, tigers, and robbers, effectually fill up 
the place of custom-houses and protective duties. Agricultural improve- 
ments are useless, where surplus produce would be valueless, because it 
would never pay to cany it to market. 



Under these circumstances, the quarter of wheat is worth from T-'. to 10s. 
Famines are periodical, and improvements are unknown in the intfrior, 
while on the coa.^t ships are buiit, furniture is manufactured, and English 
goods of many kinds ai'e executed with very great skill, of which examples 

, have been sent. 

Among the agi'icultural implements, we must note that the Indian plough 
is not ill adapted for its intended purpose. The shape is nearly the same 
as that of the Roman plough, and le-s rude than that employed by oui' 
Saxon ancestors, which was attached to the tails of their bullocks.* 

The Indian plough is chiefly used for stirring up and running a fuiTOW 
through moist ground, preparatory to sowing rice. It does not answer to 
dry up the land by turning a furrow. The mould-board of the English 

' plough Jias been used in some tropical countries and abandoned. Dry land 
for other crops is broken up with coarse hoes, of which full-sized specimens 

I will be found under the table on which the agricultural models are dis- 

I played. These hoes, except that they arc shorter in the handle, are of the 
same shape as those still in use in the West Indian islands, where the 
plough has not been introduced. It is also the imjilement of the modern 

I Egyptian peasantry. 

The ploughs exhibited in the southern bay consisted of a taper piece of 
wood, shod with a sort of spear-head of iron, which forms the share, the 
sole being of wood, without either mould-board or coulter. Into the 

j wood a handle is fixed, one or two buSiiloes are harnessed, .and the plough- 
man, naked all but a bit of cloth round his loins, holding the handle in 

' one hand, and the reins in the other, will get over mors ground than could 

I be accomplished with an English plough, quite effectually enough for his 
purpose. Into the furrows the rice is dropped, and covered by one of the 
harrows, of which several models and one full-sized implement are shown, 
made with iron, and wooden teeth. These harrows are much more finished 
works than those often used in the bush of Australia, where wheat is harrowed 
in with a bough of a tree, or by running a flock of sheep over the ground. 

I The Hindoos generally get two crops of rice ofi' the .same ground — the 

I first for food, the second for straw ; and there is I'eason to believe^ that 
successive crops of this grain, which is the staple of the native population, 
except in the uoi th-western province, where they live on wheat cakes, has 
been grown on tlic same fields for a thousand years. Rice-fields must either 
lie on the banks of rivers, flowing at a level where the soil can bo fully 
saturated and at a proper time flooded, or artificial ii'rigatiou must be 
resorted to. 

There ai'e a number of hydraulic machines exhibited of the kind used 
for irrigation, on which so much tropifal cultivation depends. It is one of 
the arts we have yet to learn and apply to our semi-tropical colonies. In 
one instance, in the north bay, six bullocks were to be seen employed in 
hauling a leather bucket out of a well in the same manner that we some- 
times see a brewer's horse haul an empty barrel out of a cellar. It is 
impossible to ituagine a more wasteful employment of power. In the soutli 
bay were several endless-chain buckets worked by bullocks moving a gin 
or horizontal w'heel round. In another instance we observed the bucket 
to be raised by the lever principle. 

We would suggest that this set of models might afford the means of a 
very useful and interesting lecture on the application of simple machinery 
to irrigation. To intending colonists, such lessons would have great value. 
Our agricultural schools and colleges, which are preparmg many colonists, 
should take up the question. The resources of the very promising colony 
of Natal cannot be developed without machinery for ii-rigation, as the 
principal rivers run between steep banks. 

Five or six models of hoes drawn by bullocks were shown : these are 
used in the cane-fields. It is plain that hundreds of years before Jethro 
TuU wrote on the sovereign pierits of hurso hoeing, part of his system was 
in practice in Central India. 

In all these implements iron is used where it can be got ; and no douht, 
if we succeed in bestowing railroads on the Indian peninsula, a rapid im- 
provement in all the mechanical implements will follow the cheap convey- 
ance to new markets which railroads mil create. 

The implements variously known as "scarifiers" and " extu-pators," and 
" cultivators," which first began to attract notice in this couutiy about forty 
years ago, have long been known to the Indian farmer, and ai'e constructed 
very efficiently for working in light laud. They consist of a set of teetli 
shod with iron, arranged in a heavy bar, and drawn by a bullock. 

The sickles with which the gi'ain is reaped were sho\\ai, with a model of 
the floor on which it was trodden out ; and on the wall of the south bay 
hung a rope muzzle for " muzzling the ox that treads out the corn." This 
plan of treading out grain is not confined to the East ; it is practised in 
Spain, in .South America, and occasionally, when l.abom- is very scarce, in 
.\ustralia. The corn is winnowed by throwing it up against the wind. The 
next operation (that is to say, gi'inding) heis been illustrated. Two women 
are squatted down opposite each other, having a pair of millstones between 
tliem, of which the upper one fits into a hollow in the lower one : a handle 
is fixed excentrioally in the upper stone in such a manner that one of the 
two women is always pulling towards her. This implement is as old as 
the time of Job. 

The last operation of Indian agricultural economy to which wo will refer 
is the manufacture of sugai'. Two grooved rollers of wood, placed face to 

• Tlie act (if tbe Irisli Parliament, fuibiddiiig. under penalty of fine and imprisonment, 
" a barbarous custome of ploughing, IiarrowinK. drawing, and working witlt horses, marcs, 
geldings, garrans, and colts, by the taile, whereby tlie brecde of horses is much impaired 
in tliis kijigdom," was sot paseed until the reisa of Charles II., iu 1G34. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; AN ILLUSTUATEl) CYCLOP^KULi OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OP 1851. 




THE CI,nST>:0 or THK CKEAT EXniBITinN.-PniNCR ALBEET KECEIVINQ THE REPORTS OF THE JURIES. Otv. 1.'. ISr.l, 



106 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 



ARTICLES OF FOOD. 
'rHE three great pliysical wants of mau arc Food, Clotliiiig, aud Habita- 
tion; and of these, Food way be pronounced the most essential. 
Considering that, for aomo thouaand years, auccoasive generations have had 
ample opportunity of toiting the values of different kinds of food, it might 
be supposed, that, both in tlieory and practice, our knowledge of alimentary 
subsUmces would be more complete than tliat of any other subject. Yet the 
whole question, in a philosophic point of view, re.juires a high amount of 
knowledge, and U bo recondite, that, even at the present time, it is veiy 
imperfectly ^mde^stood. The rosearehes of modern chemists aud philoao- 
phers have clearly indicated tl.at the operatiomi of external nature aiid the 
operations of the functions of man are conducted according to the samo 
laws, and that man haa only the power of discovering the principles of 
nature, and adapting them to his uae. According to this view, organic 
beings, aud even man himaelf, ai-e mere elaborate contrivances, exhibiting 
the perfections of nature, but in no whit difformg. in the hiwa under which 
they act, from the stfiam-engine, the battery, or the candle. From this 
cause, aa organic beings ai'e continually cxhibithig force or capacity to 
change the arr.ujgfmeut of matter, it follows that, according to the 
universal law of natm-e, soma oiUer matter must be changed within their 
bodies, and hence, for that change, food i* requii-cd. The human body 
falluig within the class of warm-bodied animals, rc'iuires matter to be 
changed or to enter into new combinations for the production of its 
natural warmth. It requires other matter to be changed for the capacity , 
of exercising its muscular foroo ; and neithgi* the slightest action of the ; 
finder, nor even the winking of the eyelid, can be exercised without a | 
corresponding demand for fooiL Lastly, although the production of heat 
and the geuei-ation of force ro<iuii-o the gieittwt amount of food, yet 
materials ai-e required to build and support the frame of which the human 
body is made up. Not a thought can Brii4o, nor a dreamy vision appoai", 
nor a determination be arrived at, without a waste of material. In 
considering alimentary matter, we shall have to consider, in the first place, 
of substances required to maintain tlie waiinth of the body, then of matters 
to maintain the muaculai- action, then of that food which is required to 
excite the brain; and, lajstly, of other subbtances requii'od to build up the 
Etructure which evinces these various proportlgs. 

Although it is manifest that we muat take cai« to supply food adequate 
to these put2J0ses, yet even the discoverius of modern chemistry do not 
enable us to point out precisely the manner in which every kind of food 
acts ; and hence we must group a maas of foods together according to their 
composition aud those effects which experience haa taught ua they produce. 
But even in estimating the value of various kinda of food by their action, 
instead of their composition, we are met by many difficulties; for food, to 
be useful, must be digested — must be assimilated or taken into the blood ; 
and the game material which ia easily digested and assimilated by one 
person, is absolutely poisonous to pothers; and there is even one cose 
recorded of an individual in whom mutton, the most wholesome and 
lightest of meats, invariably, under every form of disguioc, acted as a 
poison, and produced diarrhooa, and dysentery, Slc. 

The changes which take place in all organic bodies, including man 
himaelf, take jilace in fluid mixture. The digested food is absorbed by 
vessels in a fluid state aud taken into the blood. The changes of the body 
which produce the forcw« occur also in nwteriala ia a state of solution ; 
and, lastly, the exontion of the clianged matter i> al-so effected through 
the kidneys, .skin, alimoutory canal, and lungs, from fluids. 

The supply of water as a diluent fluid becomes therefore a matter of 
great importance; aud fur this reu-^on wc shall first consider the coufcriv- 
ances by which good wholesome water can be obtained for dietary purposes. 
The quality of water xi«ed for food is a matter immediately aud essentially 
affect'mg the health. At certain tunes, any contamination with putrid 
matter acta 3n a most vinilent poison, and at all times is Habie to produce 
diarrhcea. Dm-iug tho prevalonoo of cholera, the evcr-memorablo mortality 
of Albion-place in the Wal worth-road was produced by a drain having 
effected a communication with the well. At one house every individual 
perished. The inhabitant* of the other house?, supplied from the samo 
tank, were also great aufforwB ; aud thus it becomes of gieat importance 
for evei7 person to examine the character of tho water which he employs. 

Chemiata have discovered, that, when water freeaes, the ice, b tiie act of 
solidification, squeezes out all foreign mattere, bo really nothing can be 



purer than the water from thawed ice. In London, where tho water 
supplied is but indifierent, mid tho sources are contaminated with 
animal and other refuse, perhaps no better course cau be adopted, by 
those who oi-e in a position in life to afford it, than to use that solid ico 
which has boou recently imported ; for not only might it be employed to 
cool wine aud other provisions, but, when thawed, would form an excellent 
bevei-age. All artificial contrivances for freezing water arc, doubtless, not 
so economical m theu- application as the simple mode of importing it from 
colder climates. At the present day, ioo may bo mado in the red-hot 
crucible ; but the best plan, exhibited at tho Crystal Palace, is that 
devised by Mr. Masters, and by which wo have seen very beautiful 
blocks of ice prepared. Next to the purification of water by freezing, 
that by distillation demands attention. In London many persons have 
an apparatus which ia attached to their kitchcn-rangos, and which is 
capable of giving a considerable quantity of a bright fluid. In this case 
some cmpyremeutic oils ai-e very apt to come over with, the water, and 
give it an unpleasant taste- 
As far as the mechanical impurities of water are concerned, they may bo 
removed by hltration, and laigo quantities of dead and putrifying animal 
and vegetable bodies may be separated by this snnple process. There can 
be no more simple mode of filtration than by using a piece of blotting- 
paper placed in a funnel ; and, in fact, this mode is adopted by chemists, 
even for their more delicate operations. At the Exhibition many mecha- 
nical filters were shown, the majority of which are so contrived that a 
pressure assists the more rapid action of the water. The filters exhibited 
both by Ml-. Sth-liog and Mr. Slack are said to have the power of filtering 
very large quantities of nater. 

In many coses filtration may be employed, either through animal 
charcoal, or that peat charcoal which has been recently found so cflective 
to deodorise aud absorb putrid material. This process is so effective, that 
Dr. Garrod ha3 lately pointed out that the most deadly vegetable poison 
may be removed from water by animal charcoal. 

In using water as a diluent some precautious must be taken, for, after 
great fatigue and exhaustion, a sudden draught of cold water is attended 
with serious consequences. Quintus Curtius records that Alexander tho 
Great lost more men by this means than he had ever lost in any battle. 

The active substances which are used for food must consist of various 
elementary bodies ; we priucipally use compounds of hydrogen, carbon, 
nitrogen, iron, potash, soda, and phosphorus; as all of these elementai-y 
matters are the subject of changes, or enter into new combinations, which 
produce the forces which the human organisation manifests, and may then 
be detected in the changed materials which are escreted. 

Of all foods, perhaps, those derived from other animals deserve our first 
consideration. Every surgeon knows the beneficial influence of a generous 
diet in developing a hi;jhly organised individual. At the London dispen- 
saries aud workhouses the baneful influence of an imperfect diet is shown 
by a debilitated body aud feeble mind ; and the railway labourer ia kno^m 
to require a large amount of animal food to enable him to follow his avoca- 
tion. We have aacertauied from many calculations, that amongst the 
middle classes the value of the average amount of flesh meat eaten in 
London amoimta to about sixpence per head per diem, where the party ia 
left to follow his own inchuatious, without resti-ictiou or guidance. Upon 
this avei-ago, the butcher's bill for ten persons amounts to about 90i. ayear. 
If we consider that this amount of flesh meat is the proper quantity, we 
perceive at once the importance of the subject under con(^ideration. And 
tliough a small section of the population ai-e pht/top<ipha(fi, or vegetable- 
eaters, such iudividuals form the exception, and not the rule ; and to 
preserve the integrity and enterprise of the Anglo-Saxon race, the firat 
medical authorities declare that a full meat diet luu^t be used. 

In the South-west Gallery various samples of milk preserved for voyages 
were exhibited. First of all, Moore's concentrated preserved milk comes 
before us, with a good appearance aud excellent testimonials from various 
Burgeons who have reported upon the subject to Sir W. Burnett. Again,, 
we observe milk prepared by other processes. Mr. Fadeuiihe has exhibited 
consolidated milk, of a buttery appearance. Some preserved cream was 
also shown ; and a single bottle of ai-tificial mdk, composed of yolk of egg 
and other materials, to partake as near as possible the properties of that 
fluid, is contributed by Mr. Prosse. Milk, being desigiied for the growth 
and nutrition of the infant, contains every material for that purpose, and 
hence is complete iu itself, at any rate for the infant state. 

Butter— the fatty portion of milk separated from it — was poorly repre- 
sented at the Exhibition ; aevertkeleas, the Americans contributed several 
tuba of tins article of food. Butter, being composed only of hydrogen and 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP^DLl OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OP 1851. 



face, ai'e turned by two men with handspikes, while two or three sugar- 
canes are thrust between them : tho small percentage of juice extracted by 
this imperfect force falls into a pan below, and is thence conveyed to open 
earthenware pans, which aro close at hand for the purpose of boiling. And 
yet India sends us a good deal of sugar. 

After a very cursory examination of this picture of the mral life of the 
Indian population, presented in this very curious set of models and figures, 
it is impossible to doubt, that, with the increased means of communication 
which roads and railroads would open, the interior of central India is 
capable of affording a largely-increased exportation of cottou, sugar, rice, 
linseed, hemp, and other staples peculiar to the soil aud climate ; and that 
the result of increased intercourse would be to greatly improve the social 
aud intellectual condition of tho native population, and to render them 
better customers for the manufactures, which we can produce so good and 
so cheap. 

At present we shall not say anything respecting the set of looms exhibited 
for weaving cloth, shawls, and carpets (the la-st is on a working scale), but 
be content with observing that .since, by the powers of our mechanical 
inventions, we are aide to import cotton from India, manufacture it, and 
re-expoi-t it at suck a price a^ to undersell by 75 per cent, the half-naked 
rice-eating producer of the fiutst muslins, it is as much our duty as our 
interest to assist in stimulating the growth of cotton and other agiicultui-al 
produce of India. 

MACHINERY AND MECHANICAL CONTRIVANCES. 



FAIRBAIRN'S PATENT RIVETING MACHINE. 

This is a machine lately mvented aud brought into (tee by the Messrs. 
Fairbairu, of Manchewter, for riveting tlie seams of boilers, ic. It ov.es 
its origin, we believe, to a tuni-out of the boiler-makci-s in tlic employ of 
the exhibitor, about fifteen years ago. The principal advantage attributed 
to it u tliat it does noiselessly, at once, and with unerring precision, by 
pimple compression, that which was foiTuerly done by means of repeated 
blows of a hammer ; and that before the rivet ha^ lost its heat, so that by 
its contraction in cooling it grips the plates still tighter together. This 
machine is capable of fixing in the firmest manner eight rivets, three- 
quiirter inch diameter, in a minute, with the attendance of two men and 
two boys to the plates and rivets ; whereas the average work that can be 
done by two rivetei-s, with one " holder-on " and a boy, is forty similar 
rivets per liour — the increase in quantity of work done by the machine 
bemg at the rate of twelve to one, exclusive of the saving of one man's 
labour. The work, also, ia done better, for reasons already stated, the 
boilers being more secure from leakage than under the old method. 

The construction of this machine will be easily undei-stood by thoso 



IO3 

conversant with mechanical and engineering contrivances, fi-im an in^pe*. 
tion of the Engraving. The large upright htem is made of malleable irgT 
Tiie rirethig dies are of vm-ious descriiitions, adapted to every dcHcrirtioB 
of flat or circular work ; even tho comers arc riveted with the same caw 
as other parts, so that vessels of any shape may be completed without 
recoui'sc to the old process of hanimuring, 

MIDDLETON'S CENTRIPETAL WHEEL-PLATE. 

Among the various improvements in carriage building exhibited, wa» 1 
contrivance of tlie Messrs. Middleton, for leSHening the di-aught of carriacM 
and shortening the lock — two impoi-tant considerations, which have at 
different times attracted the attention of some of the firtt builders. R ha* 
been considered that a sliding perch bolt, as connected with the whe«i 
plate, would certainly be better than the fixed one in ordinary use. Yttit 
is a matter of considerable difficulty to keep the " under carriage" alwir* 
under the centre of the body, wbicli isaserious objection, as, if the carriage 
is cur\-ed away from the centre, it not only makes it very difficult to luok 
round, but renders it Uable to accident from being over-turned, owing tgj 
want of sufficient bearing. 

By the accompanying diagrams— 1 and 2— it wiU be seen tUt the 
inventora have overcome the difficulties alluded to. A plan of the carriage, 
as it would appear when running iu a straight line, is shovra by Fig, I 
Thus, tho wheels are brought much closer together, as the under carriage 
ia full ten inches nearer to the centre of the body than usual. 

The carriage is shown on the "full lock" by Fig. 2, when the bolt A 
has been moved down the full length of the groove B, being guided both 
smoothly and equally by means of tlie pin C running in the gi-oove D of 
the transverse plate, thereby allowing the wljeels to work under the body. 

The eUiptical form given to the wheel-plate is both ni.vel and onia- 
mental, and the wliol« arrangement seems calculated to tusure ei^ and 
safet}'. 

CLOSING SCENE OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 
— ♦ — 

The Engraving standing across the next two pages represents the iuttr- 
esting and memorable ceremony of October 15th, when Prince Albert, ai 
President of the Royal Commission, received the Reports of the Juri« 
from Viscount Canning, and read a reply, in which, on behalf of the Kojtl 
Commission, he thanked the members of the Juiies, the Foreign and hocti 
Commissioners, and others who had esei-ted %ftemselves in promoting the 
objects of the Great Exhibition. The proceedings took place uptjn a tem- 
porary platform erected on the site previously occupied by the Crystal 
Fountain in the middle of tlie transept. For further particularB, our 
readers ai-e referred to No. 4, page 59. 




Jfujt 




m^pisxoy. i cMiatrvz^ VBUb-ciOT^ 




FAIBBAiaK'S FUTSMT SIVSTIMa JUCmVB. 



AN ILliUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDIA OF THE GllEAT EXIirHlTION OP IHr.l. 



107 



ciii-hoii, in iii!iii(riciciit of itsi'lf to maiutiiiii tlie vital functions. Tlio Mini-o 
iiii]iort!Uit conntitiiyiitu of iiiillc, wliicli nro Ht'piinitoil from it .ami Kulidilioil 
into cliceso, form (I concentrated kind of food, wliicli in ko well adapted 
for koopin;', so easy of traiispoi't, and yet witlial so woU eulculiiled to 
iiirlicate nkill in ilM ninn\ifaetiM'u. that wo nii;,'lit reaflonaljly expect tliat the 
Cl'yi<tal I'alaco would liavo bee?! iiiiindiitcd with exaniplcH. 

Next to milk, hlnod must ho regarded aK a material having all tlio 
oonatituontH roquinite for food. It is but litllo used in any country. Tlio 
Jjovltical law so strictly forbids its uso, that it orders it to bo thrown upon 
the grounil. This in carried out to the present day by tho Jews, ftnd wo 
can but think there is .some meilical reason for its not being used. To our 
mind, tlioro is soniothing revolting in the usts of blood, and wo .should bo 
■\'i'rv indispf)sed to try tho blood bread of either the ox, cow, t-alf, lamb, or 
Bheop, all of which aro exhibited by Mr. Hocohiore. Amongst those articles 
of food, ,and jilaeod in tho section for food, are specimens of the [iroserved 
b!t)od of healthy mm ami healthy women, for the oxeollonce of whicli, as 
articles of diet, not being cannibals, we can give no opinion. We have no 
ex[>erienee of the use of blooil to any extent as an article of food, and, 
therefore, w^ould not recommend it even under tho title of blood bon-bons, 
which aro shown amongst these articles. Of course, in times of famine, 
thoy might possibly be of great Msistance. 

h'rom the consideration of tho blood foods, wo now I'ass to the more 
pleasing criticism of materials derived from the muscular fibre, or meat. 
iu this department the Americans have shown large barrels of beef and 
pork prepared for ship purposes. The same people have shown specimens 
of hams aud spiced beef; and our Irisli neiglibours, represented by Mr. 
Smith, have cureil a whole pig, to exhibit their skill in this department of 
the preparation of food. A few other hams were shown, but in this matter 
the ilisplay was not good. In these cases salt is naeil in considerable 
exoe.ss, and it has become a matter of great impoi-tance to prepare meat so 
that it will keep without that material. Napoleon ofl'tred a large reward 
foi' any person who should provide this desideratum, which we believe was 
firat discovered and used iu France. Subsequently, Mr. Cooper also suc- 
ceeded iu linding out how to conduct the same operation, and his discovery 
was rewarded by a handsiime fortune produced by the sale of jireserved 
meats for ship crows. Neither lie nor his descendants have contributed 
specimens to the Exhibition, although Captain Parry and Captain Ro^s have 
spoken of them as being "ni flavour and quality superior to every other." 

The important department of prepared provisions was extremely well 
represented. Messrs. Gamble sent, amongst a large number of tins, one 
canister of boiled mutton supplitd to the Arctic expedition iu 182-1, and 
found by Sir James Ross iu Rriuco Regent's Inlet, in 18i9, iu a perfect 
state of jireservatiou. Jlr. Leonard showed beef said to keep good for any 
time ; and a large quantity of foods from New South Wales was also 
exhibited. The principle of the preparation of the foods is the total 
exclusion of the air, and hence no putrefaction or other change occurs. It 
is impossible to tell to what extent this manufacture will eventually be 
carried, for iu some parts of the world animals are kept for thtir skin aud 
fat only, the meaty, or nutritious part, being useless for any purpose. We 
aro told that the large navy contracts for these preserved meats are taken by 
persons who procure the materials from foreign countries, aud thus are 
enabled to supply tliem at a very moderate price. If so, we see no reason why 
thousands of tons of such provisions should not be imported for the use of 
our industrial classes ; for already their excellence is well known to the 
bachelor students of the inns of court, who keep a supply by them to use 
when required. This iuventiou will, doubtless, by degrees, amply develope 
itself. Of course, of the relative excellence of the things exhibited we have 
no means of judging from simply looking at the canisters. Mr. Whitney 
showed beef preserved in a dry state, in fact, as a powder, without salt : 
doubtless, if well prepared, it might become a good breakfast viaud. A 
more important material was exhibited by Mr. Warriuer aud M. Soyer. It 
consists of the gravy of meat, containing, probably, all lt,i soluble matters in 
a concentrated form. It is procured from Australia, where the carcases of 
sheep are positively worthless. In tho department of chemicals, Mr. 
Bullock has furnished a beautiful specimen of both kreatine and kreatiuine, 
two alkaloids which Liebig has lately discovered in the tiesh of animals. 
Perhaps we dare affirm that such specimens as these have never been pro- 
duced before, and that they aro the largest and finest examples that have 
ever been made, aud, therefore, well deserving of cai-eful study. 

Madame ,St. Etieune has shown specimens of combinations of animal 
food with vegetable ; so as also Mr. Gentile, apparently from the same 
works at Totues ; and tho Americans have sent over some meat biscuits. 
These latter we have had an opportunity of tastiug, and they appear to be 
a very excellent compound of flour w-ith tlie gravy of meat. The whole 
question of the preparation of food is but in its infancy — a mere germ, 
which, perliaps, in future years, will be fully developed. 

The flesh of meat is particularly valuable as au alimentai-y matter, inas- 
mucli as it supplies the substance which enables us to evince muscular 
action; and, though we shall hereafter point out that some vegetables con- 
tain a .similar principle, yet animal food seems, upon the whole, with due 
deference to the vegetable feeders, to be the best lubstauce whigh can bo 
employed for that object. 

Fish is somewhat less digestible than meat. Preserved salmon and various 
other fish were exhibited by the same persons who have shown the preserved 
meats. We need hardly remind our readers that we owe isinglass to fish. 
This material was well represented by Mr. Simpson, who has shown an excel- 
lent case of samples of this material. By tho machines it is cut up into fine 



riiiboiiH, Hitch iw those which aro §olrl in tlio groccn' nhopii. AmongHt 

the Indian curioHiticH a lish wim hIiowii which aUo yields a good ittinglajM, 

and a number of nhark's fins which arc aluo employed by the native" for 

a similar object. Of lute yeaiH, gclntiue liuH been procured not only from 

fish but also from animal Hubstanccri, an<^ voriouH Kpeeimeu.'i of geUtiiio 

I Were shown. In purchasing this substance the [tubllc must rely upon tUc 

' honesty of the vender ; for, although homo nro oh good or i-tronger than 

I iaitiglasH, otlitrs are almost as bud as tho better hortJi of carfienter'ft glue. 

1 Mr. Hatty has bIiowu some beautiful glassc-s of enlven'-fcot jelly, which will 

keep for any time, and yet piijservo tho tlavount which have been iuipurto<J 

I to them. In England fish does not form so coiiiiiion an article of diet an 

1 fttrmerly, when imlentiires of apjirentiees ma-le in the towns on the bor-ler.; 

of the Severn coiitaineil stipulations a.s to the number of days to which the 

eating of baliiioii was to bo restricted, or in those ancient ]»erioda of history 

when iloredotus reeordb that there were two or three races who lived 

cxeliisivoly on fish, and Iienco were called Ichthyopophagi. 

In the Swiss dcpaitnieiil sonic dried trout, ilried mutton chops, cutlets, 
&c., weru exhibited ; and in the French department various articlcif pre- 
served in tins, but not deserving any special de-criptioii. 

Tho preparations of gelatine were formerly m high repute ; but modem 
chemistry seems to indicate that they are serviceable for the tendon.^, fasciie, 
and skin, and do not oommunieato to tho system matter which supplies 
the changes which aro rciiuired for muscular action ; and certainly the 
practical surgeon knows that the}' arc incomparably inferior to the soluble 
parts of muscular fibre, or flesh meat, for restoring strength and mtuicular 
energy. 

Amongst preparations from fish, we must not omit the fish oils. These 
during the last ten years have come much into use as a medicine, thoui^h, 
perhaps, they must be regarded more in the light of a food than a remedial 
agent. By the u.so of the fish oiks, such as cod-liver oil, and the oils of a 
similar character, the surgeon can fatten his patient at discretion, and can 
even, by their agency, remove the tubercular matter which, when deposited 
about the joints, Cdnstitutes scrofula — when deposited in the lungs consti- 
tutes Consumption. The judicious use of these oils, combined with other 
proper treatment, has so very much increased tlie duration of life in con- 
sumj>ti\e cases, that this malady is now, in a great miijority of instances, 
cured, or stopped ill its progress before it has fatally disorganised those 
organs so absolutely necessary to the right performance < 'f the vitd functions. 
Amongst the articles of food, there were some furnished by the Chinese 
aud Indians which we think are almost new to England — these ai'O edible 
slugs. They have a most uninviting look, and are large, dried, black 
masses, which aro eaten by Ea.stern nations ; bub with their excellence, 
flavour, and properties we arc not acquainted. Amongst the Chinese aud 
Indian collections, we had also such a display of edible birds' nests as we 
never saw before iu this country. These nests, as exhibited, were in two, 
if not in three varieties ; the tii-st being quite white, and somewhat re- 
sembling dried wliitc of egg ; the second being mixed with feathere. These 
are used ftir soup, and, according to the analysis published by modem 
chemists, they contain the highest amount of nutritive ingredients ; in fact, 
containing a highly nitrogenised substance, they must be considered as 
I being one of the most concentrated kinds of food which can be employed. 
j Amongst the luxuries which doubtless in lime will be rendered much 
cheaper, is preserved turtle, aud we see no reason why the delicious 
calipash and calipee should not be abundantly prepared in regions where 
I these creatures abound, sealed up in tins and sold at a moderate price. It 
I is now largely imported, but not to the extent which it deserves. 

Perhaps there is no more curious feature connected with animal food 
than the economy whieli is practised with such portions as are unfit for 
; food. The very refuse in making candles fetches comparatively a higli 
price in the shape of greaves ; and, in fact, every portion is turned to some 
account. Some time ago, when experimenting on various foods, the writer 
called at a large retail sliop, aud offered to purchase all tho fragments of 
cheese which necessarily occur iu cutting it. Tlie man asked what seemed 
to be a preposterous price ; but. wiulst debating the matter, a respectable- 
looking female, who overheard the conversation, turned round and ex- 
claimed, ''Ah, sir, you little know the value of those fragments ; if you 
had a family like mine, you would be glad indeed to get pieces of such 
good cheese for supper ! " Of good food every fragment is sold; and when 
animal matter is unfit for food, it passes into the manufacturer's hands to 
be changed to other substances. 

In taking a review of the animal .substances used for the food'of man, it 
will be seeu, that, without there being anything positively new in the Great 
Exhibition, there were many materials which are but very little known, 
not only to the public, but even to those who have deeply studied these 
subjects. The most important aud suggestive examples are, doubtless, 
those in which meat is preaepved to keep for any period, and is capable of 
being transported to any distimce. The legislator and the philanthropist 
must for ever regard the proper supply of tlie industrial classes with nutri- 
tious food as a matter of the utmost importance. Our workhouses are 
filled with inmates on account of bodily maladies produced by insutiScient 
or improper food. Our hospitals aud disfiensaries are crowded with sup- 
plicants for aid from the same cause. For the full development of the 
intellectual fivculties adequate nourishment was absolutely necessary ; and 
consequently, both physically and morally, there was no subject of moi*e 
importance at the Crystal Palace than those specimens of food which were 
exhibited, which are likely to tend to the more extensive supply of animal 
food to the industrial classes. 



108 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



FURNITURE. 



THE display of furniture in 
the Great Exhibition, al- 
though extremely showy and 
co3tly, and calculated to excite 
the wonder of the millions who 
beheld it at the bare thought of 
the value of the materials em- 
ploy ed, and the labour bestowed 
upon the various ai-ticles, has, 
after all, done veiy little to 
promote the interests of that 
homely idol, "comfort." Luxury 
has been studied, ostentation 
has been courted, wealth has 
been propitiated, but to the 
many thousands who have to 
consult economy of space, of 
material, and of outlay, scarcely 
a suggestion has been oifered for 
the improvement of the "style" 
of then- homes. The poor man, 
therefore, has gained veiy little, 
if anything, in tin.? respect by 
the Great Exhibition ; — he must 
put up still, with the same rat- 
tle-trap, clumsily made chaii'S 
and tables as heretofore ; — or 
resort to the broker for the 
cast-off finery of his richer neigh- 
houre, much of which he ^vill 
tind unsuitable both in dimeu- 
.sions and fashion for his pui-- 
jjose. And even the man of ta.ste 
and wealth, curious in articles 
uf rtrtu, has not found all to 
admire in this gaudy display. 
Invention, guided by reason, has 
not been at work ; mere copying 
of established, not to say obso- 
lete, models has been the rule ; 
and the sole object of ambition 




with each competitor seems to 
have been, how much of decora- 
tive device he could crowd with- 
in a given space, without any 
regard to its suitableness in a 
ntiUtarian, or appropriateness 
in an artistic point of view. At 
the same time there were excep- 
tions, many of which we shall be 
glad to note from time to time, 
when continuing these remarks ; 
and to make a beginning we 
lu'e happy to fix upon two vei-y 
creditable exhibits in this line. 



MONOCLEID CABINET. 
BY SOPWITH. 

Sopwith's Monocleid Cabinet 
is a very serviceable and well- 
made piece of furniture. It is 
made of black walnut wood — the 
upper panels being of silvered 
plate glass, ornamented through- 
out with carved gilt mouldings. 
This cabinet contains a gi'eat 
number of drawers and parti- 
tions, so arranged as to be es- 
pecially serviceable for the 
keeping of various papers sorted, 
and the whole of them are 
opened by one turn of the key, 
therebeing but asingle lock and a 
tingle key -hole situate externally. 



.\1U.\0CI.EID CABlNiiT. BV SOI'WITH. 



BEDROOM FURNITURE. BY TROL- 
LOPE AND SON. 

The Bed-room Set.by Trollope 
& Sou, is in very good taste : 
the material is satm-wood, inlaid 
with various-coloured woods. 
The bedstead and dressing-table 
have turned spiral legs; and 
the ornamentation throughout, 
without offending by redun- 
dancy or undue prominence, 
is remai'kable for its admii-able 
finish. 




BE i-itoc'ii rup.xiTvnT:. — rv troi.t.oie anp son 



AN ILLUSTRATKI) CYCLOP.KIHA OF TIIK GRKAT KXIIIIUTIO.V OF 1H51. 



10!) 



THE KENILWOnTH BUFFET. 

ur coOKi'3, WAnwiiK. 

Ov thin very carufully studied 
and ambitious woi-k, wliicli lias 
been oiiG of tlio cbiof lions on 
tho British sido of tlic Crystiil 
Palnce, wo iirefcr giving, in an 
abridged form, tbo description 
by tlio makers : — 

Tho wood of whicli this buffet 
wn3 made was olitaiuod from a 
colossal oak treo, which grew 
near Ivenilworth Castle, in War- 
wickshire, measuring 10 feet in 
dianiet'sr. and containing about 
GOO cubic feet of wood, wliicU 
was lovcllcil in ISl'J, and .after- 
wards inu'chased by tho cxhibi- 
tora. The subject of tlio design 
ig the Kenilworth Pageant of 
1575, in honour of Queen Eliza- 
beth's visit to tlie Earl of Leices- 
ter, described by Lancham and 
Gaseoigue, two attendants on 
tho Queen in this " royal pro- 
gress," and vividly reproduced 
by Scott. The design of the 
centre panel, carved out of one 
solid block of oak, represents 
Queen Elizabeth entering Kenil- 
worth Ciistlc, in all the pomp 
usually displayed on these occa- 
sions. The cavalcade is seen 
crossing the TUt Yard, and 
;i]'iaoaching the base court of 
tlie building by Mortimer's 
'r(>\ver. Leicester is bareheaded 
and on foot, leading the horso 
upon which his august mistress 
is seated, magnificently arrayed. 
The Queen (then in her 42ud 
year) wears her eromi, .and has 
around her neck the enormous 
I utf in whicli .she is alw.ays 
ijiiresonted. Two pages and a 
long train of attendants follow 
the Queen and her host, com- 
posed of ladies, statesmen, 
knights, and warriors — some on 
foot, othei-s on horseback. In 
the distance are soldiers and 
a mixed multitude of people. 
A portion of the Castle is seen 
in the back-gi-ound. At one 
end, the gateway through 
which the cavalcade is about 
to pass, is Mortimer's Tower, 
tho remains of which are still 
in existence, and considerably 
heighten tho romantic beauty of 
the Kenilworth ruins. At the 
opposite end of the panel, the 
Earl of Essex, Leicester's rival 
in the favour of Queen Eliza- 
beth, is conspicuously seen, 
mounted on a charger. On tho 
table part underneath the centre 
panel is displayed the Tudor 
rose, and surmounted by tho 
royal crown, with the famous 
motto of Elizabeth, "Semper 
eadem," on a ribbon. On the 
ppandrils, supported by water- 
flowers and rock-work penden- 
tives. are marme subjects taken 
from the " Pageant," namely, a 
Triton on the Mermaid, and 
Alien on the Dolphin, con- 
nected with Mike Lambourue's 
mishap, in the novel of " Kenil- 
worth." The panel on the 
right or dexter sido of the buffet 
recalls the scene in the same 
wark when Elizabeth meets 
Amy Robsai-t in the grotto, 
in the grounds of the Castle. 




J 10 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



The subject of the left panel of the buffet represents the interview 
of Queen Elizabetli and Leicester, after the exposure of the deceit prac- 
tised upon her by the latter, and his marriage witli Amy Robsart. Leieestet 
is'showTi in a kneeling po=^ition, with one baud on his breast, and the 
other extends towards Elizabeth, as if appealing to her sensibility. The 
four statuettes at the corners are emblematical of the reign of Elizabeth. At 
the extreme corner of the right is Sir Philip Sydney, the nephew of the Earl 
of Leicester, whose character combined all the qualities of a great poet. 
warrior, and statesman. He died in 15S6. The shape of Sir Philip's 
Bword (which is still preserved at Penshuret) is singular, the handle being 
about sixteen inches long. On the opposite side of the .same pedestal will 
be recognised Sir Walter Raleigh, who attained eminence in almost every 
branch of science and literature. He is arrayed in a courtier's dress, and 
the figiu'e represents hini in a thoughtful attitude, with a scroll and pen in 
his hand. Raleigh was behca<led on a charge of high treason, in 1618. On 
the left pedestal at the inner side of the bufiet is a figiu'e of Shakgpeare, 
who is shown in reflective mood The last figure is that of Sir Francis 
Drake, the first Englishman who circumnavigated tlie globe. An anchor is 
appropriately introduced, emblematic of his naval career ; and the costume 
chosen is a court dress. The ragged staff mouldinsrs of the Kenilwortii 
buffet are imitations of the best examples in the Beauchanip Chapel, 
"WiU'wick, where the Earl of Leicester was interred. The supporters to the 
projecting shelves also represent the proud crest of this splendid noble, the 
bear and ragged staff, bnrne by the Earls of AVarwick from the most 
remote times. The small panels of the buffet behind the Leicester cog- 
nizance contain monograms of the date of Queen Elizabeth's visit to 
Kenilworth Castle, and the eventful year 18-51, with the cipher of the 
reigning Monarch, designed to record the era <'f the Great Exhibition of all 
Nations. Around the door-panels of the Kenilwortii buffet are copies of 
architectural details still .seen on the Gate-Hcnise. The upper part, above 
the shelf of each pedestal of tiie buffet, displays the monogram of the Earl 
of Leicester, encircled by the insignia of the Order of the Garter, and .=nr- 
mounted by his c M-ouet. The decorations on each side are specimeus of 
Elizabethan on.imeuts, designed by the proprietors." An important 
feature in the pro Inction of thi- work is the introduction, by Mr. Walter 
Cooper, of pohitinc/, the process adopted by sculptors in stone and marble, 
and by which greater accuracy is secured. 



CLAUS.5EN'S IMPROVED MODE OF TREATING FLAX. 
'IS^HETHER wo. 1 or Flax were first spun into threads and woven into 
cloth, is left d'Hibtful by history ; but the art of spinning is one of 
the most ancient, and one of the eai-liest materials spun, if not the very 
earliest, was Flax. The mummy-cloth of Egypt, chemically and micro- 
scopically examined by Dr. Ure, was ascertained to be wholly composed, 
both in warp and woof, of Flax, and contained no cotton whatever. 
Though cotton was probably fii-st spun in Egypt, and was certainly spun 
at an early period, it was much later used than Flax for the purpose of 
making cloth. We may indeed infer that iho art of spinning must have 
made considerable progress before cotton was spun. No doubt, the art 
took its rise from jilatting rushes together, then went to platting the finer 
fibres of the Flax plant, and from platting tliem together to make a long 
thread. The downy and almost pulpy nature of cotton, keeping its fila- 
ments obscure to unaided vision, would not bo likely to suggest the pos- 
sibility of twisting it into a string, till tliat art had been learned by twisting 
together the long visible natui-al threads of Flax. Similar argiunents 
apply to woo! ; and while history assui-es that Flax was spun long before 
cotton, we may infer from theory that it was also spun before wool. 

After being applied to making cloth upwards of three thousand years, 
the same me;ms of preparing it for this purpose having been in use for the 
whole time without nuich change, namely, rotting the plant in water, and 
separating by the lieckle the woody and glutinous matters with which the 
fibres of the Flax stalk are united, an improved method of preparing Flax 
has lately been intri'duced. Many reasons, such as the unwholesomeness 
of the rotting process, the offensive qualities it imparted to the water, the 
weakening of the fibre, and the discoloration of the Flax, induced people 
yeara ago to turn their attention to the subject ; and, though several 
patents were taken out, it remained to our time to effect any considerable 
improvement in tlie process. Latterly, the failure for two successive years 
of the cottnu crop in the United States, the large increase of our cotton 
manufacture, and the repugnance felt by some persons to have so much of 
the national prosperity dependent on the product of slave labour, has 
sharpened the wit of inventors, and Chevalier Claussen, a Belgian, has 
recently brought before the public a scheme by which Flax, the product 
of our temperate climate, for tlie growth of which Ireland and a large part 
of England are peculiarly well adapted, may be made to a considerable 
extent to supply the place of cotton. On the great adv.antages of extend- 
ing the cultivation of Flax; of ihe immense quantity of vei-y fattening 
food it supplies for cattle ; of the hcaltliy employment it gives both out 
of doors an<.l in doors, we need not speak at present. We shall now only 
describe the additional advantages likely to accrue both to agriculturists 



and manufacturers from Claussen's improved method of preparing the Flax 
for being spun after it has left the bauds of the agricultm'ists. 

t'rom the nature of Flax, considerable difficulty is experienced in spin- 
ning it by machinery, and tlie greater facility with which cotton can bo 
spun in tills way is the principal reason why cotton cloth has come so 
extensively into u.-'e. and has in many cases superseded linen. Its peculiar 
properties, however, must always make it acceptable, particularly in warm 
climates, to a great multitude of people. Tlie problem to be solved in this 
case was to make Flax as easy to spin by machinery as cotton, .and to 
adapt it to the macliiuery already in use for spinning. It has been ascer- 
tained by microscopic observations that the fibre of Flax is of a cylindric;il 
form, while that of cotton is flat like a ribbon, a little thickened at either 
edge. It is also shorter than the fibre of Flax. The process, therefore, 
mainly consists in converting the cylindrical and tubular fibres of Flax into 
flat ribbons, without destroying their texture. To cleanse the Flax tho- 
roughly, it is first boiled for about three hours in water containing one- 
half per cent, of common soda. It is then placed in water containing 
about a 500tli part of sulphuric acid ; and this destructive agent being 
neutralised by the soda remaining in the Flax, merely cleanses the fibre, 
without injuring it. The process is equally useful whether the Flax bo 
spun by the ordinary processes into linen yarn or be converted into cotton- 
flax. It requires mucli less time than the old plan of cleaniug, does not 
impart a bad colour to the Flax, and lessens by one-half the labour required 
to scutch it. To convert it into cotton-flax, it is cut by a machine into 
suitable lengths, and is saturated in a solution of bicarbonate of soda 
(common baking soda). The solution penetrates into every part of the 
small tubes ; and when that is effected, they are immersed in a solution of 
sulphuric acid, in the proportion of about one part to 200 parts of water. 
The acid combines with tlie soda of the bicarbonate, and liberates the car- 
bonic acid in the form of gas, which, bj- its explosive force, bursts the Flax 
tubes, and reduces them to the flat ribbon shape of the cotton fibre. Tlic 
process is so gentle, yet decisive and rapid, that it has been compared to 
itfligio. It is an extremely beautiful application of tlie power of explosion. 
as we see it bubbling and forcing its way through soda water. " The Flax 
fibre," says Mr. Hudson, the Secretary to the Royal Agi'icultural Snciety, 
*}io reports tlie experiment, "soaked in the solution of the bicarbonat" of 
soda, was no sooner immersed in the vessel containing the acidula'^d 
vrater, than its character became at once changed from that of a Uamp, 
tigid aggregation of Flax, to a light, expansive mass of cottony texture, 
increasing in size like leavening dough or an expanding sponge." The mas.s, 
tlov.- become of tlie consistence of cott'iu. soft and silky, cau be bleached 
either in tlie ordinary method, or by being placed in hypochlorite of mag- 
iiesia ; it may be carded in the same manuor a-s cotton, and is as fit for 
spinning. In this condition, it has already been spun on cotton machinery 
—as an experiment, but with great success — by the Messrs. Bright, at 
Rochdale ; and there is every reason to believe that it may be used, if 
necessary, as a complete substitute for cotton. 

M. Claussen has been awarded a common prize medal for this important 
improvement — an honour, however, which he repudiates in the following 
protest : — " Upon an examination of the awards made by the juries 
appointed by you under the authority of the Royal Corami.ssinn, for the 
purpose of securing an impartial distribution of rewards to exhibitors in 
connectioii with the Great Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations, I find 
that what is termed a ' prize,' or second class medal only, has been awarded 
to me by the jui'y in Class lY., in which I exhibited my new process of 
preparing flax, so as to adajit it for spinning or weaving, either upon the 
ordinary flax machinery or alone, or in combination with cotton and wool 
upon the existing cotton and woollen machinery. As I consider this 
award to be totally at variance with the spirit and letter of the instructions 
given by your lordships to the Council of Chairmen of the Juries, I beg 
most respectfully to decline to receive the medal so awarded." 



THE SMOKE NUISANCE. 

The public may not be aware of a clause of very considerable importance 
which was introduced into the City of London Sewers Amendment Act, of 
the past session ; and which comes into operation on January 1, 1852, viz :— 

" That from and after the First Day of January One thousimd eight 
hundred and fifty-two every Furnace employed or to be employed in the 
working of Engines, by Steam, and every Furnace employed or to be 
employed in any Mill, Factory, Printing House, Dychouse, Iron Foundry. 
Glasshouse, Distillery, Brewhouse, Bakehouse, Gasworks, Waterworks, or 
other Buildings used for the Purpose of 'f'rade, or Manufacture, 
within the City (although a Steam Engine be not used or employed 
therein), .shall in all Cases be constructed or altered so as to consume the 
Smoke arising from such Furnace ; and if any Person shall, after the First 
Day of January One thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, use any such 
Furnace which shall not be constructed so as to consume or burn its own 
Smoke, or shall so negligently use any such Furnace as that the Smoke 
arising therefrom shall not be effectually consumed or burnt, or shall 
carry on any Trade or Business which shall occasion any noxious or offen- 
sive Effluvia, or otherwise annoy the Neighbourhood or Inhabitants, 
without using, to the Satisfaction of the Commissioners, the be.st prac- 
ticable Means for preventing or counteracting such Annoyance, every 
Person so oftendiiig shall forfeit and p.ay a Sum of not more than Five 
Pounds uor less thim Forty Sliilling.s, for and in respect of every Day j 
during which or any Part of which such Furnace or Annoyance shall be so 
used or continued." 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiTlDIA OP THE GREAT EXTITRITION OT ]H:,]. 



Ill 



MEMOIRS OF WORKING MEN. 

• 
TTNDKll tlio above licail we iiilctirl from time to time k'^'iiK lirief memoii-.i 
of " working men," wlio, by their well-directed industry and inj^cmiit}', 
havo distin^'uisliod tliem«elvc« ivbovo tlioir fellows, and eontribiited new or 
improved principles of iniportoace to the mamifactnrin;,' renourccs of the 
world. Siicli a sericH of ekctclies wo consider to bo strictly in aecordanco 
with the spirit iu which tho Great Exhibition was founded, wIioho varied 
wonders were not the work of a day, nor an atce, but the fruit of tho accu- 
mulated laboiirs and discoveries of a century and nioro of such men as 
Watt, Arkwrifjht, Hargrcavcs. Dalton, Peel, Wedfjewood, &c. Those notices, 
therefore, whilst they will bo intei'osting a.s illustrative of the progress of 
Art-cultino, will also servo ns an encouraging incitement to thousands of 
" working men " of our own day, any one of whom may jiossibly have it in his 
power to add his niito to the general store of viduable experiences, .and 
to rcooivo his reward in fame and fortune for himself and his descendants. 

JACOB PERKINS. 
Jacod Perkiks wa? descended from one of the oldest families of that 
ancient portion of the state of M.assachusetts, the coimty of Kssex — a region 
of stubborn soil, but rich in its production of men. JIatthew Perkins, hi.s 
father, was a native of Ipswich, and his ancestor was one of the first settlers 
of th.it town. Matthew Perkins removed to Nowburyport early iu life, and 
here Jacob Perkins was born, Jidy 0th. 1766. He received such education 
as the common schools of that day furnished, and nothing more. What they 
were in 1770 may be guessed. At the age of twelve he was put apprentice 
to ft goldsmitli of Nowburyport, of the name of Davis. His master died 
three years afterwards : .and Perkins, at fifteen, was left with the manage- 
ment of tho business. Tliis was the age of gold beads, which our grand- 
mothers still hold in fond remembr.ance — .and who wonders ? The young 
goldsmith gained great reputation for the skill and honesty with which he 
transformed the old Portuguese joes, then in circulation, into these showy 
ornaments for the female bosom. Shoe-buckles were another article in 
great vogue ; and Perkins, w-hose inventive powers had begun to exp.and 
during his apprenticeship, turnei) his attention to the manufacturing of 
them. He discovered a new method of plating, by which he could under- 
sell the imported buckles. Tliis wa.s a profitable branch of business, till 
the revolutions of fashion drove shoe-buckles out of the market. Nothing 
could be done with strings, and Perkins put his head-work upon other 
matters. Machinery of all sorts w.as then in a very rude state, and a clever 
iirtis<an was scarely to be found. It was regarded as a great achievement 
to effect a rude copy of some imported machine. Under the old confede- 
ration, the state of Massachusetts established a mint for striking copper 
coin ; but it was not so easy to find a mechanic equal to the task of making 
a die. Perkins was but twenty-one years of age when he w*as employed 
by the Government for this purpose ; and the old Mas.sachusetts cents, 
stamped with the Indian and the Eagle, now to be seen only iu collections 
of curiosities, are the work of his skill. He next displayed his ingenuity 
in nail machinery, .and at the age of tweuty-four invented a machine wliich 
3ut and headed nails at one operation. This was first p\it iu operation at 
Jfewburyport, and afterwards at Ame.sbury. on the Mcrriniac, where the 
nanufacture of nails has been carried on for more than half a centurv. 
^erkins would have realised a great fortune from this invention, had hi.s 
:nowledge of the world and the tricks of trade been in any way equ,al to 
lis mechanical skill. Others, howerer, made a great gain from his loss : 
.nd he t\irned his attention to varioas other branches of the mechanic arts. 
n several of which he made essential improvements, as fire-engines, 
ydr.auUc machines, &c. One of the most important of his inventions w,as 
u tho engi-aving of bank bills. Forty years ago. counterfeiting was carried 
n with an audacity and a success which would seem incredible at the 
■resent time. The e.aso with which the clumsy engravings of the bank 
ills of the day were imitateil, was a temptation to every knave who could 
er.atch copper .; and counterfeits flooded the country, to the serious detri- 
lent of trade. Perkins invented the stereotype cheek-plate, which no 
rt of counterfeiting could match ; and a security wa.s thus given to bank 
iaper which it had never before known. There was hardly any mechanical 
eience in which Perkins did not exercise his inquiring and inventive 
pint. The town of Newburyport enjoyed the benefit of his skill in every 
■•ayin which he could contribute to the public welfare or amusement. 
)uring the war of 1812, liu! ingenuity was employed in constructing 
lachinei-y for boring out old honeycombed cannon, and iu perfecting the 
=ience_of gunnei-y. He was a .skilful pyrotechnist, and the Newburyport 



reworks of that day were thought to be nnrivalled in the United States. 



'l'\)(: boys, wc ri'iMcinlicr, looki'd up to liim ai a K.-coud I'aust or ("orncliiu 
Agrippa; and tlio writer of this article linfi not forirotteri thu delight and 
auiazcmint with which ho learned from Jacob Perkins the mystury of 
(!ompounding s<'rponts and rocki-tx. Al)oiit this time a person named 
Undhfffer made l>rctensions to a diiieovcry of tho perpetual motion. Ho 
was traversing tho United Htatcs with a machine cxhiliiting his iliHcovery. 
Certain weighu moved the wheels, and when tljey ha'l run down, certain 
other weights restored tho first. The oxpcHment scoincd perfect, for the 
machine continued to niovo witliout ccsi-ation ; and Redhcfler waj* 
trumpeted to the world ns the man who li.ad solved the great problem. 
Perkins gave the machine an examination, and his knowledge of the powers 
of nu'chanism en.ablod him to perceive at once that the visil.le appliances were 
inadeq\iato to tho results. Ho saw that a hirlden power existed somewhere, 
anrl his skilful calculations tletected the corner of the machine from which 
it pniceoded. " Pass a saw through that post," said he, " and your per- 
petual motion will stop." Tho impostor refused to put Lis machine to 
such a test ; and for a sufficient rcn8(m. It was afterwards discovered that 
a cord passed tlirough this post into the cellar, where an individu.al was 
stationed to restore the wciglits at every revrdution. The studies, lab urs, 
and ingenuity of Perkins were employed on so great a variety of subjects 
that the task of specifying and describing t.hem must be left to one fully 
ae<pi,ainted with the history of tho mechanic arts in the United States. 
Ho discovered a method of softening antl hardening steel .at pleasure, by 
which the process of engraving on that metal was facilitated in a most 
essential degree. Ho instituted a .series of experiments, by which he 
demonstrated tlic compressiliility of water, a problem which for centuries 
had baffled the ingenuity of natural philosophers. In connexion with 
this discovei-y, Perkins .also invented the bathometer, an inatnimeut for 
measuring the depth of the sea by the pressure of the water ; and tho 
pleonieter. to meivsure a sliiji's rate of sailing. Perkins continued to reside 
in his birth-place till I.SIO. when he removed from Newburyport to Boston, 
and subsequently to Philadelphi.a. His attention w.a.s now occupied by 
steam machinery which was beginning to acijuire importance in the 
United States. His rese.ai-ches led to the invention of a new method of 
gener.ating steam,, by suddenly letting a small quantity of water into a 
heateil vessel. After a short residence in Philadelphia, he removed to 
London, whei-e his experiments with bigh-pre.ssurc steam, and other exhi- 
bitions which he gave of his inventive powers, at once brought him into 
gcnenal notice. His uncommon mcchanicid genius was highly appreciated; 
and his steam gun was for soma time the wonder of the British metropolis. 
This gun he invented in tho United States, and took out a patent for it in 
1810. It attracted the notice of the British Government in 1823, and 
Perkins made experiments with it before the Duke of Wellington and a 
numerous party of officers. At a distance of thirty-five yards he shattered 
iron targets to pieces, and sent his balls through eleven planks, one inch 
thick each, and piaced an inch apart from one another. This gun was a 
very ingenious piece of workmnnship, and could discharge about one 
thousand balls per minute. Perkins continue! in London during the 
remainder of his life. He never became rich. He lacked one quality to 
secure success iu the world— financial thrift. Everybody but himself 
profited by his inventions. He was, iu fact, too much in "love with the 
excitement of the chase to look very strongly at the pecuniary value of 
the gamo. 

LACE. 
'J'HIS beautiful br.anch of manufacture was very extensively and creditably 
represented iu the Great Exhibition, both by British and Foreign pro- 
ducers. We shall give several samples of the more striking patterns from 
time to tim6. Meantime, a few words upon the history of this art may not 
be unacceptable. 

Lace is a species of net-work, made of silk, thread, or cotton, upon 
which, in old times, patterns were embroidered with the needle, after the 
constractions of the f;^br^c. The patterns are now generally formed 
during the knitting itself. 

The invention of l.ace knitting, as distinguished from lace embroidery, is 
attributed by Beckmaun to Barb.ara, wife of Christopher Uttman, of St. 
Annaburg. in 1561, and was followed by the wives and daughtei-s of the 
miners, whose business was then not so productive as usual. It may be 
however, that she introduced the manufacture rather than invented it. 
Point lace, being th,at worked by the needle, is of far older date. It is 
found abundantly iu church furniture of great antiq\iity, and is supposed 
to have been originally made in Italy, particularly at Genoa and Venice. 

In the lace knit by the hand, sometimes called cushion or pillow lace, as 
many threads are employed as the pattern and breadth require. These 
are wound upon the requisite number of bobbins (made of bone, whence 
the name sometimes given of lone lace), which are thrown over and imder 
each other in various w.ays, so th.at they entwine roimd pins stuck in the 
lioles of tlie pattern (a stiff parchment stitched on a cushion or pillow) and 
by these means produce the openings which give the desired figure. The 
best laces are made .at Brussel.s, Mcclilin, Antwerp, Ghent, Lisle, Alen^on, 
and Valenciennes, abi-oad, and in Devonshire, Buckinghamshire, and but- 



112 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



rounding counties, in this 
country. The former i- 
known as Honiton, the 
latter as Buckinghamshire 
lace. 

The peculiarities ot 
some of the yai-ious kinds 
of lace ma}' be worth 
mentioning here. Brvs- 
sels Point has a network 
made with the bobbins, 
and a pattern of sprigs 
worked in the middle. 
Brmsds r/round has a six- 
sided mesh formed by 
twisting four flaxen 
threads to a perpendi- 
cular line of mesh. Brus- 
sels wire ground is of silk, 
the meshes being partly 
straight and partly arched, 
thepattern beiugwTought 
separately with tiie 
needle. Mechlin lace has 
a six-sided mesh formed 
of three flax threads 
t\visted and plaited to a 
perpendicular line, the 
pattern bemg worked 
in the net. Lisle lace has 

iu •.LL^ u u. ^toK. i^ti.1, ijt« EN'iLISII l'ILL')\V LACE. BY 1;. HH.I , 

a diamond-shaped mesh 

formed of two threads plaited to a perpendicular line. Alenfon lace has a | (women 






^Ti'^'fiTii^'"^-- 



'I.m:v, IT' KS. '" ' 

and children) employed in making 



six-sided mesh of two 
;! threads. Alen^on point 
-' is formed of two threads 
J to a perpendicular line, 
,- with octagonal and square . 
1 meshes alternately. Ho- 
^ niton lace is distingui.shed' ! 
J by the beauty of the de- 
; vices worked with the 
i needle. Bucl'ivghamshire 
i lace is mo.stly of a com- 
s moner description, and 
i somewhat resembles that 
-i of Alcu(;on. 
.1 Mr. B. Hill, of Olney 

1 exliibited several speci- 
i mensof ruckinghamshiro 

2 pillow-lace, of very pleas- 
C; ing patterns, and all ad- 
J mirably executed. Ladies 
'4 who cheapen a collar or 
fl a piece of edging little 

i know the amount of 
5 labour required in lace 
making, and still less the 
wretched po\erty of lace- 
t makers. In the agricul- 
i tural districts of Bedford, 
A Buckingham, and North- 
amptonshire, there are 
upwards of 30,000 people 
lace. The average weekly 




BEUSSELS LAiJE. 
BY A. DUCPETIAUX AND SOUS. 

earnings of women is not more than *2. 
lu the production of 
the specimen en- 
graved, comprishig 
an oak-branch with 
pendent acorns, en- 
circled with lau- 
rel leaves, there 
are upwards nf 
700 "bobbins" em- 
ployed, and the 
number of stitches 
in a yard is con- 
siderably more than 
a million. It would 
take a lace-maker, 
working twelve hour.s 
per day, five weeks 
to make a fiingle 
yard. 

A good notion of 
the process of lace- 
making was afforded 
by a lace pillow exhi- 
bited by Messrs. Grou- 
cock .and Co., whicli 
was placed on one of 
the bridges in Clais 
XIX., and wliirli 



LACE.— BY L. EOBYT, BEUSSELS. 



ERUE6ELS LACE. 
BY DUIIAGON AND SO.VS 



, while that of children is about Sd. \ deservedly attracted much observation, on account of its singular appear- 
ance and the exceed- 
ing fineness of the 
lace in process of 
making upon it. 

Tlie specimens of 
Brussels lace, which 
we give upon this 
page, are of a varieil 
character, exliibitiu- 
the resource of tli' 
manufacture from tl 
simplest edging 
the boldest 
flowering. Tlie 
named is extremely 
effective in the ori- 
ginal. 

Lace made by ma- 
chinery, which is 
sometimes called 

British lace, and of 
which Nottingham- 
shire is the chief seat, 
is a different braueli 
of manufacture, and 
will demand notice 
under a distinct 
LACE F^ol'^■CE. — BY c. F. ROY,^nRrsRF.LS. • liead. 




lace . 
hist 




AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPiEDIA OF THE GEEAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 




Cui,v>dSAL DAVAEIAN LION.— DESIGNED liY HALBIG. CAST IN BKONZE BY MILLEE. 



'fHis : 



COLOSSAL BAVARIAN LIOX. 
Lion, which is of colossal proportions, measuring fifteen feet long, 
by nine feet high, is one belonging to a group of four attached 
to a cai-, destined to adorn the triumphal arch at Munich. It is after 
the design of Halbig. It appeared in the same state as when it left 
the founders, being raw-cast in bronze, and, together with anotlier of the 
group or '■ team " referred to, was cast at the same time out of one furnace, 
showing the possibility of executing casts in one piece of almost any weiglit 
.-nd size. " It was exhibited also as a specimen of the new method of the 
founder to preserve tlie pure natural colour of the cast, without being 
obliged to use the chisel." 

Ko. 8, November 22, ISol. 



This extensiye production will long be remembered by all frequenters ot 
the Ciystal Palace, as the veritable " lion " of the Great Exhibition, standing 
midway down the eastern nave. For the lion itself, apart from the 
mechanical difficulties which have been overcome in the casting, it is, after 
all, but a so-so affair, as lions go with us. AVe have many a hon of pure 
British metal before whom this foreign monster of the forest — coming all 
the way from Munich — is not fit to wag his tail. The noble beast at the top 
of Northumberland House, for instance, and another, of minor growth, which 
stands, or stood, at the corner of I'erners-street, are old familiar friends 
whom we would match against the world. 

PnicE One Pexxt. 



114 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



HARDWARE. 

PINS. 
"THE space devoted to tlie exliibition of articles of Hardware vra-s of 
course occupied by an exceedingly miscellaneous collection. Its 
extreme limits, as regards the size of the commodities exhibited, ranged 
from the smallest ribbon-pin or needle to the huge anchors which were 
placed at the western cud of the buililing ; while the varied uses to which 
the articles may be applied include every conceivable purpose, from the 
commonest implements of domestic utility to the splendid cannon dis- 
played by the Low Moor Iron-works. There was scarcely an article 
exhibited, however, which, if followed out in its process of manufacture 
and its consumption, would not present results perfectly astonishing to all 
who had not devoted an attentive consideration to the subject : and not 
the least interesting and curious would be those obtained from the manu- 
facture of Pms, to which we intend more pai-ticularly to refer iu our 
present notice. 

The number of exhibitors of pins was very limited. In the Birmingham 
compartment there were but two, Messrs. Edelston and AVilliams, and 
Mr. Goodman— Mcssi-s. Kirby, Beard, and Co. exhibiting iu the north 
transept gallery ; and it is a matter of regi'ot that in the machinery depart- 
ment none of the mechanism by which j^ins are made was exhibited. After 
examining the finish and form of the pins iu the collection of Messrs. 
Edelston and 'Williams, we cannot avoid being struck with the immense 
advance which must liave been made since the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
when wooden skewers formed an indispensable adjunct to her Majesty's 
toiletrtable. Even during the last twenty years the improvements have 
been very considenable. Previously to that time the head of the pin con- 
sisted of a spiral ring of wire, placed upon the shank or shaft of the pin, 
and fa-tened to it by blows of the hammer. The mconvenienco which 
resulted from the heads becoming loose led to the adoption of a plan, now 
very general, for making pins witli solid heads. 

Messrs. Edelston and Co. exhibited a series of examples, showing the 
various processes which a pin undergoes in its jirogress towards com- 
pletion. We first saw a small block of copper and one of spelter ; next to 
these tliere w.as a block of brass, formed of the imiou of those two metals. 
The blocks were then shown cut into smaller fiat strips — then partially 
drawn — and finally drawn out into different thicknesses of wire. The wire 
was next seen cut into the required lengths, in the form of "piu blanks" — 
afterwards "pointed" and "headed" — and finally, tlie silvered or finished 
pin. A pau' of dies and a punch, used in forming the head of the pin, were 
also shown. By means of this instrument or machine the pin is fonned, 
complete with the head and shaft, out of one solid piece of wire, instead of 
by the old process of the wire heads. The solid-headed pin was invented 
by Messrs. Taylor aud Co. about twenty years since, and was patented by 
them, but the patent has now expired. In order to produce the head, the 
shaft of the pin is cut a trifle longer than the finished pin is required to be 
made. The wire thus cut pa.sses into a mould of tlie exact length of the 
pin, and the end of the wire j>rojocting beyond the length of the mould is 
by a sharp blow flattened, and shaped into the form required for the head. 
The heads are afterwards burnished, an operation which adds greatly to 
their finished appearance. The finished pins we obsferved were most taste- 
fully arranged around a centre, being of all sizes, from the largo blanket 
pin, of three inches in length, to the smallest ribbon pin used by the ribbon 
manufacturers, of which 300,000 weigh only one pound. The collection of 
insect pins used by entomologists was worthy of attention, as showing 
what minute specimens may bo produced by the aid of machinery. They 
ai'C made of much finer wire than the ordinary pin, and vary in length from 
2 to 3 inches to a size considerably smaller than the tiny ribbon pin. Some 
smooth clastic liair piuB, highly approved of by the fair sex, and of w'hich 
some tons weight are annually made by Messrs. Eilelston, Avere also shown 
iu theii' case. The smoothness of the wire, and its fiuouess and ehistioity, 
;u'e certainly mo.'it fiurprising. 

In oonnection with the manufacture of the solid-headed pins it is a 
curious fact, that although so vastly superior to the old-fashioned piu, they 
arc produced at a considerably less price, in consequence of the great per- 
fection of the machinery employed. In addition to the imiirovenicnts 
made in the heads, machines liavc recently been constructed by the firm, 
each of which is capable of pointing pins at the rate of upw,ards of six 
hundred ]>cr minute. These and various other improvements in the pro- 
cess of manufacture enable the makers to sell the gi'cat majority of the 
pins at the merest trilie over and above the cost of the raw metal — a large 
numljci* of the pins manufaetui'eti being sold at not more than two pence per 
pound over the cost of the metal of which they are formed. Upwards of 
200 hands are constantly employed Viy Messrs. Edelston in this branch of 
manufacture ; and the number of pins made by them is, in consequence 
of the iiiqiroved machinoiy, more than three times that which could be 
produced by the same number of workmen only a few years since. Up- 
wards of ] .OO tons weight of copper and spelter are anmually worked up 
into pins by this one Birmingham house alone. 

AVere the whole of the metal which is worked up during the year in this 
one manufactory converted into ribbon pins, half an inch in length, it 
would produce the enormous number of 100.SOO.(ii)U,000, or about one 
hundred to each inhabitant of the globe. If placed in a straight line, they 
would be 787,500 miles in length, or sufficient to extend upwards of thirty 
times round the globe, or more than three times the distance of the moon 



from the earth. Some idea may be formed fi-om these figures, not only of 
the extraordinary malleability of the metal, but of the astonishing con- 
sumption of the articles formed from it. Indeed, we can scarcely conceive 
any question more completely unanswerable than that of — " What becomes 
of all the pins made ?" 

Messrs. ICirby, Beard, and Co. made an interesting display of pins in 
their stand ; the back of which was ornamented with the words " Peace 
and Industry," and Avith vai-ious other decorations produced in steel beads, 
closely imitating the heads of pins. In the case itself were shown the pins 
in various stages of progress, and a large assortment of " toilet," " hatters"," 
"jet," "ribbon," and " milliners' " pins. 

Mr. Goodman, of Birmingham, and Mr. Chambers and Mr. James, of 
Eedditch, also exhibited a variety of pins, which, so far as we were enabled 
to judge of them in the case, arc well-finished specimens. In the Machi- 
nery department was shown an ingenious and interesting machine, by Mr. 
lies of Bardesley Works, Birmingham, used for sticking pins in circular 
tablets. We may add that Messrs. Edelston and Co. have recently con- 
structed a machine, by which they are enabled to stick the pins, upon the 
papers upon which they are sold, and which performs its work with mar- 
vellous rapidity and accuracy. 

M. Reineker, of Cologne, in the Zollverein division, showed sever.al 
varieties of pins — some with composition metal heads, cast in the same 
mode as shot, with a hole iu the centre, and secured to the shaft. Samples 
of iron wire in hanks with a coating of copper, were also shown in the 
neighbourhood of the finished article. The piiu manufacture of Austria 
was represented by M. Struntz, of Vienna ; aud M. Vaatillard, of Merou- 
vel, France, showed some specimens of iron pins, tinned by a process 
recently patented both iu France and England. 



ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 



LIGHTHOUSES AND LIGHTHOUSE OPTICAL APPARATUS. 
T IGHTHOUSES for the purpose of warning and guiding mariners in their 

course were in use with the ancients. The towers of Sestos and Abydos, 
the Colossus of Rhodes, and the well-known tower on the Island of Pharos, 
ofi" Alexandria, are examples. Of these the la.^t was the most celebrated, 
aud was erected about 280 years before Christ, iu the reign of Ptolomeus 
Philadelphus ; and it was from this builchng, or rather from the island 
upon which it stood, that lighthouses have iu many countries, in France 
for instance, received theu- generic name of Pharos. 

In the Main Avenue West of the Great Exhibition were two specimens of 
lighthouse apparatus (No. 84) — the larger one being on the cata-dioptrio 
system of the first class of lights (near the astronomical telescope) ; the 
other a dioptric apparatus of the fourth class of lights. Several excellent 
models of lighthouses were also to be found in the central North Gallery 
(No. 51), in which the appar.atus of each of these classes might have 
been more narrowly inspected ; and a vai'iety of models, both of towers 
and lanterns, in the North Gallery. 

One of the principal lighthouses of modern times, and certainly one of 
the most magnificent edifices of the kind ever built or ever designed, is the 
Tour de Corduan, at the mouth of tlie river Garonne. It was commenced 
iu the year 1584, and occupied twenty-six years iu buihling. We scarcely 
need say that difficulties in most cases occur in the erection of light-houses 
to which no other structvires are liable. The building of the Eddystone 
Lighthouse is a remarkable instance of this. The number of dreadful 
vicissitudes it encountered are as painful to coutemplate, as the courage 
and perseverance that finally overcame them are worthy of admiration. It 
was originally first built of massive beams of timber, and a light was first 
exhibited in 1698. The architect and engineer by whom it was designed 
was Mr. Winstanley. But the sea frequently rose so high .around it as to 
dash over the light — in fact, it was said, at times, that the lantern was 
buried uuilor water. Mr. Winstanley thereupon raised the towei*from GO 
feet to 120. The space of rock for the foundation being but small, and 
the situation most frightfully exposed, this was, of course, a work of 
stupendous difliculty. By some it was thought that he had now carried 
it too high for safety. They were, uufortunately, very right in their 
apprehensions. Not long after its completion, considerable repairs were 
necessary, aud Mr. Winstanley went there in person, accompanied by bis 
workmen. The i-epairs occupied some time ; and one night a teriifio 
storm arose, tore down the lantern and the upper part of the tower, aud 
finally carried the whole edifice away, with poor Winstanley and all his 
wcu'kmeu, every one of whom perished : indeed, we believe their remains 
were never found, nor a single wreck of the once jsroud structure. 

Very soon after the destruction of this lighthouse, the Wiiicliclsea man- 
of-war was wrecked on the Eddystone rocks, aud her crew were lost. As 
it Avas now seen tliat a new lighthouse must, by some nie.ans or other, bo 
erected here, another tower of timber wjia desigued by Mr. John Rudyaivi, 
of London; it was finished in 1708. Its height was 92 feet. The con- 
struction was admirable for its strength aud tenacity, so that it remamed 
standing during forty-seven years. But another and more un-looked-for 
niisfortiuie awaited it. Everytliing had been devised to protect it from 
the fury of the waters ; nobody had ever dreamt of danger from fire in 
such a situation, so sui'rouuded by the natural antagonist of this element. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPAEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



116 



By «omo accident, liowovor, it took lire, niul, being entirely of wood, it 
bui'nod down to the very water's e(l(,'o. 'I'liis wii3 in ITSS. 

KiiglisU iieracveranco was again called into roquiaition: a liglitlioitno nmst 
be orootod on tliin spot: tliis was dotorniinod : and in ITSO Snieaton first 
landed on the rock, and coniinencod oporatioiis by cutting the nurfaeo into 
regular horizontal tronohes, and into thoni a foundation of 8tono was caro- 
inlly litted. It wan now reaolvod (they had had enough of wood) to build 
the whole edifice of stone. The fu-at twelve feet of the tower, as wo learn 
from Mr. Alan Htevon.son, form a solid ma'fH of maaonry ; and the stones 
of which it is competed are united by uioans of stone joggles, dovetailed 
joints, and oaken troo-nails. An arched form was adopted for the tloors of 
the building, with a view to gi'oatcr strength ; but to counteract the out- 
ward thrust of floom of this form, circular grooves were cut in tlio stone of 
the outer casing, into which a belt of iron cliain wa.s laid, and made compact 
with the stone by filling up tlio intervals with molted load. The structure 
was completed iu 17.")'.'. and the light was first exhibited in October of that 
yeai\ The state, however, of lighthouse optics at this time in England was 
so low that all tlio illumiuation obtoinod was derived solely fnuu tallow 
candles. Nearly fifty years elapsed with tliis wretched light before argand 
burners were adopted, though this great improvement wag well-knowu 
during upwards of twenty years of that period. 

One of the most dangerous reefs iu Scotland is the Bell Hock, and so 
many wrecks occurred there, that iu former times the good abbots of 
Aberbrotluvick caused a float to be fixed upon the rock with a bell at the 
top of it, which instantly tolled as the waves swung the float about, anrl 
thus warned mariners of their danger. The circumstance, however, which 
led to the erection of a light-liou.se on this rock was the loss of the y'or/c 
man-of-war. Merchant-vessels iu numbers had been wrecked, and all their 
crews hail perished, which was regarded as a sad casualty incidental to 
nautical life ; but when a seventy-four gun ship was lost, with .all hands 
on board, then the Government cousidereil it was high time to take the 
matter practically in hand. Nevertheless, it was not till some years after- 
wards that a Liu iu rurliament was obtained for the erection of a light- 
house. This was finally carried into effect by Mr. Robert .Stevenson, 
engineer ; not, however, .without groat difficulties and delays, owing to 
the short time it was possible to work each day between the ebbing and 
Howing of the tide, and not without one very narrow escape of being lost, 
together with thirty workmen, in consoqueuoo of the vessel that attended 
them breaking adrift and the tide rising upon tho rock before any boat 
could ).io got out to them. The boat only ai-rived just in time to rescue 
them all fi'oni a watery grave. 

The lighthouse on the Bell Rook, of which a model was exhibited, is 
100 feet high. Tho door is 30 feet from the base, and the ascent to it is 
by means of a massive ladder of bronze. The light is revolving, and 
presents alternately a red light and a white light. It is produced by the 
revolution of a frame containing sixteen argand lamps, placed on the foci 
of largo miiroi's. Tho machinery which moves the whole iu a circle is 
.also applied to the tolling of two large bells ; so that the original design 
of the wortb.y abbots is now carried out in the most regvdar and scientific 
manner. The cost of the erection of the Bell Rock lighthouse was 
61,331?. 9s. 2:.'. 

Our readers will no doubt bo .aware that tho optical construction of 
these lights is of the most scientific and complicated kind ; and this im- 
pression would have been by no means lessened, but probably increased, by an 
examination of the two specimens of glass lightliouse apparatus in the 
Main Avenue of the ground floor of the Great Exhibition. In each of 
these might have been observed the extraordinary results of the practical ap- 
plication of abstract science. The complicated cutting and arrangement of 
the lenses is all determined by the most subtle calculations of the law of 
reflection and refraction of light, as proved by uuuumbered experiments, 
and the experience of many years of unremitting attention and Labour. 
It is also worthy of note, that we have hitherto been dependent on foreign 
countries for very much of tho .arrangement of these optical instruments, but 
that in the present instance the materials are entirely of English produce. 

Let us, however, endeavour to simplify an account of lighthouse optics. 
It is well known, that a lamp of the ordinary kind would send forth scat- 
tered rays, many of which would be wasted, .and especially all those which 
shot upward into the sky. Now, the object to be obtained iu this case is 
the concentration of the rays, and the power to throw them downwards 
in a given direction across the plane of the sc ;l For this purpose reflectors 
are employed : and it has been ascertained that the light thus attained is 
350 times greater than that of the common lamp ; while that of the largest 
sort, which is used in revolving lights, is 450 times gi-eater. These 
reflectors are manufactured by a very long and delicate process. Those of 
the first class are made of fine copper, tliickly plated inside with silver, and 
polished to the highest degree of brilliancy. The flame which illuminates 
them is usually derived from an argand lamp, which supplies itself with oil 
on the fountain prmciple. This system is called the "catoptric," and 
includes a variety of distmctions. each of which is registered, as a special 

ij-nal for sailors. There is the fixed light— the revolving Ught^-the white 

-flit— the red light— the revolving red, with two whites- the revolving 
.N lute, with two reds— the intermittent light— the flashmg light, &C. Of 
ttiese, the most powerful and far-reaching is the white, and next to this the 
led. There are several optical systems in use for lighthouses, but the 
principal systems are the catoptric and the dioptric— the former depending 
upon the reflection of light, the latter upon its refraction. The dioptric is 
by far the more powerful ; the Ught produced with a lens light being nearly 
equal to ,11 on the reflecting priuciple; it is also usually preferred by 



lighthouse opticians, na tiio chances of its oxtinction ap; so vtiry few, and 
its advantage-! so great. Nevurtlielcss, in ooniequ'-nco of the cost of the 
glass Ions, which was a manufacturo in which foreign Ci^iintries greatly 
excel led us, it appears that in 1844, of the fixed lights in England and 
Scotland, Id were catoptric, or reflecting light«, and only 1 8 dioptric, or 
liMis lights. Tho removal of the duty oofjlags will probably in timorevoree 
this state of things. 

Among all our finest lighthouses, there is scarcely one that BurpanscR 
tlie " Carlingford," on the coa.st of Ireland. It is 111 feet in height, 48 feet 
in diameter at tho base, and is founded 12 feet below tho surface of the 
water. It was designed by Mr. George Halpin. The difficulties attending 
a structure, tho foundations of which had to be laid bo dccidy beneath the 
water, yet requiring, in common with all edifices of this kind, to be ma'le 
so very strong and secure, will be readily approhemled. Great as thcgo 
were, however, they were exceeded by the protractetl ditSculticR and con- 
stant dangers attending the erection of tlie .Skerrymoro Lighthouse, in 
Argyllshire, which was designed and built by Mr. Alan Stevenson, engineer 
to tlio IJiiaid of Northern Lighthouses, from whoso "Treatise on Light- 
houses" tho following very interestmg account is abstracted : — 

The main nucleus of the cluster of Skerrymoro rocks was the only ono 
that presented sufiicient surface for the ba.se of a lighthouse, and this had 
been worn as smooth as glass by the constant action of the waves, but was 
closely surrounded by ragged humps of rock and narrow gulleys, in which 
the sea incessantly played iu rushing coils and eddies. Tiio cuttings for 
the foundation occiipiod nearly two entire summers. In this small upaco 
the blasting of the rocks wa.s often attended willi great danger to all tho 
men employed in tho work. The granite for the tower was quarried in the 
isle of Mull, where piers were also built for tho shipment and landing of 
materials. A small vessel was fitted up for tho constant use of the light- 
house during its construction. But one of the most arduous operations, 
second only to the main building itself, was the -erection of a temporary 
wooden barrack on the rocks for Mr. Alan Stevenson and his workmen. It 
was finished iu the course of the summer ; but, unfortunately, a stoi-m arose 
early in the winter, and swept the whole structure away, leaving no wreck 
to sliow even where it had stood, except some iron stanchions, twisted about 
.as though they had been mere osiers, and a great timber beam which had 
been shaken, rent, and dashed upon the rocks, tiU it literally resembled a 
huge bunch of laths. Luckily, the engineer and his men, warned by tho 
previous fate of those engaged on the Bell Rock, had effected their escape 
on the commencement of the storm. But being without a ban-ack, many 
of them, being quite unused to the sea. suBered the miseries of continuous 
sea sickness on board their little attendant vessel. 

A second attempt was now made to erect a barrack on the rock, and this 
being of much strouger design, proved successful. Here Mr. Stevenson 
and his workmen retreated every evening after the toils of the day, or 
during tho day when the weather was bad ; but it often proved a very 
alarming place for repose. Perched at a height of 40 feet above the wave- 
reach, in this singular abode, Mr. Stevenson and 30 workmen passed many 
a dismal day and night, at times when the sea absolutely prevented anyone 
setting foot on tho rocks. They longed and prayed for change of weather, 
not only to enable them to i-enew their labours, but often that they might 
receive needful supplies from the shore, fur which they looked anxiously 
and in vain. " For miles around," says Mr. Stevenson, in the book previously 
quoted, " nothing could be seen but white foaming breakers, and nothing 
heard but howling winds and lashing waves. At such seasons much of our 
time was spent iu bed ; for there alone we had effectual shelter from the 
winds and the spray, which searched every cranny in the walls of the 
barrack. Our slumbers, too, were fearfully inteiTupted by the sudden 
pouring of the sea over the roof, the rocking of the house on its pillars, 
and the spirting of water through the seams of the doors and windows — 
symptoms which to one suddenly aroused from sound sleep, recalled the 
appalling fate of the former barrack, which had been engulphed in the foam 
not twenty yards from our dwelling, and each moment seemed to su mm on 
us to a similar fate. On two occasions, in particular, those sensations were so 
vivid as to cause almost every one to spring out of bed ; and some of the men 
fled from the barrack by a temporary gangway, to the more stable but less 
comfortable shelter aSbrded by the bare wall ofthe lighthouse tower, then un- 
finished, where they spent the remainder of the night in the darkness and the 
cold." Notwithstaudiug all these dangers, however, the Skeriymore lighthouse 
was safely brouglit to completion. It is 13S feet high, 42 feet iu diameter 
at the base, and 16 feet at the top. It contains 58.580 cubic feet of stone, 
being more than double the quantity of the Bell Rock, and five times that 
of the Eddystone. The entire cost of the Skerrymore lighthouse, including 
the purchase of the attendant small vessel, and the building of the small 
pier and hai-bour for its reception, was 86.977?. 17s. 7rf. The light is 
revolving, and belongs to the fii-st order of dioptric lights, in the system 
of Fresnal. being of a similar kind to the dioptric apparatus which was to 
be seen in the Great Exhibition, Main Avenue West (No. 84). 

Lighthouses m this country have not hitherto been erected or conducted 
upon any systematic plan. By recent acts of Pai-liament, however, all 
the public or geuei-al lighthouses ai'ouud the coast of England ai-e put 
under the management of the Trinity House : those ai'ound Scotland under 
the Conimissionei-3 of Northern Lights ; and those around Ireland under 
the Ballast Board of Dublin. There is a second class of local lights, for 
harbours, &.C., which ai-e mauaged by corporations and local tioistees under 
powere given for that purpose. The dues levied are considerable. The 
average cost for keeping tip a fixed public light is about 450/. per annum. 
In America and Franco tho lighthouses are kept up by Governmeut. 



116 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



THE ARTS OF DESIGN 
AND decoration" 




WOOD CARVING. 
A MONGST the de- 
corative arts, 
Wood Cai-ving has a 
distinct aud legiti- 
mate position, and, 
confined within due 
limits, is always 
effective. Neverthe- 
less, its province is 
a restricted one ; it 
should be viewed 
purely as an appli- 
ance for the orna- 
mentation of ma- 
terial when applied 
to a useful purpose, 
and not as a work of 
art 'per se. Another 
restriction should be 
put upon the fancy 
of the operator ; 
namely, that the 
object decollated be 
one proper for deco- 
ration ; that it be 
decorated with ap- 
propriate devices, 
and that the devices 
be not in excess as 
to character, nor in 
dimensions, so as to 
risk being injured 
themselves, or in- 
conveniencing those 
who are to use the 
articles to which 
they are applied. All 
attempts to con- 
found wood cai-ving 
with sculpture we 
utterly denounce ; 
and for the simple 
reason, that the ma- 
terial is not worthy 
of a work of the 
highest art, and that 
colour in it is more 
inappropriate to re- 
present the human 
frame than white 
marble ; whilst it is 
also less susceptible 
of fashioning into the 
round and smooth 
surfaces than that 
material. Let any 
one doubt this asser- 
tion, and then call to 
mind that most ob- 
jectionable repre- 
sentation of the Cru- 
cifixion which occu- 
pied a prominent 
place in the Fine Art 
Court, or the figure- 
head of her Majesty 
close at hand, or the 
figures (and espe- 
cially the faces) in 
that very magnifi- 
cent production, the 
Kenilworth buffet, 
or the human linea- 
ments in any other 
work of wood carv- 
ing in the Eshibi- 



AN ILLUSTRATED CVCLOI'.EDLV OF THE GllEAT KXIIIIUTION 01" ]H:A. 



117 



tion.an.lconiiiarothoir relative trutlifulnoss of oflectns to contour and colour of oak leave*, a ^roup of muHical inHtniincntH, the wings of Time, Ac. 
Willi tliat i)f other oVjjocts, unch m flowom, foliii,'0, ami fancy devices, and No. 2 i« a largo mirror frame, 11 foet liigli Ijy 'J wide, comjiORcd of Knglinh 
they will :it orico admit tlii^ r.nii- of tlio piiiiciplu tlial we now contend for. Il.iwera and fruits, with variouH inacctH revelling amongut llicin in the stylo of 
The two i>rinciiiiil contrihutors in tlii.t departniuut wcro W. U. Hogerw, of I Uihbong, but including many Uowcru never jntrojuccdjiy bim in lii« workn. 
Carlisle strei't, Soho; 




anil T. Wallia, of 
Louth : .ind tlieir 
works, which wcro 
placed ill juxla posi- 
tion on tlic -siuiiu wall, 
were daily visited by 
crowds of eagei' gazers, 
who warndy contested 
their respective me- 
rits. Until the appear- 
ance of Mr. Wiillis iu 
the Held, Mr. Rogers 
had enjoyed tho re- 
putation of being 
not only first, but a.1- 
most without a rival, 
in this interesting 
branch of art , and, 
although tlie Liueoln- 
bhiro carver now cer- 
tainly treads pretty 
closely \ipon his heels, 
we inubt. after a very 
careful examination of 
tlieir respective per- 
forniauees, still give 
tho nietropolitanartist 
the prefei'onee. Wo 
do so in consideration 
of tlio greater number 
and variety of the 
works exliibited by 
liiiii,;indot'lhe greater 
success which he has 
aehieved iu the appli- 
cation of the art to 
legitiiuato decorative 
purposes. In this he 
seems to have studied 
the examples of Gib- 
bons, by far the great- 
est carver of wood 
that ever existed, aud 
who, whilst he pos- 
sessed a wonderful 
fertility of fancy aud 
facility of cxecutiou, 
knew exactly where 
to apply them with 
advauUge and pro- 
priety. It would be 
impossible to enume- 
rate all the little beau- 
ties of device lavished 
by Mr. liogers in the 
various works — sixty- 
one in number — 
which ho exhibited : 
we must restrict our 
attention to one or 
two of the larger one.-^. 
in the production oi 
■which be appears to 
have taxed his re- 
sources to the utmost. 
No. 61 is a Royal Tro- 
phy, carved iu lime 
tree, upon a gold 
frame, 5 feet by 4 feet, 
aud projecting 1 foot 
2 inches. It is in- 
tended to represent 
the Crown as the chief 

power, the source of all titles aud dignities — the patron and promoter of 
the arts .Tiid sciences, field sports, &e. The centre group is composed of 
musical instruments, scrolls, books, palettes, pencils, coronets, sceptres, 
chains, swords, and other insignia, boiuid together by a rich drapery of 
Spanisli point lace, which stands out iu remarkably bold relief. In the 
lower part are medallion portraits, including those of the Queen, Louis 
Philippe, &e. Around the whole is a border, composed of groups of game, 
firuit, fiowers, fish, and shells. No. 3, a trophy emblematical of " Folly," is 
also worthy of distinct notice, introducing a skidl crowned with a garland 



CAItVED CASKET IN WALXCT-WOOD. — BV A.BAKBETTI, Of TUSCANi'. 



The carved box-wood 
cradle, by tho kamo 
artist, exhibited by 
]ier M.'ijcity, nmiit nob 
be panHcd unnoticed, 
although we by no 
means partici|>ate in 
tho wild admiration 
which it has excited 
amongst tho num- 
bcrlcss mothers and 
daughtci-s of England, 
who have gazed en- 
viously at it. Tho 
filiapc itself is not ele- 
gant, being heavy, and 
inoro like a (iarco|iha- 
gus than a cradle; and 
thedecoration. though 
doubtless appropriate 
as " symbolising thu 
union of the royal 
house of Kngland with 
th.at of .Saxe-Coburg 
and fiotha." is neitner 
picturesque nor inter- 
esting in a general 
point of view, whiltt 
the execution, though 
exquisitely neat, ii. 
perhaps, a taut soit 
peu tame. 

Mr. W'allis has somo 
■wonderful produc- 
tions, though, as al- 
ready observed, fower 
in number and less 
varied iu charactei'. 
He has worked, i;oi^ 
liaps, with more the 
spiritofan aitist than 
Mr. Rogei-s, aud has 
aimed almost exclu- 
sively at the accurate 
embodiment of beau- 
tiful objects of nature 
— such as birds, foli- 
age, flowers, insects, 
&o., but without re- 
gard to convention- 
alities of form or ad- 
junct. Nothing can 
equal the downy soft- 
ness of his dead game, 
producing, but for the 
colour, tbe effect of 
perfect illusion ; no- 
thiug can be more 
exquisite than the de- 
licate articulation of 
his foliage, copied, aa 
he states, from nature: 
not even Mr. Rogers 
can surpass him in the 
delicacy of handling 
which he has dis- 
played iu the produc- 
tion of the minutest 
objects, and in the 
boldest efforts of un- 
der-cutting; but his 
■works are more to be 
admired for their indi- 
vidual beauties than 
or their applicability to decorative jiurposes. Mr. Wallis's priucipal effort 
is a group of flowers, &c., emblematical of spi'ing, carved iu a solid piece of 
lime tree, measuring 5 feet high, by 2.i wide, aud projecting thirteen 
inches. Spring is allegorically represented by the grape buds and apple blos- 
soms; aud in this space we have no less than lOtiO buds and 47 varietie-s. 
Here we see the blue-cap titmouse picking insects out of an apple blossom ; 
there another taking food to its young, which are partially concealed in 
their nest ; iu a third, caterpillars dragging theii- slow length along. A 
shepherd's crook aud lamb's head are added, symbolical of tlie season, 



118 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



The whole of this ■work has been copied from nature, and was e::ecuted 
expressly for the Great Exhibition. 




CARVED FE.UIE IN BOXWOOD. — EOGERS 

Amongst the other contributions in this line on the British side of the 
Building, we found several who dealt in small conceits, more or less 
creditable in execution, but with little of a useful character, even as matters 
of decoration, to recommend them. 
Richard Fuller, a self-taught artist, of 
Farnham, has a village merry-making, 
somewhat roughly handled. G. Cook 
has a piece of carviug in lime tree, 
" Virtue surmounts all obstacles ; " an- 
other of Alexander attacking the Per- 
sians, and another of the Duke of Wel- 
lington at the battle of Waterloo — the 
last two after engravings which may bo 
bought for a few shillings, and which are 
much more effective than these laboured 
copies. Perry, of Taunton, another self- 
taught artist, (who states that he did a 
great part of the carving in the royal 
cradle,) had a small vase carved out of a 
solid piece of boxwood, embellished with 
various allegorical devices, in diminutive 
size, illustrative of the Great Exhibition ; 
but here, again, is labour comparatively 
thrown away, by reason of the natui'e of 
the material. Jlr. Field exhibited a spe- 
cimen of wood carving of about the mid- 
dle of last centuiy, by Demontreuil — a 
childish composition, with bud's nest, &c. 
Arthur Harvey, of Penzance, had several 
small subjects iu boxwood, as the " Eques- 
trian Statue of Peter the Great," the 
" Laocoon," wild .sports of the Ea.'it, "At- 
tack of the Lion," which arc executed 
in a hard manner. R. Pullen, of Fani- 
ham, ha.s also some pieces de r/enrc, 
attempted iu the .same material with 
moderate success. J. Gordon, of Bristol, 
had several subject?, including a " Vase 
from the Antique," and a " Belisarius," in 
boxwood, the la.st named executed with 
great finish and delicacy. 

From Ireland we have several exam- 
ples of carved furniture, and ornamental 
work, executed in Irish bog-yew, and exhibited by Mr. Jones of Dublin, 
the execution of which, barring a little crudeness, is generally credit- 
able. Some of these wc intend engraving. 

From Scotland we had very little in this lino. Wc romavkod, however, 



in the Fine Art Qom-t, a pier-table and mirror in carved wood, " with a 
design representing the seasons. Peace, War, Commerce, Navigation, Science, 





CABVED FEAME. — BAEBETTt, OP TUSCAN-y. 



ELIZABETHAN BEAOKBT Jit BOXWOOD.— ROGERS. 

Art, and the progress of civilisation," wrought in a wood of a very coarse 
grain, iu a barbarously clumsy style. Jersey sent an oak sideboard, with a 

representation of King Joim signing 
Magna Charta in figures nearly two feet 
high — rather stiff in character, but not 
badly executed. Mixed \ip with this class 
of wares was a " God save the Queen," in 
wood letters, by a Mr. Thompson — all, 
doubtless, cut out of his own head ! In 
short, there is no end to the ingenuity of 
the whittlers of wood, as Brother Jona- 
than would call them. 

In the above observations upon wood 
carving, we have considered it in the 
light oF an art, entitled to rank, accord- 
ing to its degree, with the other " arts of 
design." Of late years, however, the 
manufacturing spirit of the age has 
prompted several very ingenious indivi- 
duals to attempt wood car\-ing by ma- 
chmcry, and, what is worse still, nnita- 
tious of wood carving iu various materials, 
as leather, papier mdchi, carton picrrc, 
gutta peroha, &c. One word might serve 
to denounce our wrath against these prc- 
seutmeuts ; they are impostors. They 
pretend to bo what they are not; they 
look something like the real thing at a 
distance, and mock our credulity. WTien 
we come to examine them closely, we find 
them wanting in all that sharpness and 
flow of outline, all that variety of conceit 
in repetitions of similar objects, w-hich dis- 
tinguisli the hand of the inventor and pro- 
ducer, and the labour which is loved for 
itself. For vulgar, clumsy-sighted people, 
these imitative works of art may do well 
as make-believes ; and all the punishment 
we might wish them for their bad taste 
would be, that they may never have 
auything better to look at, nor the 
capacity to appreciate anything better, — 
but that, as by such exhibitions they inflict a positive nuisance and eyesore 
upon those who have occasion to come near them iu their villas nnices and 
Cockney boudoira, they are entitled to some signal penalty for the sake of 
public justice and public example. Whilst, however, the commonwealth 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 




THE EAST KAVE.— X''OEEIGN DEPAKTMENT.— LOOKING FBOH THE SOUTH-WEST OF THE TRANSEPT, 



122 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITIONS. 

I. — IXTRODUCTORT OBSERVATIONS, 

THE magui6cont ovation which tiiis couutry has raiJ to ludiwtry, under 
the enlightened infiuonco of tho Px-iuce ConRoi-t, will hereafter be 
referred to hy historians a* a groat and decisive epoch in tlie history of 
the working clas«3 of the world. The skill that realises the dreama of 
science, that follows with unerring fingers the pencil of the artist, which 
multipUes for thousands of readers the writings of the best and greatest 
men, will henceforth claim its honourable place. The weaver at his loom 
will have his recognised position ; the worker, who scatters the seed abroad 
upon the bosom of the earth, will feel the honour of his calling. Tndiistry, 
whether exercised to foU an oak or to create an Act of Parliament, is 
equally meritorious. Each man in Iiis appointed sphere. Each has his 
speciality ; and honour be to him who works it out — honour to him who 
weaves the canvas, as to him who paints thereupon with tho power of a 
master. There ia honour in the conscientious exercise of the most limited 
power, as in the development of the most mighty conception. Tho gi-eater 
the power, the more devout the veneration ; the higher the throne, the 
louder the hymn of praise. It is only now that we are beginning to wako 
from the old hero-worship— to notice the honest men who bond the knee 
to our idols — to honour the moral power that works and Buffers, while 
intellectual power soars aloft, and wields, often with a tyrannical sway, the 
sabre or tho pen. 

f We are told * tliat "it wo eiamtas the morel character of weavers, wo 
shall And them, from tho earliest periods, distinguished by a propensity to 
scrutinise the received dogmas of the times, oud geueralty foremost in the 
race of liberal opinions, zealous in supporting the probiulgatiou of new 
doctrines, full of hostility to the encroachments of tyrannical power, 
disposed to fanaticism in religion, often of a glo'imy and determined cast 
of character, and pervaded with the most entire devotion to the cause they 
espouse — a circmnstonce to which the peculiarity of their religious feelings 
mainly contributes. The doctrines of Luther were tir^t sown and first touk 
root amongst the weavers and manufacturing population of Saxony, a soil the 
most genial for the )*eceptiou of the ouw religion ; and posterity ia indebted to 
them for hanng received and sheltered that vigorous controversialist, and 
for having nourished and fanned the spark which aftonvards blazed out far 
and wide, enlightened tho European mind, and freed it from the chains of 
darkness and superstition. Amongst men less disposed to inquire and to 
question, and more iuclined to bow to tho dictates of autbority, the 
nascent spark might have been extinguished. The weavers in England, 
also, were amongst the earliest supporters of the Keformatiou, aud were 
cruelly persecuted by Bonner. As, in tho commencement of the sixteenth 
century, they had been among the foremost to receive and adopt Luther's 
doctrines, so we find them, in the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, equally ready to receive those of Puritanism ; and they 
encountered, perhaps in a elightor degree, persecutions from the English 
hierarchy, similar to those which tlieir predecessor* had sustained from 
the Roman Catholics. Great numbers of woollen and wowted weavers 
were driven out of the country by the intolerant hand, and they also met 
with much severe treatment from Wroun, Bishop of Norwich. Sumo of 
them fled to Holland, others to the new settlement in Massachusetts Bay. 
Glasgow, when the weavers were a corporate body in 1528, was early 
distinguished for its zeal against Popery; and, in the middle of the eeven- 
teenth century, was stanch in supporting the Covenant. The free spirit 
which animated the Huguenot* of Franco, and the consequent disgust with 
which Louis the Fourteenth regarded them, wa^', iu all probability, the 
cause of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. This measure drove fifty 
thousand Huguenot families from France ; they were chiefly weavers, and 
twenty thousand of them settled iu Spitaliields, London, and gave a new 
impulse to the English silk manufacture." 

Richard Guest's view of the weaver's miud is strengthened by their 
present social position. Ever ready to weigh public questions for them- 
selves, prone to discussion, sensitive by blood, and mquisitive from habit, 
they are quick to master now idcjis, ever prone to adopt innovations. In 
religion, as in political theory, they scorn coutrol, and are restless and 
impatient while they imagmo that they are unjustly dealt with. They 
are proud of their calling, and honour their brotherhood; and, as an 
industrial cla-is. display, perhiips more than any other, those virtues which 
we are beginnmg to respect in the workin?-mau as in the listless lord. 
The time is now fast approachin-?, wht-n, nt the handu of tho country they 
wUl receive befitting acknowledgment of their social value ; when their 
moral qualitiea will claim that respect which has hitherto been exclu-ivclv 
lai.-ished upon brilliant iutoUectual capacity, or virtue in velvet. Men ara 
beginning, with Emerson, to respect a man who can do something well 
Per-ieverance, as a quality, has not been hitherto sufficiently respected • 
yet It IB tue prommeut characteristic of the Eiigli^li miud. 

We have mUfcikcu ti>o aim of national industrial exhibitions generally 

but more partieulai-ly of the promoters of our Great Exhibition, if that ami 

he not to vmdicate the worth of patient labour, aa well as tho grandeur of 

• Eichard Gacst's coropcndioaa " UUtarj of the Cotton BInnufacture." 



science, and the influence of art — to acknowledge hi the face of the world 
tho hand that reaheea the droams of science and the misty conceptions of 
the artist. Tiie social effect of an alliance of art with commercial industry 
cannot bo oven-ated. At the present time it is gonenilly accepted timt the 
populai- cultivation of art tends to the refinement and cnlightenmeut of a 
community. All steps which tend to diffuse art, tend imdoubtedly and 
directly to raise the popular character ; and it is difficult to fully ostimato 
and comprehend the posible extent of good ^a cottngcr would derive from 
the introduction of household objects into his humble abode, moulded iu 
forms of grace and beauty. 



II. — Abt in Fran-cb, from thb XIIIth to the End op the 
XVIIItu CENTunr. 
In treating of the effect of industrial exhibitions upon the monufacturo* 
and habits of a people, it is necessary first to understand thoroughly and 
clearly the conditions, as regards art and skill, in wliich they were when 
they first adopted tho scheme of gathering their collective reaoureas under 
one great common roof. Wo must premise that Franco should bo looked 
upon as an excoptional case. She cxcellod in taste and manufacturing 
skill at a very remote date. Even in the thirteenth centuiy, her artisans 
were renowned iu other countries for the superior skill and taste with 
which they manufactured goldsmith's work aud stained glass, and for the 
beauty of their illuminated manuscripts. These osceileuces are mattora of 
histoi-y. We have only to turn to the career of Jacques Coour (under 
whose name a great igency conveyed the Parisian manufactures to tho 
Great Exhibition), tho great capitalist and merchant, to recall that 
unexampled brilliancy of induatrial production, which in tho olden time 
satisfied the luxurious habits and tastes of the nobles. Under Francis tho 
First, however, tho grandeur and inimitable gracos which characterised 
the labours of the reiiaisaanoef showed mauutUeturing skill iu intimate 
union with art. Comiog down gi-adually nearer our own times, we may 
mark every epoch in French history — deeply as her aunals are stained with 
native blood and kingly debaucheries — brightened with a national effort 
in favour of art-manufacture. The establishment of the silk mimufactures 
of LyonB, in the year 1450 ; the excellences of the old looms of Paris, 
Beauvaia, •fee; Colbert's Gobelin tapestry establishment; the carpet 
manufactories of Savonnerie ; the^Marquis de Fulvy's porcelain manufactory 
{the first established in France), reared at Vinconnos in the year 1738, 
and which was afterwards sold to the fermiers giniraua, who transplanted 
it to the village of Sevres, and laid tho foundation of those inimitable 
productions known as Sfevres ware — these are data which give indisputable 
proof that tho Fi-ench people have, for ages past, enjoyed peculiar 
advantages in the cultivation of decorative ai't. 

In textile fabrics, and manufactures of general use, however, they wore 
much behind the resi of the world, till within a comparatively recent 
period. Towards the middle of tho seventeenth century, M. Chaptal, tho 
historian of French industry, declares that France possessed looms only 
capable of producing the coaraest materials adapted to the wants of her 
population. Her fine cloths were imported from Spain and Holland ; her 
best silks came from the Italian looms ; other fabrics caino from England ; 
aud Holland and Brabaut supplied lier with lincus and lace. The advance 
of Colbert to power, however, changed the face of matters in this respect. 
The fettei-s were struck off from native manufacturoi-s ; skilful foreign 
workmen were called in ; the two great Indian coniiianies wore formed ; 
exportation aud importation — an extended iuterchange — wore encouraged 
by lessened duties ; and a premium of five fraucs per ton was allowed on 
all new vessels. These enUghtened regulations soou filhid the ports of 
France with foreign merchantmen, aud gave a most heidthful impetus to 
toe industry of the c.<untry. If commerce owes its revival in France to 
the minister Colbert, its principal branches owe him more, inasmuch as ho 
was the firet to establish them in his native country. He tempted tho 
most distinguished foreign manufacturers to Paris, and by dint of liberal 
encouragement planted them in France, and set them to teach native 
artisans ; aud the result was, that within the short space of ten years 
42,20U skilful clothworkers were settled iu the provinces of tho country. 

It is impossible to over-estimate the debt of gratitude due to tho memory 
of Colbert from his country. It was he who e^titblished the Gobelin 
manufactures, and placed the celebrated painter Lebrun to direct these 
unrivalled productions. It was he who obtained from Louis XIV. an edict, 
dated 1664, setting apart the sum of one million (worth two millions in 
the present time) to encourage m;mufactures and maritime commerce; 
aud it should fairly be added that Louis entered into tho enlightened 
views of his minister with unusual alacrity. It was Colbert who reared 
the Invalides, the Observatou-e, and the gates of .St. Denis and St. Martin. 
It was Colbert who opened the royal libraries to the public, and instituted 
searches iu all parts of the world for vaUmblo works to complete tho 
Bibliotheque Royale do Paris. At his command, merchantmen spread their 
canvas once more to the winds ; Art leant over the weaver at his loom, to 
trace upon the growing fabric tint^ and lines of beauty ; and Science rose 
to give a purpime to the mechanic's skill, 

iSuddenly the meivhant's 8;nls wore furled, the loom stood still, and tho 
meehiuiic left his bench to the beating of drums. A musket was in tho 
hand of evei-y Frenchman ; Commerce for a while stood still to watch the 
conflict ; but even in these times of strife aud bloodshed, some homaga 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP^DLi OP THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



of taste are devising tho proper mode of puuishment, we must only hope 
that no squeamish delicacy will prevent individuals from pointing "the 
slow unerring finger of scorn" at all such efforts of spurious adornment, 
whenever they are thrust in their way, just as they would ' denounce a 
mosaic chain, a paste diamond pin, or a pinchbeck bracelet, which was 
ntteraptod to be palmed off upon thom as real jewellery. Independently 
of this falsity in appearance, which applies to all the above "manufactured 
products," there is about gutta porclui, papier vidcke, &c., another falsity 
much more to bo deprecated in a utilitarian point of x-icw: "breach of 
promise " of service ; as any man may find out to his coet who subjcts them 
to ordinal^ wear and tear for a bvk'elvcmonth. We have met with these 
castings iu paper aud gutta porcha on sea and land, in steam-boat and 
tavern parlour, and wo have scarcely ever met an instance where some 
member of the family group had not been toni or shaken from his allegi- 
ance by the force of circumstancos. 

With respect to the application of carving in the decoration of articles of 
furniture, wo shall from time to time have occasion to speak, in the case 
of various examples, both of British and foreign make, which we jmrpose 
illuHtrating. It may bo proper, however, to add a few general observations 
upon this branch of the subject. 

The exhibiting artists, both British and foreign, with few exceptions, 
showed gi-eat >jkill of handicraft, groat iuventivenosa, and a determination to 
spare neither labour nor expense in the production of works which they 
fondly consider will bo admired for the amoimt of decoration lavished 
upon them. In aiming at striking effects, however, they have very often 
gone into an uudue oxoess of ornamentation ; and, in not a few instances, 
in tho choice of decorative devices, have lost sight of what would be 
appropriate in that light. Accordingly, wo have high art— or what 
assumes to bo such — playing second fiddle to the cabinet-maker ; and 
poetry — poetry run mad sometimes —decorating the footboard of a bed- 
steatl, the legs and back of a sideboard, the various limbs of an arm-chair, 
&c. ; the conformableness of which to their several useful purposes ia 
absolutely impaired by tho obtrusiveness of these devices, which break 
that smoothue-is of outline so oscontial to comfort in contact, and to 
pleasurable contemplation in the mind's eye. All this is wrong. The 
decoration of the material of a work of utility should be a secondary con- 
sidoratiou— beauty and convenience of form the primary; above all, 
lightness of appearance, corabineil with actual strength of structure, which 
can never exist in perfection when a single square inch of wood projects 
beyond the necoesary sweep of outline, however highly aud ingeniously it 
may be carved. Our upholsterers would do well to consult the exquisite 
models of carved furniture from India aud from China, in which the true 
principle is adhered to — where all is elaborate in beauty, but elaboration 
within the limits prescribed by utility ; and, above all, where the decoration, 
instead of constantly worrying one with novel and extravagant conceits, is 
purely conventional — rich and satisfactory in the forms, without taxing the 
observer to inquire into its story or intentions. 

Passing from these remarks, we now proceed to notice tho names of a 
few of the principal foreign contributors of carved furniture. France was 
represented by a numerous array in this line, amongst whom we must 
notice Jeanselmo upon the score of general propriety : more ambitious 
were Fourdinois, whose elaborately constructed buffet stood in the entrance 
to tho Gobelins room, Barbedienue (who obtained a couucil medal for a side- 
board), and Lionard, who had a panel of sporting subjects in pear-wood 
aud an ebony cabinet in the Main Avenue. From Belgium we had but a 
limited number of contributions, amongst which were only remarkable some 
ecclesiastical subjects (the " Virgin cro^vued by Angels," a " Crucifixion," &c.) 
by Geefs, aud a carving commemorative of the "Great Exhibition of 1851," 
by Vandermeersch. 

Switzerland has a stylo of her own, which, though partaking of the 
offeuce of all jiicturo-furniture, must be excused for its evident genuineness, 
and the hearty awiouj- de payi witfi which national scenes, national customs, 
and national ctstumcs are, upon all occa-ions, selected as the devices. An 
artist of the name of Lceman, also, ha^ a wcll-carvod representation of the 
beautiful fountain at Nuremhurg -an interesting object of the Gothic 
period ; and, tliongh not strictly coming under the definition of carvmg, 
we must mention, as highly interesting and creditable productions, two 
turned cupa (decoi-ative), aud a watchstand, produced by E. Meystre, of 
Lausanne, a young man who has the misfortune to be deaf, dumb, aud 
blind, and who is a pupil of the Blind Asylum of that town. Poor Edward 
Meystre ! How inscrutable are the ways of Providence, and how inex- 
tinguishable the spirit of enterprise aud industry in man —well-conditioned 
man ! Who could have thouglit, when tho gi-eat and glittering exhibition 
of the world's choicest goods was projected, that the rumour of it should 
reach a poor benighted youth, with neither sense of sight nor hearing, nor 
speech, and that be, from a far-off land, should send his humble tribute to 
a display which ha.s delighted the oyes of millions happier in this respect 
than ho I If a word of acknowledgment and encouragement may oast a 
ray of light and warmth over tliat dark oxistence, let us not grudge it. 

From Tuscany, that old field of cla.saic art, wo had several specimens of 
extjuiiito beauty, by Harlietti and others, two of whioh wo eugrave in tho 

§res->nt sheet. Tho style of production in this quartm-, liiborioua ami 
orid in the iiighest dogreo, is marked with a propriety which excepts it 
from some general observations wo mado In an earlier part of this article. 

Portugal hiu long held a respectable r,\x\k for the elaborate beauty of her 
carving, and the fine quality of the woods omployod; and wo obficiTot^ 
several interesting examples of superior haudicral't and oxcollonce of material. 



U9 

Finally, Greece, amongst her sixty-one contributirm". R-ti» twr, ^ 
iu tho Byzantine style, executed by the Rev. Trian ! t' ' ' '^ '" 

namely, a carved cross, aud a carved picture of the " A ■ . 
works ore remarkable as specimens of a stylo of ai i 
being a remnant of the Byzantine period, and which siin ut-. ■• 
the convents of Greece, and particularly at Mount Athof- 
which is done with graving imtrumenta, is very minute, i 
upon the plane of the wood— a box-wood which is abundant 
appears to be of a very fine grain. The crucifix, which do. 
more than a foot in its largest dimensions, is covered on 1 > 
scriptural subjects — fourteen on each side— ao that each nut r., r, ,,, , , 
only from an inch to a couple of inches of the surface. In tin.- fr\tl\^ 
representing the "Annunciation," the figures arc larger, and i\\p f,,n.i ,, f 
the band being surrounded with twenty-five heafls of saint-, '\ 
mcnt of Greece has of late years done a good ileal to prom^r 
illustration, in a School of Arts establishpd at tho cathedral a 

In onr account of the Kenilworth Buffet given in our !;i.-t, .vu- i-uu! 
that in its produc-tion a new practice had been a<lopted by Mr 
Walter Cooper, namely, that of " pointing," as employed by stone inii 
marble Bculptore, by which greater accuracy in copying from the pli.',. 
model is attained than would otherwise be possible. This is a novelty in ■•(■^ 
process of production" which might almost have entitled Jlet^ar^ Ci ,k,., 
to the honoiu" of a council medal : the claim was at leaat as good a- tii,n iif 
M. Barbadietme, who pretended to no novelty either of principle or pri-.t: . 
iu his famous sideboard- However, the Council of Chairmeo have iho'i^b; 
otherwise, so we have nothing further to do with the matter, except to all 
attention to the fact, and to the Eugraring on page 110, which repn- 
sents the studio of Messrs. Cookea and Sons, from a sketch by Mr. Dwrer 
with the pointing machinery in use, fixed to one of the benchea. 

VIEW IN THE EAST NAVE OF THE GREAT EXHIEITIOK. 
The large Engraring standing across tho next two pages repreaenti x 
considerable portion of the East, or Foreign Nave, looking from a point 
near its junction with the South Transept, taken from a daguerreoiToa 
sketch by Claudet. Amongst the piincipal individual objects incluiiedin 
it, are " The Boy at a Stream," by Foley ; the Koh-i-Noor iu its cage ; tae 
large Spanish Wine Vases ; some of the Italian Scidpture^ ; the colotal 
ziuc Statue of the Queen, &c. 



The Bijouterle .ucd Sculptobe in the GRRATExaiBnios.— AHtiter 
in the Art-Journal says : — Has any body explained, or can any lodr 
explain, the strange and universal attraction exercised by Precious Swaes! 
an attraction confined to no nation or class, rich or poor, educated or ua- 
educated, wise or foolish. When one observes, and fetls, tho poten: 
fascination of these small bits of sparkling stone, one is half tcmptcl w 
give into the dreams of Rosi crucians, and the theories of alchemists. For 
what is the chai'm 1 It cauuot be simply that they represent so raucli 
money ; for a packet of 1000^. bank notes does that mucli more precisely ; 
nor is it their beauty ; for there are iunumerable things more beautiful 
than they. But diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and all those rici 
products of nature's laboratory, seem to draw not only the eyes, but ibe 
very heai'ts of men by a mysterious force. The world-improvers say ttii* 
folly is to vanish before their teachings. It may be so. At present the 
Great Exhibition, not a bad test of popular inclinations, gives H" inilicaiioQ 
of their decline. Another problem which I should like to see eiphiineJ, is tfae 
intense eagerness of the people to see the Auatro-Italian stauiee. An aUea- 
tive frequenter of tho British Museum or the Louvre, who ha.j watched Uh 
listless indifference with which the masterpieces of Greek art are rerinJed 
by the many, can hardly believe in any real and diffused tjiste for .sculpturf. 
or any appreciation of it a* Art, among the people of EnginoJ jr 
France. The only quality that seems Ut strike them is. generally, \l( 
exact representation of some trivial accessory— a veil, the coil of a rope, or 
the curl of a wig. Tho ti-uth is, their education and pui^uit* luturall; 
lead them to a lively symimthv with the industry that couquen* tAlaJol 
difficulties ; and not at all, with the genius that embodies a poetii-d l>i«t 
There is, however a vast deal of this preference of the curious uvtr inj 
be:iutiful, in the rich vulgar as well as the poor; as the aiiminitionoi'th* 
Veiled Lady abundantly proves. As to tho good to result t" tli*; ^f* o" 
Sculpture, it would be absurd to hope much, from the display of worki. 
many of which are more calculated to mislead than to form, the tatW. 
miless indeed— which is possible— it be nece}*;sary ^o educ-ito the wu^i J" 
untaught eye, through imperfect models up to perfect. Tlie iii'pi'' \ 
tiou of the products of the great age of Greek Art (which En^-I^ind "-i*"* 
inestimablo privilege of possessing) being the test, how laiich ". - 
education must be passed through before that ia arrivoil at I T\w^ " 
have arrived at it are counted by tens, if not by units. . 

Proposed Statue of Prikcb Albert. — A wish has been exprts=w- 1 
at least, a suggestion has been thrown out that a ooIosmI hraiizo swtU^' 
His Koyal Highness should mark tho site of tho Great Eshibiti.iu. when 
the present edifice has baBu removed. We trust that, it in'J' *'"■ 
public testimonial be decided on, tho selection both of tho design nu 
artist will be intrusted to gentlemen possessing a little more fuottioj^ 
of the art than the largo majority of members of the Committees ft ^>^ 
have been elected to decide ou the Peel monuments. ^Vhat witti ^^ 
ignorance and tho jobbing propenaitios of t^uoh bodie.'*. there are ^^^-^ 
half a dozen statues of any considerable size in this gi-cat meti-op'^"'*) 
ai'e not deservedly objects of ridicule or contempt. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP/EDIA OP THE GUEAT EXIIIUITION OP 1851. 



123 



(iinaiiied for hor. Art wius retiuncil to ptiiiipor tlio rich Hensualist, but 
ricner pxsscd tliii tlircHliolil of tlio poor, liuforo tlio I'Voiich IJiiViiliitimi 
l.iirst asunili'r tlie wliolo Hooial fiiln-ie, ftiid loft a chaotic muH» to roorgaiii»o 
tn diacorilaiit atoiiin oil a more liberal baaia, tho bcautioH of art wuru Iho 
■iijoymeiit only of tho wealthy. No schools exiHtnl for tho tuition of 
liimiblo aapirants; no npon hand waa prolTorod to Uio Htriiggling artiat. 
Yet tho ti(h) of public favour wa^ turnud in favour of art, not by the 
|iromotor.H of tlio Ituvohition, not by an upstart from tho ranks of tho 
pLMijilo ; liut, on tho contrary, by a uoblo, who was proscribed before ho 
luuld carry his jilan.i into cH'cct. 

An appointment which irnniodiatoly followed tho installation of tho 
nireotory was that of the Marquia d'Ave/.o, in conjunction witli MM. Do 
I'arny, Da la Chablaussicre, and Caillot, aa manager of tho Academy of 
Music, tlien called tho Theatre of Arts. 

'■ Wo received," the Manpiia tolls im in a pani))ldet on tho subject, "this 
Ino establishment from tho hands of tho artists unite 1 for its .support, in 
iho most wretchoil state — in a position, indeed, menacing imuiediate 
iowufal. Thanks to the effiu'ts of oiu' nianagomont, which lasted for three 
;ouaecutive yeara, we boipieatlicd this splendid theatre to our successors in 
1 most satisfactory condition, and in that high road to success which it has 
;oustantly followed until tlio ])ro3ent time (1841). 

"In tho year V. of the Kepubhc (1797), I had not yet quitted the Opera, 
A'hon tho Minister of tho Interior summoned me to undertake tho office of 
^immissioncr to the Mauufactures of tho Ciobelins (tapestries), of Sevres 
(china), anil of tho Savonucrio (cai'pots). I had no need to stay long in 
;lie3o establishments to perceive the misei-y in which they were plunged. 
Tho workshops were deserted- — for two years tho artisans had remained in 
in almost starving condition ; the warehouses were full of the results of 
their labours, and no commercial enterprise camcf to relieve tho general 
Dmbai'rassmeut. Scarcely can I depict tlio cfl'oct produced upon mo by 
such a scene ; but at that moment a bright thought presented itself to my 
im.igiuation, and appeared to console me for the miseries of tho present in 
the hopes it odbred for tho futm-e. I pictured to myself, in the most 
flowing colour.s, the idea of an exhibition of all the objects of industry of 
She national manufactures. I committed my project to paper, I detailed 
;he mode of its execution, and prepared a report, addressed to the Minister 
)f tho Interior, which w;vs written throughout by my own hand, and 
leli\-ered by mo to M. Laucel, then at the head of tho section of Arts and 
Vtanufactures, in wlioso office the document in question should still exist. 
Vly reports soon received the approbation of the Minister of the Interior, 
M. Fran^-ois do Neufchateau, who commanded me to carry it into effect by 
every meaus useful and suitable to the Government. 

The chdlcau of St Cloud was then iminhabited, and completely unfur- 
nished ; and this appeared to me the most appropi'iate and eligible spot for 
Lhe exposition which I had projected, and likely to invest the exhibition 
with all tlie maguificonce and eclat so necessary to attract strangers, and to 
further tho sale of tho objects exhibited, the produce of which might 
mitigate the suUeriugs of our unhappy workmen. The chateau of St. Cloud 
was obtained without difficulty. I established myself there, and requested 
the attendance of MM. Guillamont, Duvivier, aud Salmon, directors of 
mauufactm'es. I explained to them the intention of the Government, and 
found all the.-;e gentlemen ready to further this object with zeal and 
activity. In a few days, by their obliging exertions, tho walls of every 
apartment in the chdtcan were hung with the finest Gobelin tapestry ; the 
floors covered with the superb carpets of the Savonnerie, which long 
rivalled the carpets of Turkey, aud latterly have tar surpassed them ; tlie 
large and beautiful vases, the maguificeut groups, and the exquisite pictures 
of Sevres china enriched these saloons, already glowing with tho chefs 
iVoiiivrc of Gobelins and Savonnerie. The chamber of Mars wa-s converted 
into a receptacle for porcelain, where might be seen the most beautiful 
services of every kind, vases for flowers, in short all the ta-steful varieties 
which are originated by this incomparable manufacture. In the centre of 
the saloon, surrounded by all these beauties, was a wheel of fortune, 

ntaining lottery tickets oveutally to be drawn : every ticket was to 
obtain a prize of gi-eater or less value ; the pirice of each ticket was twelve 
francs. I had attained to thi.9 point when the Minister gave me an assistant 
in the person of M. Lessure, a yoxmg man of great merit, with uncommon 
zeal and intelligence. I had already, for some time, enjoyed the advantage 
of the services of M. Peyre, a young architect of exquisite taste and 
listinguished talent. He it was who superintended the arrangement of 
the expo.sition ; and when this was completed, I referred to the Minister to 
iix the day for its being opened. It wa.s decided that this should take 
place in the month of Fruetidor ; but previous to that time a number of 
distinguished persons in Paris, aud many foreigners, visited the exposition, 
and made purchases sufficient to afi'ord a distribution to the workmen of 
the diflerent manufactures, thus yielding a little temporary relief to their 
necessities. The fame of this forthcoming exposition inspired the citizens 
of Paris with an eager desire to enjoy it as soon as possible ; they antici- 
pated with impatience the 18th Fruetidor, the day fixed for public 
.ulmission to St Cloud. The courtyard was filled with elegant equipages, 
whose owners gi'aoed the saloons of the exposition, when, in the midst of 
this good company, I received an official notice from the Minister to attend 
him immediately, and to defer the opening of the exposition. I obeyed 
the mandate on the morning of the 18th. I waited on the Minister, from 
whom I received an order to close the chateau. Already on the walls of 
our city was placarded the decree of the Directory for the expulsion of the 
nobility, with an order for their retii'emont, \\'ithin foiu:-aud-twenty hours 



to a distance of at lea.-it thirty le.igne-i from Paris, and this under jiain of 
death. My name wu« iu tho list; and, conseipiontly, my iinmediato with- 
drawal wiLs imperative. 'I'he barrier* wore utrictly guarded, and it was 
imposMiblo to piws them without the order of the commandant. Mypositioa 
was doubly painful : on tlio one hand, it waa osaoiitud to obey the docreo 
of tho Government ; on tho other, 1 lia<l uit luxount to render of all tho 
troanures in the chdieaa of St. Cloud. I found no difliculty in exi.kiiiing 
my position to tho Minister and the commiiniUmt of tho place, tho Mandi.al 
Angereau. I requested him to furnish me with a sufHeicnt force for tho 
jirotection of the ckdtcau, in which ho many precious object« were deposited. 
He gave mo a company of dragoons, mider command of Captain Vaticr, 
and ordcreil a passport for mo, by means of which I could leave I'ariii anrl 
roturii to St. Cloud. I caused an inventory to be niiido in my presence of 
all I kit in tho chtltcau. I closed the gates, aud delivered tho keys to 
M. Marechau, tho keeper, in compliance with the order of the Minister. I 
postofl the military which ha-i been granted to mo around the ch&leau, 
and, my duties fulllllod, hastened to obey tho decree of the proscription. 

" Such is the true and exact history of the lli-st idea of a National 
Exposition, and of the first uttenqit to realise that idea." 

This modest narrative of tho originator of these cxliibitions was written 
by tho Marquis so lato as the year 1814, in reply to tho reports of ilM. 
ChallaiMcl and Burat, in which tho honour of their origin waa accorded to 
Fran(;(jis do Neufchateau. 

Tho labours of the Marquis, however, in the caase of tho industrial arts 
did not terminate with his compulsory retirement ; for, on his return to 
Paris, at the beginning of tho yeiu- 1798, he forthwith collected an exhibition 
of native art-manufactures within the spacious house and grounds of the 
Maison d'Orsay, Hue de Varonncs. It was to be expected that the speci- 
mens of manufacture he assembled woidd consist entirely of costly goods, 
inasmuch as manufactures of any excellence were not within the reach of 
the great body of the people. The masterpieces of manufacturing skill were, 
therefore, to be found exclusively in the palaces of the rich ; and from 
these abodes of luxury he withilrew the gorgeous cabinet-work and 
marqueterie of Rilsoncr and Boule ; the clocks of Leroy ; the gorgeous 
typographical productions of Do Thou aud Grolier ; Sevres and Augouliime 
porcelain ; the masterpieces of Vincent and David ; the choicest fabrics 
of Lyims ; and other costly products of the artist and the artisan. The 
exclusive chaiucter of tho exhibition was the result, not of D'Aveze's wish, 
but of the condition of French society. He led the way which has been 
so faithfully aud happdy followed ; he created in the hearts of the manu- 
factui-ing population of Franco that enthusiasm for their calling^that 
anxiety for the excellence of their national manufactures, which hiis since 
distinguished them. 

MM. Challamol and Burat have been guilty of a palpable injustice 
towards tho Marquis d'Avezo, by remaining wholly silent upon the subject 
of his enlightened labours in the cause of art-manufacture, in their zeal on 
behalf of tho accomplished Neufchateau. The year 1798 was a most 
favom-able one for an exhibition of native industry. Napoleon had achieved 
his most brilliant actions in Italy, and brought the war to a sGccessful 
termination; the spoils of war had been inaugurated with prodigal pomp, 
and it was happily suggested that the little collection iu the Rue de 
Vareuues should be copied on a grander scale. The Government, bearing 
in mind the eSbrts of the Marquis d'Aveze at St. Cloud, and more lately at 
Pari.s, determined to erect a '• Temple of Industry" on the Champ do Mars. 
Here the triumphs of war had been celebrated, and here it was resolved 
that the nursling of peace should receive a national ovation : the olive 
should be intertwined with the blood-bespattered laurel ! This was the 
first national exhibition of French industry. By exciting emulation 
amongst native manufacturers, and appealing to their pride, they had been 
prevailed upon to send specimens of their w'.u-kmauship from fai' and nciU". 
In the outset this exhibition was called " a fair ; " but the importance given 
to it by the universal encouragement with which its estiiblishment waa met, 
soon gave it the complexion of a thoroughly national undertaking. 



Suburban Artisan Schools. — ^One of the practical results to arise in 
this country from the Great Ksliibition, will obviously be the extension of 
artisan schools of drawing and modellmg ; for it is certain that, with the 
extension of the art of design, improvement in execution must go hand in 
hand, or we shall in a few years be driven out of the ornamental market 
altogether, by our German as well as French rivals. Having this con- 
viction, it is gi'atifying to know that the workmen themselves have much 
tho same idea, and that they are anxious on their part to acquire the 
necessary knowledge if they find the means of doing so. The committee 
for establishing .Suburban Artisan Schools opened rooms for the study of 
drawing and modelling, under the title of the " North London School," 
Camden Town, on the 1st of May, 1S50. Since that time above oOO 
working men and lads have attended the school ; the present winter-term 
has commenced with eighty male students, (one half of whom also attend a 
class of geometrical di-awing), and nineteen female students, and these 
numbers are increasing weekly. The progress made is of the mott 
gratifying character. So successful appears to have been the system 
adopted by the committee, aud so encouraging its results, that they are 
anxious to extend their sphere of action, and establish schools iu other 
parts of the metropolis. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS j 




THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINEF 
DEPARTMENT. 






THE Agricultural Department receiv 
throughout the "whole period t 
Exhibition was open, a large amount 
attention from all classes, and especial 
from foreigners, numbers of wUc 
might alwaj's be found examining wi 
great interest the details of the vario 
machines, and discussing their numero 
advantages. They have also given ordt 
for an immense number of every descr 
tiou. Nor have the English fai-mi 
allowed so splendid an opportunity 
pass by of setting themselves up witl 
fresh stock of improved implemen 
cue firm alone having received ord( 
at their factory, since the opening 
the Exhibition, for 5000Z. worth 
agricultural implements, to be execut 
similar to articles exhibited by them 
Hyde Park. But perhaps the mi 
giutifyiug sight iu visiting this cli 
was to watch the interest taken by t 
lai'ge number of agricultural labour) 
iu the immense variety of things ht 
exhibited, and \ipon which they w< 
well able to form opinions. To tht 
men an exhibition of then- own eve 
day working gear, of such vai'iety, beau 
and ingenious design, must havebeei 
great treat. Their mastere have been 
the habit of seeing similar collections 
the annual agricultural shows ; but t 
labourer, wlio seldom leaves the la' 
on which he works, can have had I 
few opportuuities of seeing more th 
the oldf;ishioned impl' lucnts of 
own locality ; hence much of the absi 
prejudice so frequently found aiuc 
this class, but which this Exhibitic 
more than .any other thing of this tm 
will tend to remove. Of the immei 
variety in the form of the tools he us 
he could previously have formed 
notion. There were a hundred ploug 
in this class, no two of which were p 
cisely alike. That a great change I 
of late taken place in the opinions a', 
practice of the British farmer, tht 
can be little doubt; for many of t 
ingenious contrivances (for their advi 
tage as well as that of the public) he 
exhibited, have been many years 
forcing their way with these practic 
men, who invariably have heretofore i 
their faces against them simply becau 
they were new. This is not the co 
now ; agricultural machinists are wi 
supported by the farmei's, who b' 
immediateh' anything that is offered 
an improvement with a fair chance 
success. This is caused by their n( 
being driven to study the principles 
tlie machines they use, and whi' 
enables them to form better judgmeu 
of what they shoxild purcliase. 

One might often have observed ge 
tlciuen from the country opening fir 
doors of engines, counting tubes, ai 
discussing the relative merits of osc 
lating trunks or fixed cylinder engint 
in the most learned manner, of who 
very existence a short time since thi 
were utterly ignorant. Let us lio] 
these are some of the many benefits \ 
shall receive from the more enlighteui 
policy now pursued in reference l 
agriculture. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOP/EDLV OP THE GREAT EXIIIRITION OF 1851. 



125 



aARHETTS PATKNT JIOItSK lloK. 

This implement in cnlculatod to work im importiuit imjjrovomfnt in finlil 

Iliviitioii, aa by its use, corn of nil kimln, ilnllml in rows of not Iosh tliiui 

iim1ii'!( njiart, may 
liMcil in a Hnperior 

iiinn- ut 11 cost not 

...ding sixpence 

I i.ic. It is adapt- 
Ill ull tlio provail- 

: tliocis of drill 

tiir.i, citliiT for 

111 iiigcropsdi'illod 

■h^ surface or 

I ;ofl, the axlo- 
.■( tlio whcGls 

movoablo at 
lids, to suit the 
intervals ba- 
the rows of 
: and as each 
; hoc works on 
r, independently 
I the others, tho 
• I .l~ are effectually 
'\'cd, however 

II tho surface of 
i ■i.nuid, tho hoes 
I ir_: licpt a uniform 
.j.rh by means of 

|J;nlating keys. Tho steerage forms a valuable feature of the implement, 
A the hoes m.ay thereby be guided with the greatest precision, perfectly 
"sing the intervals without injury to the corn or plants. As much as i 

in 10 to 15 acres per day may be hood with one horse, a man, and a I 

y. Tho horse hoe 

!rs particular ad- 

itagcs over hand 

;ing. besides saving 
expense, as tho 

rk may be per- 
med at the proper 
Iie ; and as the hoes 
letrate a greater 

bth, fresh life and 

lour are given to 

liwing plants, by 

j-ring the mould 

|amd them. 



nibbed out, instead of bein^ beaten out, an in the Scotch m.anner. The 
great objection to threshirg by cither of thcHo machines haw liecn the 
damiigo done to tho stnvw by thy action of tlio beaters, it being for Bomo 







oakrett's patent iiobsb nOH. 



purposes, such as thatching, quite spoiled. To obviate this diflRcuUy, 
Messrs. GaiTett, of Leistou works, Sa.\mundham, Suffolk, have succeeded 
in brmging into gener.al use the one called a " bolting machine." In this, 
the straw, instead of being fed in endways, as in all the old machines, is 



Irhett's iMrnovED 
Ibeshing machine. 
irHUEsniNO by ma- 
inery is now the 
lUnary practice all 
Kr England ; eveiy 
kge farmer has one 
ll his own, and the 
sailer holders hire 
K for tho time of 
isons who keep 
^m for that purpose. 
ie threshing ma- 
|-ne was originally 
fented in Scotland, 
i Andrew Muckle, 
?i was u?ed there 
[If a considerable 
Jiiod previous to 
ii introduction into 
Jgland. 

The Scotch ma- 
rii.^s were, and are, 

ther of a much 

.:r and heavier 

I'tion than the 

h, who have 

improved upon 

invention of 

ill. The .Scotoli 

lly retain the 

1 1 principle, 

consisted in holding the straw firmly between two rollers, while the corn 

.aten or scutched out by a series of bars, fixed transversely upon a 
' ui, revolving with considerable velocity parallel with the feeding rollers, 
t| concave or breasting pai-t having little to do witli the actual threshing 
otthe corn. In the English machines, the concave is made to pl.ay the 
p 5t important part, the straw being fed directly between the drum and 
concave, without the use of rollers, and in its passage thi-ough it is 







GAr.KETTS IMPROVED THRESHING MACHINE. 



admitted lengthways, and, in consequence, is not bent or broken in the 
least by passing through. We are not quite sure whether the Messrs. 
Garrett were the original inventors of the bolting machine ; but, certainly, 
they deserve the credit of having brought it into genei'al use. The latest 
improvements added to their machine, as shown in our engraving, are, 1st, 
the improved form of the breasting or concave, and the manner of adjusting 
the same to the drum ,■ 2nd, a straw shaker, which receives the straw after 



126 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



it has passed through the machine, and clears it of all loose kernels that 
may be amongst it : 3i-d, a vibrating screen for separating the loose ears, 
short straws, caring, &c., from amongst the corn and Ught chaff, the latter 
being driven off by a blast-fan while the corn is passing oyer the screen. 
After the corn has passed the vai-ious processes above described, it will be 
found free from all chaff and rubbish, and, once passing through a di'essing 
machine, it •will be fit for the market. 

LORD DUCIE'S CULTIVATOR. 
The introduction of this implement was a great boon to agriculturists, it 
enabling them to adopt a much higher state of cultivation at the same cost, 
as its strength and excellent action render it nearly equal to a second 




ploughing, while the labour attending it is no more than one-third. It is 
in this peculiarity that it differs from machines of a .similar description 
that preceded it :"they all partook too much of the mere harrow character, 
and had no claims such as Lord Ducies h.as to be called a cultivator. 1 heir 
action was almost entirely confined to scratching on the surface, while the 
Ulev implement disintegrates the soil to a considerable depth, .and does 
actually in a short time, if constantly .and properly used, quite change the 
character of the tilth. The mode in which it is raised out of the gi-o""", 
and the plan by which its depth is regulated, was the invention ot Mr. 
Clvburn, of the'Uley works. The operation is performed with great ease, 
and the regularity and par.allelism of the frame- work as it is raised or 
lowered is quite perfect. Our Engraving of tills machine is as constmcted 
by Messrs. Barrett and Exhall, of Reading. 

COLMAN'S drag" HARROW AND SCARIFIER. ' 
This is a modification of the Ducie Cultivator, and is an excellent imple- 
ment as a drag harrow and scarifier, eradicating all weeds and rubbish from 




RANSOME AND N.ATS CANE-TOP CUTTER. 

This machine is one of a number of valuable implements introduced j 
this eminent firm into the AVest Indies. 

It is used for cutting cane-tops for cattle, and is in high repute there, 
has two knives, and cuts the cane into lengths of half an inch. It can 



the foidest land : it is also efficient for opening, raising, and pulverising the 
soil ; and with different blades fitted to the tines, it makes an excellent 
Hkim, to take off couch, &c. 

The principal novelty is in the frame at the top being suspended about 
six inches above the lower one, parallel with which, by means of a lever, 
it is moved backwards and forwards ; this motion regulates the depth of 
the tines in the soil, without having to lift the frame of the machine, which 
remains always at the same height from the ground. 

It is the invention of Mi-. U. Colman, of Chelmsford, Essex, by whom 
they are manufactured. 




J 



worked by one or two persons, and is constructed in the smiplest pos; 
manner, requiring no particular skill on the part of those who use it. i 
made entirely of metal, to avoid the inconvenience and damage which o I 
to machines constructed of timber. 






ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

FOOD OF MAN.— No IL 
(\F all vegetable products, the root of the potato is the only one suit 

by itself for the maintenance of life. It contains starch for 
purpose of making fat and keeping up the heat of the body ; gluten, w 
is a nitrogeuised substance, and capable of affordmg muscular stren, 
iron, for the blood; phosphorus, for the brain; citric acid, to pre 
scurvy. The fault which is found with it as an aliment is the low am. 
of the gluten ; and hence, practically, the Irish remedy the defect by 
use of skim-milk, which contains abundance of that material. At 
Crystal Palace we had di-ied slices of potatoes ; we had potatoes prese 
in tin ; wo had models of the principal varieties grown in Scotland, 
we had what is called potato-flom-. The latter, we believe, is merely 
starchy matter, and therefore h.as not the nutritive properties of 
entire potato. The potato tubers must not be confounded with the 8' 
potato, a model of which was exhibited hi Messrs. Lawsou's collecti 
This latter plant is a totally different kind of plant ; and from trials w) 
we have made under the most favourable circumstances, wiU not t 
tubers in England. It is very aualogous to the root of the yam, so n: 
used in the West Indies. Both, when b.iked, give a white flouiy prod 
which we find, when mixed with a certain portion of flour, can be n 
into good bread. The Irishman will eat from 6 lb. to 12 lb. of potatoes a 

Of all vegetable products, wheat is regarded as the most import 
It contains, in a very concentrated form, the materials which ai-e neces 
for the human organisation. It has been cultivated for 60 long a pel 
that we know not the wild plant whence it proceeded, and yet, neverthe 
it requires much preparation to render it fit for food. The grain i 
consists principally of three parts— the lignme or woody case, which g| 
it its general form, and which is separ.ated in the form of bran and poUi 
the starch and vegetable gluten, which exist in the flour and give to i 
nutritive properties. It moreover contains phosphorus in a state p 
liarly adapted for assimilation. Our first millers consider that the & 
when too highly sifted, is not so nutritive as that which is r.athcr coaj 
because, by contmually sifting it, Uttle more than starch gramdea- 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPyKDLi OP THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



127 



ft. A lai'Ki- iiiaiiufai.'tiii'Ci' •!(' tlio irictropolis I'oquii'od ii peculiar operation, 
volviiij; great labour, to lio porfiirmod by ono man. ]lo trieil Buceen.iively 

powcrful-liMikinp; Irisli, tlio tall north coinitry and west country men, 
lit all were obligeil to aliaii'lon it except those wiioni Iio procured from the 
ustcrn countiCH, and had had tile advantage of full diet and good whcaten 
read — a fact which well nhowstlio necessity of feeding the people. 

Of wheat itself, wo have Bpociineiia from all jiartH of the world. Our 
va country h;vs .shown '.no.st excellent examples. Canada also contributes 
i portion. I'Vom llu.ssia, the examples are splendid. America in great in 
is matter. Mgypt, which has grown grain from the time of the Pharaohs, 
iters into competition by contributing its oxamples. Portugal, Spain, 
id. in fact, nearly every department, has sent Bomo spociinens to the 
orld's Fair; and many different kinds cultivated might bo aeon at Mr. 
nvson's stall, or at the table of Mr. Oibbs, where their arrangement was 
it very good. 

Oats, OS an article of food is next in importance to wheat. Some wore 
lit from the Royal Farm; and, in fact, abundance of specimens were sent 
:>m most parts of the world. Oats contain more nitrogcnised matter 
an barley, and less than wheat ; and thus, next to wheat, it is the most 
iportaut grain which is grown. Oat cakes were exhibited by Messrs. 
uvson ; and Jlr. Smith exhibited oaten flour projiarcd by a patent 
ocess. 

Chemists find that bai-lcy is greatly inferior to oats. It contains more 

H'chy matter and less nitrogoiiised compound. Henco it is well adapted 

fattening poultry. At the ICxhibiliou it was represented, as wall as oats 

1 wheat, in many departments. 

"Ill corn was exhibited in the American department, of the first 

oce. This vegetable substance came to aid during the famine in 

Mil. but as an ordinary article of food it is greatly inferior to wheat. 

r.iifalus less gluten than wheat, and is not therefore so sustaining. 

"I corn has not proved a profitable crop in England, and though 

kinds may be grown and will yield a small crop, it does not 

I to be profitable to the farmer. Mr. Keene has shown his forty -day 

liiie from the Pyrenees, which is the best adapted variety for the English 

mate. The small maize from Lower Egypt is very curious and well 

orves attention. 

According to those who estimate the value of food solely by the quantity 
nitrogen it contains, the legimiinous seeds would appear to hold the first 
ice, for peas, beans and lentils, abound in nitrogeuised products. In 
ictice, the surgeon is aware that none of them are to be compared with 
) other vegetable substances which yield gluten, and there appears to be 
great difficulty in their perfect digestion. The French showed many 
ckets of preserved green peas, in canisters ; and upon the whole subject, 
lilst admitting the excellence of green peas and young broad beans, and 
ly extolling the French and scarlet beans as employed as a vegetable, 
i having no objectioiu to pea-soup on a cold winter's day, yet, as an 
Mnary article of nutrition, we have a very low opinion of leguminous 
.tters. and do not, even from our experience, consider that they can 
safely employed to any extent. They contain little or no phosphorus, 
lich places them in a powerful contrast with the potato in this res])ect. 
rkcy sent a groat many lentils, and from the Royal Farm of AViudsor 
ub of beans was .'>ent. 

fitcc was shown from almost every country in which it thrives. We have 

i the curiosity to grow it in a hothouse in this country ; but even there 

ill suits our short summers. It is a vegetable product which, from its 

plioity and pleasant flavour, it is almost impossible to get tired of. It 

.y be cooked in many different ways, and iu all it is remarkable for its 

:e8tibility. Indeed, we consider it to be the quickest, or one of the 

lickest, digestible substances which has been discovered for food. Some 

■Sirs ago there was a great ]n'ejudice against its employment by the poor, 

i 1 even now it is not nearly so much used as it ought to be. It contains 

I ire starch and less gluten than wheat and some other grains, and hence, 

1 itself, would bo but a poor food, as it would hardly supply sufficient 

iiscular energy. AVe have observed that people are really themselves 

rijisfc excellent judges of the eflective power which they obtain from various 

' ' nid perhaps they have not found it go so far, for its price, as 

^ or good wheaten bread. 

M'Cailum sent specimens of the creeping stem of tlie Typha lati- 

V large red mace, which is said to yield a meal fit for food, and 

^ a fibre which c;in be adapted for vai-ious manufacturing purposes. 

H various roots used for food, we have the parsnep represented by a model. 

tiforms a nutritious substance, and can be mixed with bread. The carrot 

• less digestible than the pai-snep. Turnips, as far as we know, are 

ply .shown by a model. They form a nutritious food if taken iu suffi- 

t iiuantity, but will not answer for the poor .at Loudon prices. They 

be made, with a certain proportion of wheat flour, into bread. Jeni- 

im artichokes are not much used, and then are employed more as a 

ury on the table of the rich. They are also represented by a model. 

longst the roots, Messrs. Lawson have shown the Ajiios <«iierosa, proposed 

substitute for the potato ; but it appeai-s, even if wholesome, which is 

btful, that it yields but very small produce. 

'he Coffee Berry is shown from various parts of the world. It is the 

llduce of a handsome shnib. which may be seen at Kew, or, in fact, at 

jijny of the nursery-grounds. It is roasted and ground before it is used 

food. On the 1st of May one of the Turkish superintendents was 

Gaining to a number of ladies the use of a set of coffee ute»sils used by 

He told tliem " that they must excuse him, but the English ladies 



did not know how to make good <'ofree. Hi.s countrymen used boiling 
water, and throw the coffeu into it, and when it hail twice risen it wa« 
ready for use." Upon iiitoiTogation ho appeared to set little store upon it« 
clearnoM, so wo aro iifraiil that his oxcellent colfee would not meet with 
much favour at a West-end dinner party. The power* of coffee over the 
brain and nervous system are sufHcicntJy well m.arkcd; and perhaps the 
public should know that in the strongest coffee they have a powerful 
romody at hand to rosiiscitato persona who are Hiifrering from immodurato 
drinking, rir too free use of ojiiiim. In the North-west (iailery tlio public 
m.ay have obnervod several line specimens of theine and caffeine, .ind ono 
which deserves investigation. It is stated by Dr. Gardner to bo made from 
the coll'ee leaves, roasted specimens of which arc displayed We took two 
or three leaves from our coffee plant and roa.sted them, and tasted the 
infusion. In our judgment the experiment did not appear to bo promising, 
yet we should be sorry to dismiss the question of their utility in so sum- 
mary a manner, and should be delighted if Dr. Gardner could prove that 
the leaves will add to the comforts of the poor. Connected with colTeo, wo 
may state that Mr. Snowden has shown samples of clcanaing and purifying 
the coffeo berry previous to roasting and grinding. 

Messrs. Saunders and Gatchill have shown Chicory in all its stages. This 
detestable stuff is principally used by dishonest traders for the purpose of 
making the public believe that they sell cheaper than their neighbours. It 
is the drieil root of the wild endive wdiich is employed, and is now much 
grown in England, France, Uermany, &c. There is an impost duty on the 
foreign produce, wdiilst that grown in England is not subject to the excise 
laws. For this rea.son the vendor gets the whole beDe*it of the impost; 
and ns the farmers aro always screwed to the payment of the highest rent 
which they can bear, the landlord gets the ultimate benefit of its sale. 
The use of this nasty .adulterative is so extensive, that chicory itself is now 
enormously adulterated by various other roasted substances, and, whilst 
landowners are beuefltod thereby, there is no immediate prospect of any 
abatement of the nui.«ancc, unlesSj indeed, the publication of the name of 
the dishonest trader by the Lancet shall induce the public to leave the shops 
of all those who thus cheat their customers. 

It is a curious fact that both I'ea and Coffee owe their properties to the 
presence of the same alkaloid, as theine and caffehie are identical in com- 
position, and are highly nitrogeuised products. The delight which English 
]ioople take in tea and coffee renders both important articles of commerce, 
and both are well represented. In the Chinese department our readers 
had an opportunity of inspecting drawings of the different processes em- 
ployed in the manufacture of tea, from the planting of the seed to the 
packing of the chests, together with a very extensive series of genuine and 
factitious teas of every class. The green tea and black tea are different 
plants, as may be seen at Messrs. Loddige's, Kew Gardens, and even in 
other nursery-grounds. The Assam Tea Compiiny contributed various 
samples of tea as cultivated by them in India, and which have at any rate 
a very excellent appearance. The exact operation of tea on the system is 
not known, but it is manifest it exercises considerable influence over the 
functions of the nervous system. Some persons cannot sleep a wink after 
a cup of strong tea, and there can be no question that it supports, in other 
instances, the action of the brain, and takes oft' the sense of fatigue. It 
has also a direct and powerful influence iu promoting the secretion of bile ; 
and, in conjunction with vegetable food, is found to improve the nutritive 
qualities of the latter. The immoderate use of this beverage destroys 
the tone of the stomach, and predisposes to cramp. 

Chocolate is a vegetable food not nearly as much used in England as in 
neighbouring countries. It is prepared from the nut of the chocolate tree, 
which may be seen at Kew Gardens iu high perfection. Messrs. Fry and 
Son, of Bristol, have sent specimens of the leaves, flowers, and branches of 
the tree which yields the nuts. The nut consists of a large quantity of 
oily matter, and a nitrogenised principle very similar to theine. Amongst 
the machines in motion, a model of an apparatus for grinding and preparing 
it was shown, and those who walk down Holboru may see the real appa- 
ratus in action. The French, and most foreigners, make numerous bon- 
bons of this material. 

The Paris company sent many specimens of chocolate, mixed with various 
materials. Some are flavoured with vanilla, the seed-pod of a species of 
orchid, which was shown lately at the Botanic Gai'dens in the fresh state, 
and was also exhibited in the Crystal Palace, in the department for the 
colonies, and also in several chocolate ca-ses, in the dried state. 

We suppose that we must class tobacco amongst articles of food. It is 
procured, as our readers know, from a plant wdiich grows freely in our 
gardens, but which does not yield so potential a product. Perhaps, those 
who employ this weed are but little aware how poisonous is the substance 
with which they are dealing, as a very small 'quantity of the essential oil 
will destroy life if taken into the stomach ; and it is so powerful and un- 
certain a remedy, that but very few medical men dare to employ it. It is 
used, nevertheless, in three ways — either as a substance to be chewed, a 
powder to be snuft'ed up the nose, or the vapour which is inhaled during 
burning is allowed to come in cont.act with the mucous membi-ane of the 
mouth and fauces. The use of it is said to destroy the sense of hunger 
under intense fatigue, and to serve a-s a stimulus to the nervous system. 

From the .above account, our readers cannot fail to observe that the 
number of vegetal substances, used for food have been abundantly repre- 
sented ; and, besides these, we shall hereafter have to describe numerous 
fniits and vegetable products which have also been contributed, the 
whole question of food having been largely represented. 



128 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS. 





GROUI' OF OLASS. — J. GBEEN. 



The group of glass 
by Green, of St. 
James's-street, repre- 
sented at tlie head of 
the present page, con- 
tains some very admi- 
rable examples of the 
improved taste and 
skill of our workmen 
in the art of engraving 
glass. The designs 
exhibited by this 
house are in a variety 
of stylos : some after 
Greek, Egyptian, and 
Etruscan models ; 
others copying the 
national emblems, na- 
tional flowers, &c. 

Bell's " Dorothea." 
and Kirk's group of 
■The Origin of the 
Dimple," are two very 
pleasing works in the 
romantic or fanciful 
school. Those who 
remember the story 
of Cervantes' heroine, 
(who, by the w.ay, we 
submit is entitled to 
"honorable mention," 
as the first "Bloomer") 
will i-ecogniso the 
tasteful spirit in 
which she has been 
treated by Mr. Bell. 
"Tlie Origin of the 
Dimple" speaks for 
itself. 



DOEOTIIKA.— liF.I.L 




AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 




(.■i;MUi>-i-iia;i;.-.Moui:L, nkw I;u^'D stkeet. (.See Page 130.) 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION AWARDS. 
lOSE who in after years may turn to the record of the honours lately 
distributed amongst the Exhibitors of All Nations, in the expectation 
t it will present a fair reflex of the position of iudustiy and the attain- 
ts of science in 1 851, will be grievously disappointed. The very reading 
the list, indeed, would con^-mce them that there was something wanting 

*1 that the commercial greatness of au age like the present could not ; 

■ re been dependent, to any great extent, upon trivialities such as those I 

[ No. 9, November 29, 1851. 



II 



to which the jui-ies have awarded prizes. The reports of the juries, which 
we are promised shortly, will, perhaps, throw light upon the intentions 
with which many of these awards were made, and which, without such 
exj>lanation, appear to be capricious and altogether inconsistent with any 
practically useful purpose. In tlie mean time we pursue oiu- comments 
upon the decisions as they stand, which beai- upon their face circumstances 
of a suspicious or questionable character. 

Passing over Classes I. and II., which we may attend to another time 

Price Oxe Pexxt. 



130 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



we come to Cla=s III., that of "Substances used as Food, in wli.ch we find 
two council medals, and no less than ten prize medals, awarded to diHerent 
individuals for beetroot sngnrs. The two council medals go to trance, 
and the prize medals are thus distributed :-Frauoe, 3 ; Austria, 5 ; Prussia, 1 , 
Russia 1 Now, considering the history and circunistauces ot this manu- 
facture; considering that it is purely factitious in origin, and only supported 
in tlie countries where it is carried on by high protective duties ; consider- 
ing that the declared object with which this manufacture was farst establishert 
in Franco bv Napoleon was to injure the British colomal trade and that 
the undisgiiised object with which it is still encouraged m Austria in 
Prus.sia and in Russia, is to render the people of those nations as mdependent 
as possible of British supplies, and, in short, to exclude us froin commercial 
relations; considering that all this is at variance with the true and 
enli-htened principles of commerce, wliich are a distinguislnng feature ot 
the present a-e, wo are justified in pointing to those awards as extremely 
unfortimate in themselves, and can only account for their being made by 
referrin" to the fact of that combination nf foreign " mterests which the 
Commissioners weut out of their way to introduce into their jury scheme. 
As the introduction of the manufacture of beet-root sugar into this 
country, and more particularly into Ireland, is a que.^tion which has been 
much discussed lately, and as tlie awarding of no less than twelve prizes to 
the producers of this article is liliely to liave some influence in promoting 
projects of this sort, we think it rigi.t to direct the attention of our readers 
to a paper read bv Professor Hancock, at the last meeting of tho Bntish 
Association, on tlie " Prospects of the Beet Su-jar Manufacture m England 
fi-om which it appears that, in a commercial point of view, the proht- 
able result of such a speculation is very questionable, the ca.so ot 
France with a protected and exclusive trade, not applying here. i> ram 
these calculations it would seem probable that, taking into account 
the cost of the r.iw material, and the price of the refined sugar, m franca 
and the United Kingdom respectively, " tho result was so varied as tn turn 
a profit of :35.000i., at the French prices, on a capital of 78.000(., into a loss 
of 4000/ at the Irish prices, and a loss of 16,0U0i. at the Essex prices; 
being only one instance out of many "shomng how fallacious it must be 
to reason' from the success of the manufacture in France to its success in 
the United Kingdom, without taking into account the difference m econoinio 
conditions (including fiscal arrangements) between the two aowtries; 
being alone sufBcient to make that which was profitable in prance 
unprofitable here," , v , 

Dismissing the subject of beet sugar for the present, we cannot help 
expressing a confident hope that the introduction of this f.ihricated pro- 
duction a1 a substitute for the genuine article may be rendered still mora 
unnecessary by the removal of the absurd restrictions now imposed upon 
the refiners of cane sugar. _ . 

In Cla=s IV., whilst we cordially approve of the justness of the awavtt ot 
a council medal to the Belfast Flax Improvement Society, for "the per- 
severin" and successful efforts to improve tlie quality of the fibre ot Bax, 
we cannot but regret that Chevalier Claussen was denied the same honour 
for his in-'enious and truly scientific process of preparing flax and flax cotton, 
whereby the value of that staple will be greatly enhanced, and its apiihca- 
bility to manufacturing proces.ses largely extended. The details ot t us 
process have been already explained at some length in the columns of this 
Journal ■ it mav bo sufiicient, therefore, to state here its principal features 
whereby as mil appear, that not only a new process is applied to an end 
previ.iusly attained by other processes, but new and valuable clmractcristics 
are "iven to the article itself which it was before considered not to he 
capable of We should observe that tho principal process is purely a 
chemical one-the flax being first satur.ited with a solution ot soda, by 
which the gluten is removed ; it is then soaked in dilute acid, whereupon 
the chemical combination, resulting in ofiervescence, separates the fibre, and 
converts it into a cotton-like substance. One important advantage roaultmg 
from this alteration in the character of the material is, tliat, nistcad ot the 
hardness and coolness generally observable in linens, it will possess the 
warmth of woollens, tlio softness of cotton, and the glossiness of silk ; and 
another and still more important advantage is, that it becomes, wluc i it 
wa-s not before, amenable to the ordinary processes of manufacture, and by 
the very same machinery as that applied to cotton itself bucli are the 
main features of tins important invention ; and, after considering them, we 
feci satisfied that our readers will agree with us that it was a mockery ot 
justice to withhold from the ingenious originator tho " council medal, and 
to add the insult of tendering a second-class prize medal. Yet such lias 
been done ; and, in corpmon with many others similarly treated, but who 
liave not half his gi-ounds of complaint, the Cliovalier Clauasen has very 
properly rejected the proffered distinction. 

In the machinery department we find a council medal awarded to 
Appold's rotary pump, whose voluminous cascade most of our readers re- 
collect gazing on witli admiration. But surely th^re is nothing very new 
in the rotary principle applied to pumping up water, and nothing so 
remarkably superior in the machinery of Appold (amongst many others 
exhibited)"to entitle it to the distinction here intended. There is, indeed, 
considerable doubt whether Appold's is, after all, the best of the day ; and 
this is a question which we may yet have to discuss. But, if the application 
of the rotary principle to water was neither new nor very important, its 
application to machinery ha.s long been an acknowledged desideratum, but 
one involving a proljlem of the gi-eatest difficulty. This dcsiileratum 
however, has been accomplished m connexion with one very valuable field 
of mechanical appliance— namely, that of the printing press, by Mr. 



Applog.ath, in his vertical printing-machine, a machine by which the limit 
of production have been extended half a dozen fold beyond what they ha. 
previously reached under the most skilful manifestations of rcciprocatm; 
machinery ; tho contrivances by which this was attained were m the highes 
decree complicated, but withal unerringly accurate; and all thit Ml| 
Apple^^ath was awarded for hi» invention is a common prize medal. Thl 
thousands of eager spectators who daily crowded about this m.achine, whe 
in operation at the Crystal P.alace will form an estimate of the profouc 
and dispassionate judgment brought to bear by the jurors from this singl 

award alone. . i i. j « ■ 

If we were to judf-e of the amount of enterprise bestowed upon civ 
engmeering, architectural and building contrivances," or tho amount . 
interest taken by the community in such subjects, by the awards in Cla.' 
VII we should not arrive at a conclusion very complimentary to tl 
eenius of the age. There are in all only three council medals and tweiit 
three prize medals earned bv the whole body of exhibitors to this compi 
hensive department; and these are chiefly for models of works long sin. 
accomplished, as the Flvmouth Breakwater, Strasburg Cathedral, tl 
cast-iron bridge over the Wye, &?., or for topographical models of varioi 
districts, as the Isle of Wight, &c. As for our architects they appear 
have been completely disheartened or paralysed by the brilliant success 
the Crystal Palace stvle of building, for they have not s»ut in a sing 
suggestion considered worthy of reward; and of the three council meda 
Sir J Paxton and Sir C. Fox receive two, the one for "the design of t 
creat Building." the other "for the execution." The third is very just 
awarded to Prince Albert, for his successful labours in the cause 
humanity, which have resulted in the production of his model lodgii 
house, one of the very few contributions tending to the improvement 
tho sooial and economic relations of the masses, which the Great Exhibiti 
has been the means of bringing before the world. 

The preceding observations have chiefly been directed to general c( 
siderations involved in the scheme of awards m certain classes, or 
particular instances ; and we wish we could contimie to argue m the sai 
spirit and to stand aloof from mere questions of individual merit a 
private interests, aftected by these decisions. But it is impossible to 
so- the complaints of injustice and the charges of favouritism and incom- 
tenoe against, not one, but various juries and groups are so loud a 
circumstantial that we feel bound to give them a hearmg Of course 
all this outcry are mingled the small shrill voices of many a little pretend 
who but for this confessed and wholesale blundering of the juries, woi 
never have been heard of and who has now the proud privilege of be 
"an ill-used man," in company with such names as those of Broadwo 
CoUards, Troughton and Simms, Clansmen, Potts, Cope and &c. At 
same time, even these were entitled to a hearing on the trial of then- fane 
merits; and it is very hard tliat, being personally cxc uded irom 
Building by the niggardly parsimony of the Executive they should h 
been prevented the only direct method of securing such hearing. In t 
dUemma many of the "ill-used" entrusted the keys of the casesyh 
inclosed their several treasures to the policemen in attendance i 
confiding hope that some plodding juryman, attracted by the out« 
promise of the imprisoned exhibit, would honour it with closer inspect, 
and reveal its merit to his fellows in "the group A am delusion ! 
verv numerous instances which have come well .authenticated to 
knowledge, the keys remained ^'ovy snugly m the pockets of the 
•■ Hope deferred " had at last begun to wear itself out, and as tl'e Exhibit 
drew towards its close, many of the non-exammed were fain to look to 
" chapter of accidents" for their chance of sharing m «;^ honoui- of 
day, or at least coinforted themselves with the reflection that »the,s. i 
in their trade, might be wholly overlooked as well '^^^'^''^f l^"^^, J|' 
however, it appeared that non-inspection of the goods was no bai to 
awaicl ami that the rival producer carried off the palm in competition v^ 
others whose goods positively remaned uninspected during the lole 
months, the outcry was loud and bitter, and, what is more, was s t , . 
these eompli.ii.ts remaining uncontradicted ^^'^^''-''-I'lZ:'^"^^' 
serious and damagins imputation agamst all engaged in makmg such .maa 
— flbistvcticd Loiuhn N»W»' 



STt.VEB CENTRE-PIECE, BY MOREL. 
The Illustration on o«v fl-ont ptvge represents a very beautiful Centre-pn 
by Me.5sra. Morel, of New Burlington-street, and which may be pronounce, 
have been one of the happiest works of its class in the Exhibition. It is in 
Louis Quatovze style-the subject a triumphal procession of lipids vi; 
a panther The little fellows exhibit varied, but appropriate attitude, 
those at the corners guiding, rather tliau absolutely supporting, the branci 
which hold the candles on cither side. In the centre, crowning all, i 
magnificent bouquet of flowers. 

Early use or STEAM.-WUliam of Malmesbnry declares of Pope Sylve! 
II, that ho erected an organ which was played by steam ; and, though 

cannot rely very implicitly on the '^""'"^'y ^^ t''',%J^f * "T^^e of st< 
torian, the anecdote deserves to be noticed, as a proof that the use of st 
as a motive power was partially known, or .at least suspected, as earlj 
the eleventh centm-j.— Taylors Revolutions of turope. 



AN ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPEDIA OF THE GREAT EXIirRTTTON OP 1851. 



1.11 



nWKIJ.INflS OK TlIK LAnOdlMMi Cr-ASSKS. 
THK fJi'iiM'ul lio.ird of IIiJiilUi lately issiicrl a, ii»lincat^i>ii raakinf; kno\m, 
niid calling for tlio cxooutinii of, Icgisliitivo proviuioiia nfTuoting rnudi 
Iftrf:;or nutnbors of the popuhition, and to a much moro important extent, 
than the public arc probably aware of. It announces to the poorer classeH, 
that by the provisions of tlio Public Health Act it iR illegal to immure them 
in collar dwellings which have not a proper construction and arraiigcmonts 
for comfort and decency. Tho owniein of the greater proportion of cellar 
dwellings in the metropolis, such as those in Monmonth-street, St. Giles's, 
and great iiuuibors of other districts to the east imd of London, will have 
give up their inhabitants, and apply tho space to other uses. In the 
pi-ovincial cities and towns great immbei-s of the population are affected by 
tlie pi-ovisions. It is said as many a.s eighteen thousand at Manchester, 
nearly five thousand at Bolton, between two and three thousand at Preston, 
»nd at Liverpool upwards of thirty tliousnnd of the population, have, under 
the provisions consequent upon tho revelations of the sanifciry report, been 
already under process of ejectment : but tliis has been done by the corpo- 
ration in sueli a manner as to aggravate the evil by overcrowding the upner 
rooms, after that effect hail been pointed out in the report I'eforred to[ as 
,he consequence of some of tho improvements of the corporation of the 
;ity of London, In the "clearances " of poor dwellings for the formation 
f Parringdon Market, tho like effect has indeed followed. During the 
'clearances" fur tho 'iniprovemout of St. Giles's, the ejected population 
was "wedged in." upon th= overcrowded population in such places as 
I'hurch-lane. and the lower districts of Westminster. 
The Board's instructional uoti6cation announces, that now, by the act 

iiiassed during the last session, at tho instance of the acting chairman. 
Lord Shaftesbury, the administrators of the law for the discontinuance of 
cellar dwellings arc relieved from the alternative which pressed against its 
•sccution. Kvery new local board of health, all coiTiorations, and parishes 
iven. may. under the act to encourage the construction of '-well-ordered 
odging houses for the I.ibouring elusses." provide suitable accommodation 
or the population ejected. Prince Albert took the lead in showing, by 
ho niddel buildings which he erected at his own expense, that it w.-is 
lossible to build dwellings of superior sanitary construction, drier, warmer, 
,nd provided witli decencies, at half the rents exacted for the wretched 
ver nests and pauper w.-irrens which have too many defenders in public 
lositions. The interest taken in the Prince's model duellings is shown by 
he fact that, although they were only opened some time after the cora- 
nencement of the Great Exposition, and when attention was absorbed by 
t, upwards of 300,000 persons went to examine the cottages. The impulse 
las been m.-mifested in various directions. The London Dock Company 
las already erected a large number of dwellings for their workpeople, with 
ho improved appliances for decency and cleanliness recommended in the 
anitary report. Every dwelling has a water-closet and a water supply, 
nd tubular drains, and nieins of ventilation. Several large landowners 
re begiuning the cousti-uctiou of superior tenements in considerable 
\imbers. The Duke of Bedford has already erected a great number of 
ew dwellings for labourers, of a very superior construction. The Duke 
f Northumberland has, we are informed, given orders for the construction 
f no le,ss than 1,000 new labourers' dwellings; and due attention will, no 
oubt, be paid to the sanitary principles of their construction, in which 
rchitects and common builders have hitherto shown themselves grossly 
jnorant. Preparations are, we understand, made for the construction of 
great number of dwellings on the same principle as those of the Prince's, 
D soon as tradesmen will charge less exorbitantly for the hollow bricksi 
p that the new and increased demand meets with a supply at reasonable 
ites. The public will be well Inclined to forget, in the vote of the Common 
ouncil of the City Corporation of forty thousand pounds for the con- 
;n»ction of model lodging-houses for the labouring classes, their vehement 
enials of the truth of the statements of the Heafth of Towns Association, 
Ip to the horrible condition of the inhabitants of the courts and alleys 
••ithin their jurisdiction. 
' the evidence adduced by the notification of the entire absence of 
■uiic disease in the new model dwellings in the metropolis, and the 
-ii average rate of health maintained thererwe may add a fact in relation 
' fl.c model dwellings at St. Pancras. A young apothecary, seeing a popu- 
' n of so many families, comprising as mauy as 550 individuals, made 
tliat there was. on the ordinary average "of sickness out of such a 
••-■r, a living for him, and he opened a shop there. But as imperfect 
• samtaiy improvements yet were, they prove.! too much for him; he 
Mod of waitmgforthe sickness which did not come, and he sold' his 
' "l, P'"'^*^*""*^ '° a second, who was not aware of tho new condition of 
■i. This second, after waiting a length of time, struck his flag— his red 
;: he could find no customer for his practice, and decamped, and the 
ccary s shop is now converted into a provision shop, which we hone 
ill rive. ^ 

re yet must be done, however, beyond all the present promise of ' 
i-^ed household accommodation, which can only check tho evil. With 
'-'past and present drain of population, we must remember that the 
"i increase of the population of Great Britain, and mainly of the town 
^aion. IS as if we had two new towns equal to Manchester and Bir- 
liam annually added to it, or the population of one whole new couutv 
I to the county of Worcester or the West Riding of Yorkshire 



I 



FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

BELGIUM, 
yilE produce of the little constitutional kingdom of Belgium wm exhi- 
bited next to that of France, occupying the bays on both sides, and a 
slieo of tha northern galleries of the Eaatorn Navo It included specimcng 
of almost every branch of industrial occupation ; ngrieulture, commerce, 
manufactures, mining, and fine arts, in many subdivisions, are all repre 
sentod in a very creditable manner, Belgium, under different names, has 
contrived to maintain a manufacturing and agricultural position for more 
tlian four hundred years, in spite of wars of which it has been the battle- 
field, of revolutions, of parcellings of territory, and changes of government, 
until, twenty one years ago, at a fearful sacrifice of material wealth, it 
settled down as an independent state under a limited monarchy. 

Even in tho time of the Romans, the Flemish cities were celebrated for 
their woollen cloths. In the time of Charlemagne, Liege largely manu- 
factured both woollens and linens; therefore, the flax cultivation, which 
forms so important a part of Belgian agriculture, must have been exten- 
sively carried on at that period. In tho latter part of tho fifteenth century, 
Brussels, Antwerp, Louvain. and Ghent, employed an immense population 
in woollen manufactures: Ghent alone had upwards of thirty thousand 
looms: the w-eavers of th.at city once mustered 16,000 men in arms under 
the bannei-s of their trades. Thread lace originated in Flanders, at Mechlin 
and Bru.sscls, where it is still an important branch of cf)mmerce, and the 
capture of Antwerp by the Duke of Pui-ma, in 1785, ruined great silk manu- 
factures—although Antwerp bl.ick silk is still famous — and drove a number 
of artisans to England, by whom our own manufactures were greatly 
improved. Flanders suffered grievously under tho persecution of its Spanish 
masters ; under the wars of Marlborough and Louis XIV. and XV. ; the 
wars of the French Bevolution, whicli ended in incorporating what is now 
called Belgium with France; the wars of Napoleon, which ended in taking 
it from France to add to Holland ; and finally by revolution, which deprived 
the Bclgi.an manufacturers of a large share of the commerce and consump- 
tion of Holland. But still the people struggled on with a patience and 
industry deserving of success, Belgium was thus thrown upon its own 
resources, as a manufacturing country, with only forty miles of coast and 
two indifferent ports. Great efforts wore made to open up foreign trade ; 
consuls were appointed all over the world, rather as commercial travellers 
to create, than as diplomatic agents to protect trade already existing ; and 
public money was largely and not very successfully invested in propping up 
establishments in which the King of Holland had taken a large pecuniary 
interest. But the wisest and most successful step of all, was the construc- 
tion, long before any other continental state had ventured upon such a 
novelty, 6f a complete network of railways. These railways, among more 
solid advantages, made Belgium the high-road to the Rhine and Germany, 
and attracted a share of the travellers to the pretty miniature capital of 
Brussels, who had formerly flocked to Paris alone. These railways, no 
doubt, contributed powerfully to raise Belgium from the state of depression 
into which its manufacturing interests fell after the separation from 
Holland, and, by cheapening the cost of raw and manufactured produce, 
to render possible the varied exhibition we have had the pleasure of 
examining. 

The arrangement which rendered France and Belgium next-door neigh- 
bours in tlie C^rystal Palace, as they are when at home, suggests a question 
which the Ministers of Commerce would be rather puzzled, we think, to 
answer. 

Between France and Belgium there is a war of custom-houses and an 
interchange of smugglers, chiefly in the shape of large dogs, which carry 
Belgian tobacco and lace into France, and bring back French silk or some 
such article. Every French douarder is provided with a thick volume of 
instructions on the art of stopping, seizing, detecting, poisoning, and shoot- 
ing Belgian smuggler dogs. Nevertheless, day and night— especially at 
night — large packs of contraband hounds, heavily laden, iiish past the 
bewildered officers. 

Now, when Belgium was part of the French empire, its manufactures, 
its coal, its cattle, its corn, were all freely admitted into France ; nothing 
was taxed, nothing was prohibited ; since the disjunction eveiything that is 
not taxed is prohibited, and yet the line of division between the two 
countries is purely inviginaiy, and the people who, under Napoleon, were 
free to interchange their goods, must have had just the same wants the day 
after the cu,-.toin-house division made it unlawful as the day before. Why, 
then, was interchange useful liefore Napoleon's last campaign, and baneful 
after his dethronement '! 

But to begin our walk through the Belgian territory in the Crystal 
Palace. \\'e first entered the southern bay. There we found a varied 
display of textiles of every kind, wliich seemed veiy little visited by the 
curious crowd, although, no doubt, our manufacturers in the same line gave 
them a close examination. There w^e found the cheap mixed fabrics of 
woollen and cotton, the fine kerseymeres in which the Belgians can imder- 
sell our Gloucestersliu-e and V>'est of England men, also capital stout canvass 
and damask linen fi-om districts of Flanders which grew flax and wove 
linen long before Belfast was founded : printed silk handkerchiefs in praise 
of which nothing can be said, and woollen shawls of very dull, dowdy 



132: 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




patterns. In this de- 
partment almost every 
kind of -woollen and 
mixed woollen is to be 
found, iacludiiig a lot 
of coloured flannels. 
The sides of the next 
section by the stairs 
leading to the gallery 
were hung with carpets 
from the Royal Belgian 
manufactory of Toiu-- 
nai, which, like the 
French Gobelins and 
Beauvais manufactoricF, 
is carried on with go- 
vernment money, as a 
school for the purpose 
of improving native 
taste. Having proceed- 
ed onward towards a 
formidable stand of 
arms, we passed be- 
tween a collection of 
saddlery on one side 
and boots and shoes on 
the other. The sad- 
dlery was respectable, 
but would not stand 
comparison for a mo- 
ment with cither Eng- 
lish or Irish work iu 
finish. The same might 
be said of the harness. 
The buckles were very 
clumsy. The patent 
leather boots were as 
good as French, and 
probably cheaper ; a 
pair of long boots in 
brown Russia leather, 
the sides of which come 
off like gaiters, were 
worthy of the notice ol 
those who shoot ir 
woodland and thicl 
hedge countries. 

Liege sent a mosi 
formidable collection o) 
arm.5, of every kind 
and calibre. Liege if 
the only place whicb 
can compete with Bir 
mingham in supplyinj 
cheap gmis. The spc 
cimens scut included 
the most expensive and 
tlie ' commonest : the 
bright-barrelled mus- 
ket and bayonet of the 
pattern made for Schles- 
wig-Holstein, and the 
muskets with sword- 
bayonet aflixed, which 
arc used iu almostcverj 
corps of ithe Belgian 
army and in our En- 
gineer corps. 

We observed, in one 
case in tin? divi,-:"i), ii 
pair of rifles made after 
the Swiss fashion, over 
which a paper is aflined 
stating tliat one of the 
rifles, fired from a 
rest, at a mark 4 iuches 
in diameter, at a dis- 
tance of 110 yards, 
m.ade ninety-five liits 
outofouehundred. Wc 
should like to see thia 
done again, and to knowi 
whether more than one, 
man could do the same 
feat in one day. - 

Behind the arms, next 
to the external wall it 



AN ILLUSTRATKD CYCLOPyEBIA OF THK GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



133 




THE DOV WITH PUKCUISEMA). — SIMOSIS. — (sKE P. ICC*.) 



tlio Pulaco, wo fouiul a very mi.scollnnoouFt agricultural and mineral collec- 
tion of spocimcus of flour, millstones, bristlon, briuks, tobacco, flax and 
liomp, and the dried plants m seed, with all sortu of cereal grain, hops and 
malt, coal, iron, cannon, 
and agriculttiral implo- 
incnts, tlio lloocos of 
merinos and cocoons of 
Bilk-worms — giving a 
groat idea of Belgian in- 
dustry and versatility. 

Tlie coal reminds ns of 
the difl'eronco between 
tlin tcuiUM of Englisli 
and of French and Bel- 
gian coal-mines. In 
ICngland, if you find a 
coalmine on your free- 
hold, it is youi-8 ; in the 
other two countries, it 
is the property of tlio 
state ; and in France, 
unless you happen to bo 
a supporter of the go- 
vernment for tho time 
being, you have no 
chance of obtaining leave 
to work it ; when leave 
is granted, it is subject 
to a royalty to tho go- 
vernment. 

In Belgium, tho go- 
vornment compels coi'l- 
owners to construct hul- 
dera by sLages for the 
miners, men and women, 
to ascend and descend, 
instead of usiug a per- 
pendicular shaft, with an arrangement of chains and pulleys. The Belgian 
government will not permit tiie lives of its pubjects to bo risked on the 
soundness of a rope or chain. The result is. that Belgian miners, carrying 
coal on their backs up a 
thousand steps of a set 
of ladders or stages, are 
never killed, though 
strains and ruptures are 
every-day occurrences. 
We prefer our system, 
with a little more care. 

Having crossed the 
jraud avenue, we found 
the northern Belgian 
bay, flanked by two ear- 
'iages, whieli did very 
»reat credit to the coach- 
maker, Mr. Jones, of 
Brussels. 

Furniture follows the 
carriages. We especially 
remarked a sofa and 
chairs gracefully carved 
n walnut, and covered 
with green velvet. In 
;he opposite hay are two 
cabinets in oak, of great 
iierit, especially one of 
grave, ecclesiastical 
iharacter, ornamented 
ivith figui'es of angels. 
Some pianos and boxes 
nade from Spa wood, 
vhich has acquired a 
laty ferruginous colour 
rom the Spa waters, 
vould form a good cou- 




xm; BuV WITH the broken duvm. — smoxis. 



engines wo impatient Fngiishmcn require. M. Frcsmany, writing bin 
opinion of England in tho Paris paper La Patrit, dayo, " An Engljiilim«n 
never Duuntei-s, but always rushes forward liko a mad dog." 

Before axconding to 
tho galleries we would 
request our la<ly friends 
fond of gardening or 
poultrykccpiug, or, like 
good wives, in tho habit 
of occrinipanying tbair 
husbands tlirough the 
stables and byres, to look 
at the live stfick, to ex- 
amine a collection of 
wooden shoes of very 
I^retty shapes, some pro- 
vided with leather fas- 
tenings, which seemed to 
us better than the best 
kin<l of clogs for country 
use in mudtly weather. 

On arriving at the top 
of the stairs, the leading 
articles, as the drapers 
say, were three figures of 
life size, sent by a Bel- 
gian embroiderer of ec- 
clesiastical robes, which 
he dressed in costumes 
much finer than any- 
thing to be seen at 
Madame Tussaud's. Ho 
began with the Arch- 
bishop of Paris, Aifre, 
who was killed in the 
last revolution at the 
barricades, St. Carlo Bor- 
romeo, an Italian saint and archbishop, and our English Thomas a 
Becket. Subsequently to tho opening, Fenelon, whose " Telemachiis " 
has proved the penance of so many Knglish school-boys, and rendered 

so many sehooI-Kirls as 
inconsolable as Calypso, 
took the place of M. 
Afii-e, and the Italian 
priest had been super- . 
seded by another dig- 
nitary, the Archbishop 
of Mechlin, if we remem- 
ber right, but Thomas 
A, Becket remained to the 
last ; although, for some 
reason or other, all three 
of these lay figures were 
provided with white 
gloves, instead of the 
purple gloves of the 
Bishop and the bright 
scarlet of the Cardinal. 
While examining the em- 
broidery of these robes, 
which the maker war- 
rants to wear a hundred 
years, and then clean, we 
found oui-selves side by 
side with two gentlemen 
actually wearing the one 
scarlet, and the other 
purple gloves — such are 
the strange coincidences 
of the Exhibition! They 
were Cardinal Wiseman 
and one of his Bishops 
examining the costume 
of Thomas a Becket I 



rast with furniture of birds-eye maple or zebra wood. Near this is an | In the same galleries we observed a ease of medals, cameos, bronzes, a 
ixtremely ingenious dumb-waiter, like a large paddle-wheel, the shelves of shield, dagger, and other ornaments richly chased in iron, all displaying 
mich always keep on a level. It would be very convenient in a library, very considerable taste and executive skill, and maintaining the character 
or a student who had a good many large books of reference in use at the in the fine arts which Bekium has long deserved. 



lame time. The principle would "be avoilablo on board ship, for glass or 

rockery ware, fixed by the feet to the shelves. 

^ The Belgian machinery and agricultural implements are not to be treated 
fghtly ; therefore we shall, for the present, pass them by, observing, that 



To own the truth, neither statuary, nor lay figures of archbishops, nor 
the large display of Roman Catholic works, nor anything connected with 
art, science, or literature, created half the sensation among the ladies, that 
was excited by the specimens of lace from Brussels, Mechlin, and the other 



ue great establishment at Seraiug for the manufacture of steam-engines j districts where this fragile manufacture has for centuries been carried on 
na all kinds of machinery, which was founded by Cockerell, tirder the Exclamations of rapture and envy burst forth as female faces were squeezed 
'J*V"'^o^ °*,?^^Pol6on, and afterwards supported with capital by the father ; in front of robes, flounces, veils, eollai-s, parasols, and eveiy conceivable 
r A^ w ^ 1 "^ °^ Holland, sent several specimens of heavy work of a 1 article of dress fashioned in thread lace of the most elegant patterns, and 
editable character. The pace approved on the Belgian railroads, viz., ! hung upon wax figures of fashionable air. 
neen miles an hour and many stoppages, does not demand the flving I 



134 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 



T'HK 



MACHINERY AND MECHANICAL CONTRIVANCES. 

- • - 

CEXTRIFUGA.L PUMPS. 

peculiar force arising from the revolution of matter round a fixed 

centre, for ages distinguished for its action by the term cciitrifayal, holds 
a deservedly conspicuous position in the chronicles of dynamics. Cofii- 
menciug in the action of the earth itself, and known to the earliest of 
its inhabitants, it has nevertheless lain dormant, and all but useless, for 
the thousands of intervening years. Not until something like a century 
ago did it begin to assume any standing as a mechanical element, and it 
1^ been left for our own times to develope and apply it as an economically 
useful industrial agent. As a pump or water-elevator, we hear of it first in 
1732 ; this, probably its eai-Uest practical application, being by M. Le Demour, 
who read an accoimt of his plan before the French Academy. 

Since then, but not until a few years back, it has passed through an 
extensive series of occupations, with a r.ipidity as remarkable as its extreme 
sluggishness in earlier times. Watt's pendulum-governor— .Seyri,- — 





and 
ManTove and AUiotfs dryuig machines, the Tachometer, or speed-indicator, 
where the depressiou of a fluid in the centre of an upright revolving cup 
acts upon a fluid column, and points to the rate of revolution— Messrs. Hard- 
man Fiuzell,Rotch, Bessemer, and Gwynnes sugar-separators— Shanks pipe- 
moulder— and several varieties of pumps, are all examples of what we may 
term the taming d.jwn of the principle to useful ends. Were it our purpose, 
we could easily extend the list of processes which centrifugal power has 
improved and extended: but our more immediate object is the tracing out 
the various gradations of its introduction and employment as a pump. 

We be^in our history with the invention of M. Le Demour, in 
1732 — Fi°. 1 is an elevation of the pump. It is nothing more than a 
straight tabe, A, connected in an inclined position with the vertical 
° axis, B, cai-ried in top aud bottom 

bearings, and turned by a winch. The 
attachment of the tube is rudely made 
by three horizontal bars of iron pro- 
jecting from tlie shaft, E, and bound 
to the tube at their opposite ends by 
ropes. The tube is slightly expanded 
towards its upper end, and as it is 
cai-ried rapidly round the centre of the 
shaft, the centrifugal force impels the 
water up the open lower end of the 
tube, throwing it out at the top in a 
continuous stream. Of course the fluid 
so delivered must have fallen in a circu- 
lar stream, which was probably caught 
by an annular trougli, corresponding to 
the radius of the discharging tube ; but 
on this head we are not clearly informed. 
Considerable rapidity of motion is 
obviously necessary for the effectual 
performance of this kind of pump. Its 
action, as the nucleus of all subsequent 
modifications of centrifugal pumps, may be described as the throwiug off 
the upper portion of the water-column in the rotary discharging pipe by 
the direct centrifugal force, whilst the atmospheric pressure being thus 
relieved from the upper end, the external atmosphere presses up a further 
fluid supply from the source below, into which the pipe dips. 

1818, jijaemchmetta Pumji. — An inventor, whose name is now for- 
gotten, introduced a species of centrifugal fan pump, m the state of 

Massichusetts, U. S., 
and which we have dis- 
tinguished as the Massor 
chtist'Us Putnp. Our 
engraving, Fig. 2, repre- 
sents a vertical section 
of this pump in the 
plane of motion of the 
elevating blades. This 
form of pump very 
closely resembles the 
ordinary blowing fan of 
the present day (some- 
times known as the 
"American bellows"), 
being simply a short 
horizontal shaft, carry- 
ing a square boss with 
four excentric blades, 
set exceutrically within 
a metal case, having an 
upright discharging pas- 

..,„ „ sjL'o, A. Tlio whole ap- 

r 10. _. '.,11 

paratus IS suuk beneath 

the level of the water to be lifted, and the blades being made to revolve by 

the pair of external bevel wheels, the water is taken in at the central aper- 



FlG. 1. 




tui-e, B, of the case, and bemg impelled forwards by the revolving blades, 
is finally discharged by the centrifugal force through the passage, A. 

1831, .B/ate.- Apparentlv the next improvement was that by Messrs. 
Blake, of the New Slcam Mills, Connecticut, U.S. Pig. 3 is a vertical section 
of thispump, which 
is remarkable as 
being the earliest 
known example of 
a centrifugal disc 
pump. Here the 
vertical driving 
shaft. A, has keyed 
upon it the single 
horizontal disc, B, 
working inside, and 
at a short distance 
above the bottom 
of the fixed case, c. 
The shaft is sup- j..,,, -j 

ported in a foot- 
step, carried in the pipe, D, which opens out from a central hole in the 
bottom of the case, and extends to the reservoir of water to be lifted. 
To the under side of the revolving disc are attached a series of radiating 
blades, E, working ju«t clear of the bottom of the case. As the shaft and 
bladed disc rapidly revolve, the water is (irawn into the case by the bottom 
central aperture, aud is thrown out fr-jm tlie spaces between the blades at 
the periphery of the disc. Tiiis continued action of the centrifugal power 
then effecting a fluid pressure in the case, forc*js a column of water up the 
discharging pipe, P, opening into the top of the fixed case, and at right 
angles to its plane. This arrangement of discharge pipe at right angles to 
the motion of the fluid in the pump, mars, to a great extent, this otherwise 
simple aud elfective apparatus, as it necessarily causes a most objectionable 
change of the direction of tiie fluid's motion. 

In 1839, Mr. D. W. Andrews, of New York, took out a patent for a 
centrifugal pump, which closely resembled the Massachusetts Pump, with 
some modifications, and need not, therefore, be described in detail. 

1841, Givynne. — In 1844, Mr. James Stuart Gwyune undertook a series 
of experiments at Pittsburg, U.S., with a view to the development of the 
central forces. These researches resulted in the invention and improve- 
ment of several machine^, amongst which is to be reckoned his Direct 
Acting Balanced Pressure Centrifa/jal Pump, the first public exhibition of 
which occurred in January, 1849, at the Passaic Copper Mine. There he 
erected a pump 12 feet in diameter, and in 1850 obtained a patent for the 
invention in the United States, which he has also secured for Great Britain 
1S45, Bessemer. — Mr. Heni-y Bessemer, of Baxter House, well known foi 
his several ingenious mechanical improvements, entered the lists as ai 
improver of the centrifugal pump in 1845, and obtained a patent foi 
'■' Certain improvements in atmospheric propulsion, and in certain apparatui 
connected therewith, part or pai'ts of which improvements are applicabli 
to the manufacture of columns, pipes, and tubes ; the other parts are ap 
plicable to the exhausting and impelling of air, and other fiuids f/enerallij." 

It consists (see Fig. 4) of a circular cast-iron case, a, divided into twc 
compiirtmeuts by the division piece, B, cast in one piece with the rim of th< 

case. One of these compai'tmeuts con 
tains the apparatus for cxhaustin;/ the ail 
(as described in the specification), .and 
the other is occupied by an emissior 
engine, o, which he employs for driving 
the apparatus. The rotary apparatus 
consists of two metal discs, D and E, 
placed parallel to each other and united 
by a series of flat radiating onus oi 
blades, F, twelve in number, and pro- 
jecting inwards from the periphery about 
half way, towards the centre. The wljoU 
is surroimded by a perforated metal 
plat'e, G ; or wke gauze may be employed 
for this purpose. This perforated rim is 
for the purpose, as the patentee describes, 
of preventing the compressed air con- 
tained in the case from retui-ning aud 
inteiferuig witli tlie action of the blades. 
An opening, H, is formed in the case, 
corresponding to a similar opening in the 
disc, I), aud serves as the inlet to the 
machine. The portion of the disc round 
the inlet openhig is slightly raised, and 
placed so that the disc may be brought 
into close proximity with the case, with- 
out being in actual contact with it. The 
discs are connected with the driving- 
shaft, I, by a small plate keyed on to the 
shaft, and bolted to the interior of the large disc, £. The driving-shaft 
works in two stuffing-boxes cast on to the slides of the chamber containing 
the emission engine, which is of the ordinary construction, consisting simply 
of two arms, with their extremities curved in opposite directions, and sup- 
plied with stoam by the ehaft, i, which is made tubular as far as the portion' 




AN ILLUSTRATED CYCL01';ET)IA OF TIIK (JHKAT EXHIBITION OF ]Hr,]. 



13n 



'•"ntniuing till) iii-iuH. Tlio outlot foi- tlio comproHscd air is foiriiccl in tlio i way of tho wiitor rising out of tlio nuctionpipo into the compartments 
. "so rit J. TliiN jniinp will either exhaust or comproHH, accordingly a« tho j formed by tho vanen. Tlio caxo k eimilar in nection to that of Mr. Androwa' 





[K' is attached to tlic opening, ii or .r. It is to bo rcmarlced. (hiU thrmigh- 
i tho description of tliis niacliino, notliing whatever is stated in the 
Noilieation of cniployin.; it for tlio purpose of raising watof ; nud it haa, 




therefore been urged by Mr. Gvvyime that Mr. Bessemer was not entitled to 
exhibit it, as a water pump, in the Great Exhibition ; particularly with the 
following inscription attached to it : — 

" This model of a Centrifugal Pump for forcing fluids, is constructed in 
rigid accordance with the specification of Bcssemer's original patent, dated 
t)eo. 5, 1845, being the first recorded invention for impelling fluids by the 
centrifugal force generated in a revolving disc." 

t 1846, Andrews' Jmprorccl. — After employment on a great variety of work, 
Mr. Andrews' original pump of 1839 was again improved and patented in 
tie United States, in March, 1846. This 
pump, the right to which luis since been 
purchased by Mr. Gwynne, is delineated 
in the three views, Figs. 5, 6, and 7. 
Fig. 5 is a transverse vertical section 
through the case, hollow disc, and sue- 
I ii and di.scharge pipes; Fig. 6 is an 
■ rual plan corresponding ; and Fig. 7 
15 ;i plan of the four exceiitric blades, 
with the square boss by which they are 
attaclied to the shaft. In the intro- 
ductory description given in his specifi- 
cation, Mr. Andrews states that these 
improvements are the results of his 
"experience in discharging water from 
wrecked vessels, in which sand, gravel, 
and other matters mingle with the 
fluid pumped up ;" and adds, " It is weU known that revolving parts of 
centrifugal pumps are somotirae.s tubes, and sometimes vanes or arms 
working within a fixed case, with which the suction and forcing pipes com- 
municate. In my pump I use vanes, and I enclose them within, and 
connect them to an additional case, which revolves with them, within the 
5Xter or or stationary case." In our figures, the vertical pipe. A, opening 
into the centre of the right-lined portion of the case, is tlie suction-pipe 
leading to the water to be elevated : andtlie short vertical branch, B. at the 
termination of tlie external expanding elliptical channel, c, is the deliverr 
passage. The vanes, four in number, are set escentrically on the shaft, b ; and, 
sa described by the patentee, arc usually flat blades, as represented by the 
full lines of Fig. 7, but are sometimes curved to the form of the dotted lines. 
Their lower edges extend below the lower end of the squared bosses, and 
pach has a portion removed, as at E, wth the view of enlai'ging the passage. 



,-* 


..■)*■■' 


••-,,, 









■"-^ "'-■. ...••• 


/ 


y 




Flo. 0. 




I 1 




carUer pump, being formed by two hollow cones, whose bases approach, 
but do not touch, each other ; and set at a distance apart, equal to the 
depth of tlie small cuds of tlie vanes. The depth of these tapered ends, 
and consequently of the space left between the peripheries of their conical 
covere, through which the water is thrown only by centrifugal force, is 
proportioned to tho depth at the wide ends, so as to keep a sufficient 
volume of water within the revolving case, to fully supply the ciicular 
exit space ; and by keeping a gi-eater body of water revolving, increase the 
centrifugal force, enabling the pump to elevate water to a greater height 
with a given number of revolutions, and saving something in friction. As 
already quoted from the inventor's specification, the blades ai-e enclosed 
within a hollow revolving case, F, 
working just clear of tlie external 
fixed case, and having a short project- 
ing pipe, G, working within the head 
of the euction-pipe, its open end ad- 
mitting the water fnim the latter into 
the revolving case. The shaft ispa.ssed 
through the upper side of the fixed 
case, in the centre of the cones, by a 
stuflSng-box, and is supported on a 
projecting centre bearing, carried by 
cross-arms, in the suction-pipe. The 
water drawn thl-ough the central open- 
ing is thrown from the vane compart- 
ments, by the annular opening between 
the two peripheries of the revolving j, 

cone disc, into the spiral elliptical 

channel, the gradual enlargement of which towards the point of discharge, 
admits of the fluid being kept moving with the game velocity in all its 
parts, and prevents loss of power by friction. 

1848, Appold.—Ia Nov., 1848, Mr. Appold brought out a model of a 
rotary pump, as a convenient moans of di-aining marehes, and instituted 
a series of experiments on it with 6, 24, and 48 arms or vanes. This pump 
attracted some attention at the meeting of the British Association in Bir- 
tningham, in 1849. Fig. S is a sectional elevation of the original six-vaned 
pump; Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the elevating disc detached : and Fig. 10 
is an elevation of one of the vanes, with a portion of the centi-al disc to which 
the vanes are attached. This is the form of one erected on the inventor's 
premises m Wilson-street. Finsbury ; a a are the outer discs of the cylinder, 
fast on the shaft, B ; and c c are the fan-blades held by the outer discs and 
the central plate, E. These fans, six in number, are set at an angle of 4 5' 
with the diametrical hue of the discs. The driving-shaft has a bearing on one 
side only, where it passes through a stufliug-box in the case, r, which 
opens up into the bottom of a rectangular delivering-case, G. The open- 
ings round the pei'iphery of the cylinder are 1 inch wide, and at the centi-e 
the outer discs aj'e 4 inches apart. The water to be raised is admitted 
tht'ough central openings in the outer discs, and as the cvlinder revolves 
at a high rate, it issues, under the compulsory pow-er of centrifugal force, 
by the circumferential openings, and is thence forced up the delivering 
channel to the discharge-opening at H. The opening on the top of 
the case, p, is 9 inches by 7 inches, and the wooden case, a, which 




136 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND ITS CONTENTS; 




carries the water from it to the 
required height, is 10 inches 
square. The discharge opening 
in this case is 6 feet above the 
water level, made bo aa to close 
when the water is to be raised 
higher up. The cylinder, with 
its case, stands in a cistern of 
water, 6 feet by 3 feet, and 3 feet 
deep, giving about nine gallons 
for each inch in depth. At a 
speed of 640 revolutions per 
minute, the discharge in this time 
was 1093 gallons; this being all 
passed through an annular open- 
ing, 1 inch wide by 38 inches in 
circumferential length. 

In later modifications, (see fig 
11), Mr. Appold has substituted 
curved blades for the straight 
ones. He states that the curved 
blades discharge more water 
than the straight ones ; but it is 
a question, whether, in changing 
the sectional form of his case 
from the foi-m of Fig. 9 to a 
rectangular one he has not com- 
mitted an error. 

(To le c(mHmiecl.) 



j'-noNZK .\xr) on-Moi.L" cvMnxAiiijA, from kv.'^.si.v 



RUSSIAN CANDELABRA AND 

ORNAMENTAL PLATE 

The candelabra in the Russian 
Court were justly admired for 
their gorgeous magnificence. 
Varied in form, they exhibited 
a splendour of material (bronze 
gilt), a grandiose character of de- 
sign, aud a masterly finish, whieli 
one might almost pronounce it 
to be impossible to excel. The 
lai-gest one by Chopin, of St. 
Petersburgh, standing about 1 5 
feet high, and intended for 81 
candles and 4 candle lamps, is 
valued in the Catalogue at 
633«. 6i. 8d 

The ornamental works contri- 
buted by Russia were numerous, 
and of a remarkably high order 
of merit. 

The objects we have engraved 
are selected from those exhibited 
by the house of Sazikoff, of Mos- 
cow. The principal one is a large 
centre-piece, comprising a group 
representing Dmitri Donskoi, 
Grand Duke of Muscovy, ,ifter 
the battle of Koidikoff, in 1380, 
which delivered Russia from the 
yoke of the Tartars, under which 
it had been oppressed for 150 
years. The artist has chosen the 
moment when Prince Michael 
Tverskoy comes to announce to 
the Grand Duke, who, having 
been wounded, is reclming under 
a palm-tree, that the victoiy has 
beeu gained. The figures are 
extremely well designed, and the 
general efiect highly artistic. 
There are other smaller fancy 
subjects distributed in various 
parts of the glass cose, such as a 
goblet rcpi'esentiug a Cossack 
woman, another with a Finish 
hunter, a third with a milk-wo- 
man, and a paper press orna- 
mented with a group of a dancing 
bear with peasants, all charac- 
teristic and capitally executed. 



AN ILLUSTRATKD CYCLOPyKDIA OF TIIK GRKAT EXHIBITION OF 1851. 



1.37 




GUOUr OF KUSSIAN PLATE. 



Besides these, are cup?, some of the Byzantine style, some of the Paissian, 
and -various other subjects, which reflect great credit upon the taste of the 
old Russ'an capital. 

A'erkhovzoff, of St. Peterdburgh, had also a very handsome display, though 



of fewer works, including a bas-relief in silver on a gilt ground representing 
the Descent fi-om the Cx'oss, chased by hand ; and another representing the 
Crucifixion, Prophets, and Evangelists, also chased by hand, in the old 
Byzantine style, and intended a